Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan), state in northeast Africa, is bordered to the east of Ethiopia and Eritrea, and from the north of Egypt and Libya to the west by Chad and the Central African Republic to the south by the State of South Sudan.
Nile River divides the territory of Sudan into two parts, east and west of the capital, Khartoum, and is located at the confluence of the Blue Neelain major tributary of the White Nile. And mediates Sudan Basin and the Nile Valley. 
Settled rights in Sudan since 5000 BC    overlap history of Sudan old with a history of Pharaonic Egypt over long periods, especially in the era of the twenty-fifth Sudanese family (black pharaohs), which ruled Egypt from Sudan Among the most famous kings Tehraqh and Piye.
Boarded Sudan from Britain and Egypt on the first of January 1956 and burst into civil war since before the Declaration of Independence until 2005 except peace intermittently, as a result of deep conflicts between the central government in the north of Sudan and the rebel movements in the south and ended the civil war by signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the popular movement for the Liberation of Sudan and rode south Sudan as a state in 2011, after a referendum, followed by the transition period provided for in the Convention.
Repeated military coups in the modern history of Sudan, and in 1989, Brigadier General Omar al-Bashir led a military coup that toppled a civilian government led by Sadiq al-Mahdi, leader of the Umma Party, and became president of the Leadership Council of Salvation Revolution, then the president of the republic to the present.