Clothing in Sudan

Tue, 26 Sep 2017




                                            Prof. ZainabAbdallah Mohammad Salih


Abstract
Clothing is a social practice and a cultural element connected strongly with the other cultural elements, such as customs and traditions which are different from a region to another and from a group to another within one society.
The paper has handled the Sudanese clothing of both males and females which have included a definition of the clothing and its historical stages, uses, and the influencing factors, environmental, religious, political, economic and social factors.
The paper reviewed the menclothingin Sudan with their all components as well as the women clothing with their different stages.The paper has also reviewed the appendixes regarding these clothing either concrete or portable. The study has come out with some findings and recommendations.
•    Introduction:
•  Clothing for Decency:
•    Clothing for distinction:
•    The Ancient Sudanese Clothing
•  The Women Tobe:
•    Hair Dressing of Women:
•    Results and recommendations:
•   References

   
Introduction:
Sudan is a large and vast country including different kinds of tribes. The characteristics of these tribes vary between each tribe andanother, and is also characterized by broad culturaltank with its various components whether in dialects, traditions or attitudes, as each district and sometimes each tribe is coloured with cultural characteristics related therewith.
The position of Sudan in the central part of Nile basin has made it a unique model of mixing of different races from the perspective of the study concerning the ethnology. Since past time, there had been establishment in Sudan outskirts, different races, and never faced difficulty in entering therein,and has influenced its racial structure.
The location of Sudan made these races, including Gogas, Semites and Hamiteswith their different cultures, found their way to Sudan, which is made it a distinguished country in all African Continent as including these groups in its entity, furthermore, Sudan is characterizedby existence of great racial groups such as: (The Nile Group and Bija Group).
Geography of Sudan has made it suited for the migrations of these races, as the most valuable profession in the past had been grazing, so all these races had been attracted to enter Sudan because of the availability of water and green plain lands, the easiness of movement in its area. Races came to Sudan from different areas, mixing with its people, forming the Sudanese and Afro- Arab cultural identity.
Clothing and Uses:
Clothing means the distinguished identity of peoples (Thouria Nasr, 1998:13). Clothing is a social practicing and cultural elementconnected strongly with the other cultural elements. Sudan which is famous for variety of cultures, we found that the clothingare different from area to area and from a tribe to a tribe.
The economic, political and religious factors as well as the external factors represented in the environmental and geographical factors helped more in this respect (Zainab, 2005:49).
The importance of clothing for the societies, there must be a knowledge ofthe beginning thereof, and how the human being dealt with it. Referring to the first man, it had been found that he was completely naked moving among jungles except some tree leaves covered parts of his body, In Glorious Quran, there has been mentioned: "So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise (in order to cover their shame). And their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaitan (Satan) is an open enemy unto you?" Al AraafSurratt, verse 22).
The tightness of human being with the environment and cruelty of the nature pushed him to think of innovating something protecting him from the severe cold and severe hotness, and after assuring of futilityof tree leaves as they became dry soon which made the person to replace them from time to time. There for, he used the animal leather and fur to protect his body (TahiaKamil, 2000: 5).
The pictures found in the caves which are considered as major source in documenting the life of the first man, showed women and men wearing their clothing accompanied by jewelries and bracelets. Thus, it is clear that the human being was interested in clothing, and he supported the idea that there were main motives for using the clothing, the most important of which was decency and prudency, then protection and lastly the distinction.
Clothing for Decency:
Many motives have gathered for using the clothing by the human being, and the covering of the private parts was one of the essential reasons. If we look to the man since the first eras as mentioned in Glorious Quran, Al AraafSurat, verse 22, as Allah asked them to cover their private partsleading them to the tree leaves, and these leaves referred to Fig and Mulberry tree because of the big size of their leaves. Since that time the need for clothing to cover the private parts and keeping the skin, have been appeared (Alkhatib Al Adnani, 1991: 133).Despite of the above motive, the idea of decency is different among nations and people, "SamiaLutfi" had mentioned the saying by the scholar "Conard" about humanities: "all people have rules for decency regarding their bodies, but there is a difference about concept included in decency and also there is a difference inside the same group that has the same civilization (SmiaLutfi, 1990, 19).While we find some tribes who think of covering their bodies, we find others who do not see the necessity of doing so.For example Protokodo tribes were naked except their ears and lips which were covered, and if a person removes these coverings from one's ears and lips, he escapes to the forest shyly.The concept of decency is different for most people from time to time as result of factors and effects that happened in the main social and economic structure. When covering of the legs was once considered as a phenomenon of decency in the beginning of 19th century, the clothing in the late 1990s and early 1970s in 20th century have become short and uncovered the legs.It is clear that using of clothing for covering the body for decency is contradicted with using of it for smartening up, as the first helps in diverting the attention by hiding the parts of the body, whereas the second one helps in drawing the attention. So the decency is a decisive catalyst against nakedness that connected with the private parts which is specified between umbilicus and knee in the front and back.There is a strong relation between decency and desire, as one of its objectives the resistance of desire.For this the fashion has great role in changing the concept of decency, which led in sometimes, that all parts of the body were considered as private parts.
Clothing for protecting the body:Environments are varied and differentiated in the ancient flourished civilizations in equatorial environment where the temperature is high in some of which and tended to be warm in some parts of which. Also sometime is cold. This weather pushed to manufacture clothes suited each area, as the ancient Egyptian who were characterized by the hot weather, had selected materials and colours that suited to their environment.They preferred using processed materials made from their local plants such as linen and others. Also they tended to wear white colour or tended to yellow for it reflected the sun radiation, then to protect them from shining sun radiation (TahiaKamil, 2000: p. 11).However, the people of the cold areas such as Eskimo in North Polar, their clothes are made of materials and shapes suited to the cold environment,so they made their clothes from animal leathers (caribou) because it is warm and light in weight, and they are keen in covering the whole body, particularly the limbs, so they were wearing long trousers made from fur to cover their legs. Also the individual among them were cared to wear various clothing to bring warming for their bodies (Zainab Abdullah, 2008, 52). Human beinghas recently designed clothing for astronauts, depending on his technological experience in which he considered transferring the earth environment to the space as to guarantee the suitable situation to save his life.Worth mentioning, the human being has created and designed the protective clothes from fire which are inflammable and heat insulator,for fire men. Recently, a bullet- proof vest has been made for the police men and women. Also clothes made of stainless steel have been designed for electriciansso as to prevent transmission of electrical charges. In respect of sport, there are many clothing that provide protection for their users such as diving costume which protect the divers or swimmers from water. Also some clothes have been designed to protect the body from injuries like blusters for the knee, legs and the breast.Although the human being has to select his clothes according to his weather circumstances to be suitable for the weather and its fluctuation, as the mind and experiment have great role in this selection, some people ignore these elements and prefer to follow fashion and wearing clothes that do not suited to the climate.
Clothing for Beauty:
Human being was and still adorns himself with whichever he desiresin the clothes and valuable jewelriesof different kinds.Men have clothes and adornment the same as women. All the societies are keen to adorn themselves, and the clothing has become a part of their civilized characteristics.The people and tribes who do not used the clothes; they replaced them by the body either by tattoos or bruises which are practiced by some tribes in Sudanand stayed unchangeableand fixed adornment. In this era the adornment has become temporary element, represented in clothes, cosmetics and hairdressingthat have great effect in changing the features and appearance of the human beings.Personal adornment used for many motives, including self- expression and attraction of the other sex, some exploited it to obtain appreciation, and others used it to frighten the enemies and forexorcism.Despite the agreement upon the main motives represented in protection, decency and ornament resulted in covering the whole body, but the great majority of scholars have considered the ornament is the main element that motivates the human being to adopt the clothing. Then the other motives come laterand become importantwhen wearing the clothes has become a tradition.
Clothing for distinction:
The Purposes that made the human beingcreate the clothing, are varied.Clothes are not only using for covering, protecting and ornamenting the body, but the distinction was one of the most important elements in using thereof.Clothes had been used as an element of distinction between man and woman, also used as distinction between peoples and tribes, even in one society used for class distinction.
To separatebetween man and woman, there should have been designing ofclothes concerning each sex to suit the physical and professional differences between man and woman.
There for, the man clothing was formed of major and minor clothing, and so were the women clothing. The difference between the two clothes found in the shape, as the man clothing particularly, the major one is short, and in most of time not exceeding the knee, whereas the women clothing are long reached even the feet. Also the shoes, as they made of similar materials, we find that women shoes are more sophisticated and more beautiful in their shapes than men shoes in order to suit their feet which are smaller than men feet.
Traditional clothes are connected with the people who use thereof, which are differentiate them from each other, and become a distinguished mark for each nation. The ancient Egyptians were famous for wearing "cola" which was surrounding the neck, while the Assyrians had been decorating their clothes with what was so called fringes or tufts. The Romans were famous for using a mantle or clock called (Toga) and so on. (TahiaKamil 2000, 21-25- 127).
Clothing also helps in difference between the tribes live in one country, and this is shown obviously among the Sudanese tribes. So, it's easy to recognize,to which tribe someone is affiliated, just from his clothing and the accessories connected with it. For example Clothes of Bija are different from The Clothes of Jaaleen, and so the clothes of Baggara tribes.
In respect of class distinction, the human being used the clothing since ancient times to distinguish between a class and another. Servants, for example, of Ancient Egyptians, had worn short apronsmade of harsh materials, whereas the nobleshad been wearing the smooth wide clothes made of transparent materials. This distinction continued till the renaissance when clothesweredesigned for the aristocratic classes. In France and England, Specific clothing had been designed for Nobles which were very expensive, and their heavy weight chained for those who are wearing them, there for they suited these classes due to their limited movement, and it was difficult for a simple person to wear them because of his continuing movement. The men clothing formed of the big hats, peruke and baggy trousers, whereas women wearing large skirts stuffed with blusters and iron frames (Zainab Abdullah, 2005, 56).
When the class societies ended, the distinctive clothingdisappeared.Shapes and colours of clothes varied depending on the purpose for which the clothing designed. The different manufactures which require labour forces helped more in this respect, so the designers had created clothing for jobs to distinguish each group of work from another. There had beenclothing for working men and also for working women in different sectors such as health area and professional sector. Regarding the sport, due to spreading of the different sport games, there would have made clothing for each activity suited to the type of sport, so it has become easily to distinguish between the clothing of football game and that used for swimming and horsemanship. Also the differences of clothing helped in distinction between the teams that compete in one activity.Colourhas important role in the distinction, particularly in the case of the similar design. The internal arrangement of the armies and troops used the clothing and marks to differentiate between different military ranks,as the officer since the early times is different in his clothing from the soldier. This tradition has been continued until now. Military clothing have been designed for each category, so there has been a clothing for police and other for army, and each clothing has its characteristics, called (Uniform),  despite the big similarities between them, the distinction helped in that each country has its own clothing that makes it different from other countries.
The conflicts and spreading of wars required designing clothing for warriorsto help in camouflage and recognizing the enemies.
From what mentioned above, it is clear that human being was interested, since ancient times, in his clothing and adornment by motives still believes in them that represented in decency, adornment and distinction.
Ancient Sudanese Clothing:

Clothing in the past had formed of outdoor clothing used when man got out of home, then the main clothing that accompanied the person continually, and the underwear clothing.
The royal ancient clothing had been documented via antiquities documentation; the clothing included the kings and queens'clothing as well as the clothing of the maids, priests, soldiers and the public as whole. It is obvious that Sudanese men clothing was a development of the clothing in the ancient Sudanese kingdoms, which was in form of long or short vest without sleeves.
There had been a citation by the historian (Burkhart, 1829) about the shape of the clothing of men, as there were some who had worn the aprons which tied to the waist without wearing another clothes, while men in the North wearing clothes resembled more the clothing worn by the men in North valley which was in form of gown made of blue linen and worn over another clothes, usually accompanied by a hat made of cloth beside a turbo, and the main material was "damour"  Kind of textile, brought from Sinnar.
Arrival of Arab to Sudan had had great effect in changing the shape of the clothing, and men wore the shirt and trousers as main clothing, then mantle and Caftan as outer garment. The shirt varied in its shapes, there was a traditional Jalabyia and the foreign jalabiya which is distinguished from the first one as it has cola.
Men clothing ischaracterized by simplicity in their shapes and materials as weaved and made locally.
Then after the colonialistsdominated Sudan, many changes happened in the shape and materials of men clothing, as some Sudanese, particularly in big cities, affected by European clothing, and the establishment of factories and educational institutions had had great role in using this kind of clothing. The Europeans imposed specific clothingin work places and educational institutions, so European shirt replaced the jallabiy, and pants replaced by the long trousers and short trousers (Rida), some wore the suit (jacket and vest) beside the tie to adorn the neck. The materials used in making the previous clothing were cotton and wools which had been imported from England.
Despite the change that happened in the clothing, particularly in cities, the majority preferred to wear jalabiya, pants and turbo and they ar very keen in wearing them during occasions.
Traditional Clothing of Men:
Men traditional clothing in Sudan is formed of Arraghi (semi jallabiya but smallerand has no front opening), and pants, then the Jalabiya with its different shapes which are worn over Arraghi and pants, then turban and a hat (Tagia) used to cover the head, and the outer clothes that formed of men tobe, mantle and shawl.
1/ Alarragi (sweater):   
It is clothing worn by men contacts to their bodies, then over which other clothing are worn, and it has been known Arraghi (sweater)because it absorbs "Arag" the sweat. It had been known since ancient time and it was worn by most of Sudanese tribes.
It became with Jeddah people who came from Jeddah and settled in East Sudan because it was known for Jeddah people.
The materials are formed of different types.Earlier it was made of light cotton which was known as "gauze", then material of Damouria (clothes made of pure cotton) in beige colour, then the white Dubalan. Now due to the processed materials, it has been made of polyester, but its shapeis a gown that looks like Jalabiya but shorter with short sleeves because it's worn under the Jalabiya. It is characterized by two pockets found on its sides used for keeping belongings.
2/ Pants:
Is considered as underwear clothes, defined by KhateebAladnani" it is a piece of clothes that has a room, "neef" and two legs" (KhateebAladnani, 1999, p 149).
It has been known in Persian Country. Despite the difference of its shape in Sudan, but by virtue of Persians moved to Europe where was transformed into what is known trousers.
It has been known in Sudan recently, as in Sudan people had worn Jallabiyas and shirts without pants according to description of the historian (Noam Shaggier). Its material in past was cotton from which Damour and Dubbalan were made, and recently the mixed materials have been used such as polyester and others.
Shapes and Types of Pants:
Shape of Pants looks like what is known Trousers "pantaloons" but it is wide and fixed by a ribbon known with a name "Tikka", recently has been replaced by a rubber ribbon "Litco". The length of pants is different between the middle of the leg to the lower of the leg. The first one is known as ordinary one which has been worn in North and central Sudan as well as Western Sudan.
The other one, is the pants worn by Bija tribe in Eastern Sudan and it is known with name "Sirbadoub" and "Sirwalook", for Bini Amir called (Poja). It is characterized by wideness, fixed on the middle by a ribbon called "Tikka". With this shape it's suitable for them, as their life depend on movement from place to another, also suitable with their dancing, the colour usually is the colour of the raw materials which is in beige colour such as Damouria, and in white colour in case of Dabalan and polyester.
3/ Jallabiya:
It is an outer garment worn by men in Sudan. The historians gave it a description which is nearly looks like its current shape.However the historians and travellers did not indicate to the name "Jallabiya", their writingswhich gave a description to the ancient clothing, confirmed that their shape confirmed the nearness of the shape of the current Jallabiya. The traveller "James Pros" had described Funjclothing, particularly the Sultan clothing which was formed of long wide shirtin blue colour, and in its length reached the ankle.
Separated indications mentioned about Darfur people, in the journey of "Nahingal" who pointed out that people of Waddaihad been wearing a simple gown "jallabiya" made of harsh clothes, whereas merchants or traders "Jallaba" were wearing smooth cotton clothes made in Europe with white colour, sometimes could be in light blue colour confirming their preference to Jallabiya made of silk. That confirms the connection of Jallabiyawith the "Jallaba" the traders who brought it.
Jallabiya has many kinds such as: the Sudanese traditional jallabiya, the foreign or Europeanjallabiya, and (Jallabiya "Junah um juku" or "Alansaria".
a/ Sudanese Traditional Jallabiya:
It has been considered as the national clothing for men in Sudan, it is common all over Sudan, and its width about 125 cm, and its length ranges between 145- 150 cm, i.e. reached the ankle, it has acircular opening in the top used for inserting the head, accompanied by a long opening in front, starts from the neck and ends at the breast, called (Karshaleef) fixed together with buttons, the sleeves are middling in width about 30- 40 cm. and provided by pockets, one of which, on the top side used for keeping the watch and it's known as "watch pocket",which is now being replaced by the wrist watch, a big pocket is added in front on the left side used for keeping purse and called the (secret pocket).
b/The Foreign or European Jallabiya: (JallabiyaAfrangia)
The word Foreign or European word (Fringy in Arabic) referred to European or foreign, and it was called this name because of 'cola" fixed on the opening of the neck which had beenconnectedwith the colonialism "foreigners", and it appeared after the appearance of Foreign clothing (Ensaf Hassan Ibrahim, 1978- p. 43).Its length ranges between 140- 150 cm, and the width was smaller than the traditional jallabiya, as it ranges between 65- 72 cm. It has had also an opening in front called "karshaleef" which is opened and closed with buttons fixed on it, and its sleeves ended with bracelets look like the foreign shirt sleeves which are narrower comparing to the sleeves of other jallabiyas, as the width of the sleeve ranges between 15- 20 cm. It has no a front pocket, but it has side pockets (picture No.).
The foreign jallabiya (Afrangia) connected with the tribes of Eastern Sudan where it had been called a shirt. This kind of jallabiya appeared there and connected with KhatmiaTariga (religious approach), and it is thought that the original source of this kind of clothing was ("Alhijaz" which is an area including Saudi Arabia and some other Gulf countries). Mr. AlHassan was the first person who wore this kind of jallabiya, so he had beencalled "Abu Jallabiya"i.e. father of Jallabiya (Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Salem, 2000, p.46). Men in Eastern Sudan had preferred it, because of being connectedwiththeir believes, and their mysticaltendencies, which has confirmed the strong relation between the clothing and the factors affected thereupon.
c/ Jallabiya Um Jacku; (Alansaria)
it was called (JunahUmJacu), for its shape which looks like Um Jacum, one of the ferocious bird (SagrAljidian) which is famous for its speed when walks,it seems that the shape of the Jallabiya.When its sleeves stretched, it would look like the shape of the bird Um jacku when stretched his wings (ZainabAbdullah, 2005, p.77). The wideness of the sleeves helps in putting it on and off, furthermore it allows for the cool wind being entered and the hot wind expelled from those who are wearing it. It was named "AlAnsaria" because it was common among the Supporters of AL Mahdi (a Sudanese religious leader who governed Sudan in late 18th century", as it was said that he was the first person who had worn it.
Jallabiya Um Jacku is different from the Sudanese traditional jallabiya, and the difference represented in as follows:
In respect of length,its length is ranging between 135- 142 cm. it is noticed that is shorter than the other jallabiyas. The width is 2 metres, as it is much wider than it. It has a circular opening in front and back and filled with the same cloth, and the openings are identical which facilitate to be worn by each direction. It also has two pockets one in front and the other in the back, the width of each ranges between 15- 19 cm. also two pockets in each side at the level of the length of the arm, and two pockets far from the sleeve with 2 cm. with length 10 cm.
The shape of the sleeves is much wider than the other jallabiyas, as the width of the sleeve is 50 cm. and ended before the elbow (picture No).
Names of Um JuckuJallabiya:
It has been called several names, for example: (12 o'clock)- (Ala Allah), i.e. Depend on Allah (God), some called it (stretch and wear) in Arabic "Mepend on Allah (God), some called it (stretch and wear) in Arabic "Mid waAlbass). It was called 12 o'clock, because the man at noon becomes very tired that he couldn't think in wearing it in the right way if it's in one direction, but with its current shape it can be worn by any dirction without suffering (Zainab Abdullah, 2005, 78).
Als it was called 12 o'clock because the identity of its shape in the front and in the back is similar to the identity of the watch or clock indicator when the time is 12 o'clock as the indicators of the watch of the minutes are over each other, while the name of "Ala Allah" and Mid wa albas" stretch and wear, indicate to the easiness of wearing it in record time and dependence on Allah (God), because if it's in one direction, man would think more before he wears it by the right way and it may take a lot of time, and the wide sleeves and the opening of the neck help more in wearing it in the two directions.
d/ The Jibba:
The Jibba in Sudan has connected with the religious men, and it has been mentioned in the book "Altabagat" classes, as it was worn by "Sulieman AlTawali Al Zagrad", and Defined by YousifFadlas the patchy jibba which had been one of the distinguished marks of the mystics (Sufis) (Mohamed Ibrahim Abu sleem, 1992, p. 41).Also there had been mentioned the jibba of Tag ElddinElbuhari Al Hijazi who left it for Mohamed Al Hameem "the grandfather of Alsadgab" when he left Sudan, and his family has kept it, also one of the famous jibbas, Jibbat "HabeeballahAlagami" who used to live in Jeddah, and it arrived at Sudan by one of Alghadria person "Algadria is a famous religious way in Arab countries, including Sudan", as Abu Salem supposed in his book "the Tools of Governance and guardianship".
Imam AL Mahdi had worn the patchy jibba over the pants made of Damour (Noam Shaggier, 1967, p. 342). Al Mahdi had asked his followers in many of his speeches to wearjibbas and made it one of the Mahdism teachings, and he imposed the patchy jibba as unifiedclothing. His deputy and successor Al KhalifaAbdullah Al Taishi followed his teachings and wearing the patchy jibba beside the pants and turbo. So the jibba in Sudan attributed to Al Ansar "supporters of Al Mahdi, and it was known as "Jibba Al Ansaria", it had distinguished shape, it was wide and its length reached the middle of the legs, one could see the pants which reached the foot. It had had and opening in the lower part to help in movement, and the opening of the neck was identical in the front and back which could be worn in both directions. (Picture No.), also helped in put it on and off easily and quickly. It had been distinguishedclothing for Al Mahdi Ansars "supporters", its material was harsh Damour which had been made locally from cotton plant and it was called "al ghanja". (Picture No. 4).
The Jibba originally, was one of the most important old clothing worn by people particularly the Muslim people since the time of Prophet Mohammad (God's blessings and peace be upon him), according to what was mentioned by travellers and historians and continued to be worn from time to time. In the mamlukes time in Egypt as one of the main outer clothes, it was wide and opened in front with wide sleeves, so it had been worn over the Caftan (ThouriaSeyed Nasr, Zeenat Ahmed, 1996- p.127). It was black in colour, and in the Ottoman era used by men and worn over Caftan, so its sleeves were shorter than caftan and filled by fur in winter. In Egypt it was mentioned in Alniwiry and ibn Elias writings about history in Egypt (Zainab Abdullah, 2005, p. 73). It is clear from the description above that there were two kinds of Jibbas, the first one was the opened jibba and the other one was closed Jibba, and bothwere similar in wideness of sleeves.
e/ The Waist Coat (Vest) in Arabic (Sideri):
France was the top in European fashion in 18th century, and the French people were the first who had worn the waist coat or vest (Zainab AbdullahSalih, 2008, p. 69).
In Sudan the waist coat and jacket were related to colonialist who brought them beside other western clothes such as trousers and jackets. This happened in Turkish- Egyptian era, and the eastern region was considered as the big area affected by migrations, and a cultural demarcation line because of the number of ports where were gathered by commercial movementswho had had great effect in selecting some European clothing, including the waistcoat (Sideri) which was moved to central, East and western Sudan.
There are two types of the waistcoat or vest (Sideri), the first one is known as the foreign or European waistcoat, and its length ranges between the center and the knee without sleeves and it has a small cola, opened in the front without buttons, and it has two pockets, one in each side with a vertical cover (picture No.).
The second one was known as (Sawakni)because of the city Sawakin in Eastern Sudan.It is famous in East Sudan and it looks like the first one in length and width, cola and also in the front opening, and different in the shape of the pockets, as the opening of the pockets of Alsawakni vest is crescentwithout cover (figure No.). The outer pockets are two, while the inner ones are three, one is above the breast and the other two are in the lower part of the vest (Sideri).
In the past the materials used in making the vest (Sideri) was cotton and recently after importing the artificial materials and the availability thereof, in the markets, the cotton material has been replaced by silk material namely "titron" material.
In respect of thecolours of "Sideri" the vest, the majority preferred the one colouredSideri "vest", particularly the tribes of Eastern Sudan, while some tribes in other areas were wearing it with more than one colours. Most of Suadnese people prefer the black and brown colours, and other prefer the other colours light brown, light brown, blue and green, namely when used in the public dancing by some tribes (Zainab Abdullah, 2008, p. 72).
f/ Omama- Emma (Turban):
Emma or Omama (Turban) is a cover for head, composed of a rectriangular piece of clothes different in its length between a shape and other, as the length of Emma is ranging between 4- yards, and the width about one yard, and it shall be circulated around the head over Tagia (hat), and sometimes without Tagia.
Emma or Turban connected more with Arab, so it was described as the best cover for head, thus it had been called "The Crown of Arab". Its colourand size is different between groups of people and other.
In Fatimic era, the Emma (turban) had been worn, and its size connected with the age of the person who wear it, but in Mumlukes era it is connected with Muslim scholars, for its importance, the scholars attributed to it and they had been called the masters or lords of Emmas (turbans). It had been characterized by the big size (Sana Bilal, 1983, p. 40).
Emma or Turban had been known in Sudan along time ago, as it had been mentioned by (Ibn Battuta), he described Bija of wearing the red headbands, also mentioned by the traveller Burkhart.
Emma (turban) of Sudan people was and still shorter than the other Emmas (turbans). The Rulers or Governors had adopted it as a mark for the Sultan (Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Salem, 1992, p. 56). Then it has been common all over Sudan and worn by most of Sudanese tribes.
The material of Emma (turban) is different from a person to another. In the past it had been made from light cotton materials "gauze", but when the processed cotton materials brought from England, it has been made from snow white cotton known with "total" which has been common in cities, as it was connected with the high-income people because of its high price, and the majority of limited income replaced it by the artificial materials such as: polyester, tatroon and others. The favouritecolour of Sudanese is the white colour and its derivatives.
Wearing of Emma (turban) is connected with going out, and used for protection from the heat of the sun, also used as a completion of the national clothing, namely "Jallabiya" in different occasions (picture No.).
g/ Tagia (the Hat):
The Tagia "hat" is considered as one of the completed accessories of the clothing, which is used as a small cover for head. In its shape it is different from the various styles used for covering head like Tarboosh which was famous in Egypt and the cap which was used by Europeans.Tagia had been designed to protect the head from the sun heat, wind and dust, also used as an adornment.
Tagia in Turkey has been known with the name "Hotuz". It has been mentioned by many historians and travellers in their logs (Sana Abdurrahman Bilal, ibid). People of Jeddah wore it under the turban "Emma", to alleviate absorb the sweat on the head and to keep Emma in its position.
The shapes of Tagia in Sudan are different, and it was known since ancient time with "Tagia Um Grainat" or "Hat with two horns". It was connected with the rulers and religious men.Funj used it as a mark of authority, the mystics "Sufis" used it when they reached a degree of mysticism that makes them counterparts to the rulers.
The ordinary Tagia has various shapes, including the roundish "domed shape" and also the conic shape which was famous among Ansar "Supporters of Al Mahdi", then the cylindrical shape which is accompanied by a roundish disc on the top. Each shape has special material, as the domed shape is made from tricot and silk strings because they are easy to be shaped, while the conic and circular shapes are usually made of Damouria or the white Dabalan (figure No 3).
The colours of Tagia used in Sudan have been the white colour which is used greatly, then the orange colour and the green colour which is used by mystics (Sufis). Recently various and different colours are added to one Tagia.
h/ Mantle: "Iba'a":
Is an outer garment worn over Jallabiya. It is similar to Caftan which had been defined already. There are two types of Mantles, the first one is looks like caftan with long sleeves, and the other without sleeves opening in front and its sides are decorated with a ribbon in a shape of canary which has been common in Sudan.
The materials used in making mantle are usually the artificial silk, and the arrival of Arab to Sudan has great effect in bringing such clothing.
Colours used in mantle always are black, brown or light brown (picture No. 6).
i/ Men Tobe: "Robe"
The external clothes had been known since ancient time by most people. They had been used as outer garment over the men clothing. It was not sewed, but it is a rectangular piece of clothes different in its length and width between nation and other, and it was known by Greek as "Himation), and by Roman as (Toga), also used by Assyrians and Persians (Zainab Abdullah, 2008, p. 78).
In Sudan It had been known since past time. Darfur people covered their bodies with blankets which were made of a striped cloth called (Al alajah), which had been made from gauze. The Traveller "Ibn Battuta" had described Bija tribes in Eastern Sudan as they used the yellow quilt which was near to description of the "Tobe" used to cover part of the body.
Tobe in the past had been worn without pants. It had been surrounded on the body many times and tied in the middle. Currently, the length of Tobe is about 10 metres according to the size of the person who uses it, and it is wrapped on the body after dividing it into two equal halves, it is put on back and the right part pulled under the right axilla passing the breast, then over the left shoulder to be hanged on the back, then the other part "left part" is pulled under the left axilla passing also the breast and ended on the right shoulder forming the shape (X) (picture No. 7).
The material used in making the Sudanese Tobe is cotton. "Al KribTobe" is considered as the most preferable material of cotton, particularly, what is known with "Al Bengali "Tobe.The name itself came from the trade relations between Sudan and India and their knowledge of Bengal since ancient time. There are many other materials used in making Tobe such as: gauze and Damouria, and recently used "Total" and "Polyester" materials.
It is obviously from the materials used in the past and now, that the main colour of Tobe is the colour of the materials. When Tobe made from Damouria and gauze, the colour was light brown, but currently the colour changed to the white colour of Total, Al Kirib and Polyester.
j/ The Shawl:
It is an ancient outer garment accompanies the men clothing which is formed of Jibba or jallabiya and Arragi, pants, emmaandtagia. It is used to cover head and shoulders, and sometimes is surrounded on the neck to cover it. Shawl is one of the accessories of clothing as used to complete the clothing in most of time. It had been known by Darfur people in the past and they had used it leaving its parts hanging on the back. While the people of the desert veiled by it to protect from the sun heat and dust, also was used for covering the head instead of Emma and Tagia (Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Salem, 1992, p. 57).
Currently, the shawl has become common in the cities and countries as used more when going to ceremonies and occasions, and it is noticed that it is decorated at edges, as decorated forms are designed with different colours similar to the parts and edges of Emma (picture No. 8).
Shoes and Accessories of the men Clothing:
Shoes are considered as the main accessoriesconnected with the clothing.Their shapes have varied and multiplied through ages that made them a major element in separating between each period and other. For example the Egyptian sandal has special shape that different from Assyrian sandal, and also the Greek and Roman sandals which are different from the European shoes and sandals. The environment has played an important role in this difference. The shapes and materials are different according to the surrounding environment, and the shoes are used as a protection for feet as well as a completion of the clothing.
In Sudan, the shoes that made from leather had been worn and they varied in their shape between an area and another. While the Bija were famous for wearing a sandal called (Nadorkidat), the Funj had worn in the past the wood shoe called "Al kurkup", and in western Sudan men had worn the leather shoes which has been called "AlmarkoobAlFashiri" i.e. the shoe of Alfashir"capital of North Darfur state.
It has been noticed the use of leather materials in sandals and traditional shoes, as from the available leather materials whether cows or sheep. Recently different types of shoes have appeared such as (Marakeep, plural of Markoop which is type of Sudanese traditional shoes nearly looks like boot but smaller in shapes made from different leather materials such as snake called "Asala" and tiger leather.
When the artificial appeared, the leather materials have been replaced by the rubber materials with slight different in shape (Zainab Abdullah, 2008, p. 92). Some local sandals had been made of rubber known as (tamoottakhali) means until you die it will last after, i.e. very strong and used just by men.
When shoes were imported, the men shoes have varied in Sudan between sandals with different colours and made from artificial materials "artificial leather" and also the closed shoes with different shapes and colours and become circulated all over Sudan.
Men Clothing Accessories:
Accessories mean tools which are carried by man and accompanied him wherever he goes, as it become complementary to the clothing. Also there are wearing accessories, worn by man to complete the clothing such as: the crown and bracelets in the past.
In Sudan the man is caring to carry his tools which are different from area to area. In cities some men carry the stick called "Aukaz" which is one of the important tools that completes the feature of the man, and most of the men particularly the elderly are keen in carrying, moving with it from place to another and it is made from the trees branches available in Sudan such as: Bamboo and Ebony. Furthermore,it is used as an adornment; the stick also is used for self- defence in case of moving in remote areas. (picture No.).
Knife and Axe:
They are the tools used by man particularly in rural areas where the movement and travelling are much more. They are tools used for self-defence in case of being attacked and devoured by the wild animals and snakes, there for it has become necessary that the man should carry with him a knife and an axe. The knife is made of the iron material and fixed to a wooden object and a cover made special for itcalled "Jafeer" from natural leather which is decorated and inscribed with different shapes with a ribbon made from leather being fixed to the knife as a carrier of it and make it fix to the upper part of the arm.
The Axe has a long wooden carrier and shorter than the stick that carried by man. Men in rural areas are keen to carry it always, whereas in cities particularly the bigger ones, is less used.
The ancient Clothing of the Sudanese Women:
The physiological difference between woman and man has contributed more in difference of clothing between the two sexes, as the clothing is suitable with the circumstances surrounding each sex which is different between them. The role of woman since the past time had been confined to caring children and done limited tasks concerning her family inside the home. There for, the women clothing had been characterized by special feature cope with their roles in the life.
The clothing of women in Sudan in the past was not different from what had been in these historical eras. Women clothing which had been found in Merowe era, was a narrow vest reached till the ankle and looked like the vest of women in the time of ancient Egyptians and Assyrians, added to it an outer garment covering the shoulder beside cover for head left the years free without covering. The clothing of the servants was simple which was formed of one piece, and historically there had been confirmed the difference between the women clothing in respect of the age, and the different social groups and classes (Samia Al Nagar, 1991, p. 33).
In the later years, the women clothing changed, she started to cover the lower part of her body by what is known 'Ghurbab" which is similar to skirt. Then it developed to "skirt" which had been characterized by sewing. (Zainab Abdullah, 2005, p. 65). The outer garment which had covered most of the body, changed into another design called (Algarn). It was described by the traveller Burkhart in 1928, as in a red colour with white lines.
Another outer garment called 'Tobe" was worn over it, ad in the past it was made from Damour then replaced by Dubalan, gauze and cotton processed in England.
The difference was not big between the clothing of the different areas, but the difference was in how it was made and the quality of materials used in making thereof, as women of most tribes had worn "Rahat" which was made of thin leather straps. Also the skirt wa similar to the big Tarha "apiece of cloth which is smaller than tobe", then the Tobe. It was noticed the wearing of Ghurbab with Shuga for covering the upper part of the body.
The clothing had had great role, since ancient time, in reflecting the class distinguish as mentioned before.
When colonialists had dominated Sudan, a great change happened in economic and social situation, as the education opened for women through establishing private educational institutes, therefore job opportunities were allowed for women for the first time, so the educational leading women had had a great role in changing the shape of the clothing, as the innerclothing has been changed from "tanura" to skirt. Also there had been appeared another type of clothing formed of one piece of cloth which has been known "Fustan" Dress which is worn under the tobe (SamiaAlnagar, 1991, p. 34).
The availability of the different professionshelped in designing uniforms for women such as uniform for nurses, teachers, students, and they were not different from what was in the country of the colonialist. All that had been a reason of withdrawal of gurbab and apron, particularly among the female teachers.
The social relations of some women with the foreign communities in Sudan, resulted in changing the material of the outer garment (Tobe), so the imported materials from England spreading such as total and other artificial materials instead of the local materials like damour and (TobeAlzarag) i.e. Black Tobe. The local materials had been confined to the women of poor families.
The period after the Sudan Independence followed bydevelopment in the service and productive sectors, so the number of working women had increased in the government and the vocational sectors where women worked.Also the women intellectual movements had appeared, some called for interesting the physical feature and supporting the veil, other called for excluding the tobe and followed the European fashion, and the third have respected the traditions and did not focused on the physical appearance.All that took place in the big cities,while in other parts of Sudan, the women clothing such as the inner and outer garments (tobe) remained as they were without changing except some differences resulted from the way of wrapping the tobe which was different fromarea to area.
Despite the variety of the cultures in Sudan and the difference of the areas, and despite the development and change that accompanied the womenclothing in the big cities and the capital by the cultural invasion, but the great majority are wearing the Sudanese tobe, particularly in the special occasions such as marriage and official ceremonies.
It is noticed, while reviewing the women old clothing, that some clothingare disappeared and replaced by other clothing, however some of which are circulated among most of Sudanese women.
Accordingly, the women traditional clothing will be reviewed starting from the innerclothing then the main and outer ones in respect of types of clothing.
Rahat:
Rahat is considered as one of the clothing concerning the young girls, which had been used by most of Sudanese tribes in the past. Girls wear it before marriage. It is a group of leather straps, each one of which is 15 inches in length and 1.5 inches in width and fixed to a leather strap in equal and closed, and its length reached before the knees (shape No.). It is put off after marriage when the woman wears the skirt and clothing (Fustan), So "cutting Rahat" happens on the wedding day of the woman. Now it has become one of the extinctive traditional habits. The habit of wearing "Rahat" has disappeared, which was used until the mid of the 20th century. Emigration to the cities and living among the people of the cities has great effects in ending the tradition of wearing Rahat, beside their awareness of the necessity of covering the body, and also because of the availability of different and various materials in the markets (Zainab Abdullah, 2005, p. 98).
GurbabAndTanura (skirt):
Both are used to cover the lower part of the body, and they are dissimilar in the way of fixing it to the body, as the first is fixed perfectly to the body by wrapping it around the body, whereas the second one wrapped at the waist after being sewed.
a/ Algurbab:
It is a wrap formed of a rectangular piece of cloth, about three metres length and two metres in width. It is bent into two halves then surrounded around the waist perfectly (shape No. 9). It is similar to buttons used in garment of a Mecca pilgrim. A Sudanese scholar "AunElshareef has defined the Gurbab (apiece of cloth like Tanura "skirt" but it has no room, and it is tightened as pants and it is called by Arab "strap". The word Gurbab is derived from the word Gurub means (close) which is the "waist", added to it the the term "Ab"Gurb+ ab= Gurbab means Tobe which is wrapped on the waist (Aun El Sharif, 1985, 846).
It had been worn by Sudanese women since ancient time, and it was made from local materials available at that time. There was another type made from silk material and it was known in the central Sudan as (Al'alaj) which was characterized by exchanging lines in black and red colours. The writer of Al Suna had attributed the word (Al'alaj) to the word "Al'alaja" which is type of silk or smooth cotton brought to Sudanand had become known as Al'alaja or Al'alaj (ibid, p. 788), the third type called "Al'arka",it was one piece, so it was known (GharnAl'alaj" horn of Al'alaj which was connected with marriage and had become one of the main accessories of the Sudanese bride groom.
b/ Al Tanura:
Tanura is a piece of clothes and looks like pants but differ from it that is not separated into two halves, butis worn around the waist and tightened as pants (Aun El Sharif, 1985, p. 185).
It was one of the ancient clothing used by women, and it was known and spreading in different areas in Sudan, as in Northern Sudan it had been connected with the female slaves before they became mature. Tanura is considered as more fashionable than gurbab which was different from it in being sewed as it is worn in the centre by using a belt and looks more like the European modernclothingwhich is known as skirt (shape No. 10).
Women had replaced Gurbab by Tanura and it has become common in use to cope with and suited the changes imposed by the change of living situation. So, the movement of women has increased according to her tasks because the Tanura which was tightened in the middle by the ribbon or belt would be much perfect fixed to the body, whereas the Gurbab may slipped out of the body namely in case of the movement.
The Tanura had been connected with the previous generation, which has recently been replaced by other clothingsuch as Clothing "Fustan", skirt and blouse (Zainab Abdullah, 2005, p. 99).
c/ Kanfos:
The Kanfos is considered as an under wear clothing, it had been used to cover the private parts and it was not allowed to be used outdoor. In Sudan the kanfos had been used for the young girls, which was a textile of cloth in a rectangular shape, about 55 cm. in length and 10 cm. in width. It was fixed to the body of young girl after putting a ribbon in the middle of her in order to enter the piece from front towards the back part and then stuck on behind by the ribbon fixed on her middle. It was similar to diaper used for children. It was simple in shape and material fixed by primitive way and usually used in remote areas, far away from cities which are more advanced than the rural areas. It was used for the early age of the young girl with Rahat, and it had been replaced by tanura after the girl become adult.
d/ Al Fustan or Alaragi (Dress):
It was women clothing and it is worn as main clothing accompanied the outer garment. In the past it had been known as (Tunic) and was used in the ancient civilizations in Nile countries and Al Rafedain countries (Tigris and Furat) countries.It was not more differ from the current shape.
The current clothing (fustan) has different shapes and names. The long of the fustan called Max which is reached till the ankle, then the Mini jeep which is short. The Fustan "dress"is usually accompanied by either long sleeves or short sleeves.
In Sudan, Fustan or dress is notmore differ from the Sidar "vest or waistcoat"which was connected with Sudanese women in ancient civilizations. We notice in one of the portraits of the Queen Shahta who had been wearing "Sidar" with narrow but long sleeves, reached the ankle in its length. From the information mentioned by the historians and travellers like (Bros) by which they described the Sudanese women clothing, it is clear the big similarities between the Fustan "Dress" and those clothing. Bros had described the governor of Shandi called "Sitana", as reported by Abu Salem, that she had been wearing white Jallabiya made from cotton, accompanied by shawl a long handkerchief (Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Salem, 1992, p. 39). In our previous definition of Jallabiya, it is clear the similarities to the fustan in size and length.
In Sudan, the Fustan had appeared later after the Gurbab and Al tanura. The fustan had been known in cities as (Fustan", while in the villages known as "Arragi". It is cloth formed of two parts. The upper part called Sadr "Breast", while the lower part is similar to the Skirt, connected to each other by sewing, and become one piece of clothwith sleeves, sometimes without sleeves. It had a circular, squired or triangular front opening used to insert the head. The upper part is attached to the lower part by two ways, the first one in case of the roundish skirt of the opening is fixed in the middle of the circle with the breast "Sadr", and this type of Fustan is characterized by wideness and preferred by Sudanese women, particularly in case of dancing.
In case of the rectangular skirt, it would be fixed to the breast 'Sadr" by regular folds until to become in size of the breast and then fixed to it.
In respect of length, it had reached the middle of the legs, so it was worn over the "Firka" which was characterized by bright colours. This was helping in enlarging the lower part of the body particularly the rump which was considered one of the measures of women beauty at the time.
In case of luxury, the fustan had been made from cotton materials such as Damouria and white, coloured and branched Dubalan. Latter it was made from artificial materials such as polyester and silk. Most women preferred the new materials because it was stronger and more attractive than the other materials (picture 9).
The clothes makers had contribute in providing the type of Fustan required by women, unlike the man- made clothes which might not suited to their tastes.
Now the Fustan is available in different shapes and colours, and most common one is the long one after disappearing of Firka. The short Fustan or clothing is confined to the occasions particularly these concerning dancing. The political and religious roleshave contributed in making these changes.
e/ Skirt and Blouse:
They are the other two types of main clothing of the women, and they are different from the shape of Fustan which is made of two pieces. The skirt and blouse are formed of two separated pieces, the upper part called the blouse and the lower part called the skirt.
The clothing above was spreading in Sudan after the arrival of colonialist, and first,used by the women of cities, particularly in the capital city because they were influenced by the European clothing, then spreading in the other cities and rural areas, as the displaced persons IDPs had great role in spreading the clothing. The word blouse has been derived from French word "blous" which is mean vest and worn in the upper part of the body, whereas the skirt has referred to the English word "skirt" which is regarding the lower part of the body. The foreign words used and being kept by those who are influenced by the European clothing in order to differentiate between the European clothing and the local clothing known with Tanura (picture No. 10).
The skirt also was called (Al Kazaka) which was used by different singers in girls' songs (I have to wear Kazaka and play the goal keeper with you) (Zainab Abdullah Mohamed Salih, interview 2002).
It is clear from what has been mentioned, that the Fustan "Dress" or skirt are the main clothing worn under the outer garment called "Tobe".
The Women Tobe:
The Tobe is considered as an outer garment and it is similar to outer garment or clothes which had been worn by the women in the ancient civilizations, and they had been worn outdoor and during the occasions which were connected with the nobles and kings.
In Sudan, the women tobe has been a development of the outer garmentthat had been worn by women in ancient civilizations. Through the pictures regarding the shape of the queens' clothing, it has been noticed the confirmation that they had worn the outer garment. However it was smaller in size than the current one, it had been fixed to the shoulder. After a while, women continued wearing the outer garment. This was confirmed by the description of the travellers and historians while they were travelling in different areas of Sudan. (Noam Shaggier) has confirmed the wearing of tobe by women, and despite of specifying a time for its existence of its current shape, the traveller (Pork hart) had described it during his touring in Sudan, which supported his knowledge since the Anglo- Egyptian rule. Also (Altunisi) has mentioned information about the clothing of Darfur women saying (their women were wearing apron in their middle called "Farda" Then the maidens wearing small "Footta" at their breast called "Dara'a". If the maiden married,she wears a big apron called "Tobe" which was a sheet wrapped around the body), (Mohamed ibn Omer Al Tunisi, 1965, p. 212). That would confirm the identity of the description with the current shape which is wrapped around the body also. Since the ancient time, the women tobe has been connected with the married women.
In respect of luxury, it had been made from local materials, and the most famous of which was what was known (Tobe Al Zarag) i.e. Black Tobe, which was the tobe of the ordinary people, as well as the other types in that time which had been different in their materials from Al ZaragTobe such as what was known (Khat El Estiwa) i.e. "The Equator" which had been marked by existence of a ribbon on its edge called "Canar". Also type of tobe called "Alhamam Tar"  i.e. "the Dove is Flying", it was silken material and white. These types were allocated to wealthy women. The poet "Hadaby Ahmed Abdullmuttalab", praised his lover:
Bananas is watered, grown together
My heart is burnt with fire
Till now not ripped
His Guards mortars fired
Crossed the Equator "Khat El isiwa"
The poet, via these lines of verse, described his lover as guarded in a garden by guards carrying their weapons (mortar) weapons which were spreading during the Turkish rule, coincident with the spreading of a type ofTobe called "KhatElestiwa" "the Equator" which confirmed the existence of the tobe since that time.
The Tobe passed by many stages in its designing before reached the current shape, and both ancient and current shape are suited perfectly to the Sudanese women who is fat particularly in part of rump or back side, there for the queens used to cover the lower part of the body with the outer garment accompanied by length and width later, then become wrapped around the body and covering it. The design of the Tobe is considered in order to suit the movement of the woman who were sober minded.
Types of Tobe:
There are two types of Tobe: the first one is common among Sudanese different tribes, and is formed of one rectangular piece, 4.5 m. long and 1.5 m in width. It is wrapped around the body by putting one of its part on the left shoulder, then the other part pulled from behind and pass under the right axilla passing the breast and the part over the left shoulder (Zainab Abdulla, 2005, p. 108) (picture No.11).
The second one is concerning bija women, and it is known as (Foota), and is different from the first type in length and width, as its length is two time of the person, when worn it is bent into two halves, that means after sewing the two parts to eachother in order to become one piece, the Foota is wrapped around the body at the middle after the side being put on the left side at the middle, and fixed to the other side which passes in front, then the tobe opened and its side the left shoulder pulled covering the head and face except the two eyes, and this way is called (Al Karba) (picture No. 12).
The third type, is worn by the normal same way, but worn in the opposite side, as being put on the right shoulder after being wrapped the same as the way of the normal tobe, so its direction becomes from left to right. And this approach is more common among the tribes of western Sudan (picture No. 13).
Materials, Colours and Names of the Sudanese Tobe:
Materials:
The advent of the colonialist to Sudan had contributed in changing the traditional materials of the tobe (Damouria) (Tobe Al Zarag) to new materials made from cotton had beenimported from Englandas we mentioned before as well as the importation of the materials made from petroleum waste such as polyester, and artificial silk. When the strength of the mixed materials had been discovered, their use had been increased, particularly in the rural areas and by those whose income was limited, because of some characteristics, as it was cheaper than the tobes made from imported cotton, and also they kept their shapes and strength.
Colours:
The colours of Tobes in the past were connected with the materials when they were made ofDamouria.Their colours were confined to white and white semi yellow, and those were dyed, had been dyed in one colour which was in the dark blue colour (Tobe Al Zarag).
After the importation of cotton materials, another colour "black colour), appeared in tobes, and it was known in White Egypt "Misr Al Bida",was  madeespecially for elderly women. However the middle age women and girls used the tobe with different colours and also the multi-colouredtobe.
The Names of Tobes:
Traders and importers had distributed in naming the Tobes which were imported to Sudan. The names were connected with the international events, in politics or sport, as well as fashion. Women associations havehad great role in naming these tobes. The importers were very keen to bring the new products of tobes female members who named the tobes, and after agreed upon which, it was imported in commercial quantity, then circulated in the capital city and then to other cities. The most famous names of Sudanese tobes: (Alfarda Um Zeeg) (Abu Gijaija) which had appeared in 1960s, then (Resalat London). The names after that had connected with the political events, one of which (El Intifada) (AudatNumirey) (Kursi Jabir), then (Harb Al Khaleej) (Bin Laden). Also there had been names connected with foreign films like (Titanic), and sport events (Mara Dona).Then names relating to Globalization, (Al Dish) (Internet) (Mobile).
Locally, names appeared after prorammes (MushwarElmisa), and songs (AwragAlkhareef), (TahrimniMinnak). There were various names derived from luxury including (Alramla), (Almadgout), (Alrimsh), (Abu Warda), (Al Sulta= the authority) and (Cocktail).
There were names related to industry, namely the industry of Automobile, like the tobe that named (Al Dafar), (Mercedes), (Alshabah0 and (Al Ragsha).
It is obvious from the names above that there is a strong relation between the name and the events that coincident with the making of Tobe (Zainab Abdullah, 2005, p. 114).
Spreading of Tobes in Rural and remote areas took place as result of various factors, some of which is the influence of the information and culture,via the emigrants to the cities seeking for stability and education.
Shoes and Accessories of Women Clothing:
Shoes have been connected with human being and become one of the main accessories. Shoes have been used as result of many factors, including the severe cold and hotness, as the shoes would cover the feet and protect them from the hot weather and cold weather, and also protect them from thorns and vermin. Shoes are considered as one of beauty and adornment. So, the advanced countries consider shoes as one of the completion feature (Alkhateeb Al Adnani, 1999, p.279). So shoes have become common all over the world in different colours and materials.
Women shoes are not more different than men shoes. They also varied between sandals which are called "Shabat" then "Shabaship" and "closed shoes" which had been made from leather material. In ancient time, women had worn sandals made from leather, and also used to wear shoes similar to "Markoop" which is used by men, but it was pointed and raised up (picture No. 8).
Recently, after the entering of plastic and rubber materials to Sudan, different types of shoes have been used. So, various forms and shapes have appeared particularly in cities, and they were given several names "Dababa", "Double Gabina", "Al Safsaf".
Jewelries of women:
Jewelries are important accessories used to adorn both males and females, they had been known since ancient time, as used in adorning women and men bodies. Some are made in shape of ring to adorn the ear, and bracelets and finger rings to adorn the fingers and sometimes crowns to adorn heads and they give those who wear them beauty and prestige.
In Sudan jewelries had been known and circulated,and were discovered by the archeologists. They were various shapes and materials, as some of which made of beads and some were made of pure gold (Zainab Abdullah, 2005, 118).
Sudanese women had adorned withdifferent jewelries that made of beads, gold and silver to adorn head, neck, arms and legs.
In adorning head, what was called (Jaddla) made of pure gold, which was formed in shape of circles put on hair to adorn it. Also (Al Rashma) which was used to adorn the nose and ears, Then (Algasha) (Al Zumam) on the nose, and (Fidu) worn on the ears (picture No. 14 b). For the neck, there had been traditional jewelry made of pure gold, including (al Khanag) which was a necklace made of beads. Then (Al Teela) which was a necklace composed of beads with white and black colours which was compsed at string and sometimes the beads replaced by the gold and known as (Al Shaf) (picture No. 13).
Then (Al Matariq), which is an oval shapes with four sides, wide in the middle and narrow in the sides, hollow, and it is composed of roundish beads and be echanged with gold grains which are known (Al Mutamman) (picture No.14 a), also (Al Farrag Allah) which is bigger in size than what is known as (Alshaf). Then (Alnugar) which is also used for adorning the neck (picture No. 14 a).
Women also have worn what was known as (Al Hufaida) which was made of silver to adorn the neck. Women also used bracelets to adorn their hands , and the past were made of beads, ivory and silver, then lately become made of pure gold which have been known (Al quaishat) (picture No. 15 b). To adorn the head, some tribes particularly in western Sudan had used an adorn for head made of silver and known as (Al Jadadah) (picture No 14 a).
In respect of foot, women used to wear what was called (Al Hijil) which was a ring made from silver surrounded the lower part of the leg, including the hollow shape, and women were keen in putting some small piece of stones inside it to make noise when woman walks (picture No. 15 a).
Hair Dressing of Women:
Hair Dressing is one of practices that completing the women adornment and it is considered as a feature of her femininity and a symbolof her beauty. All people in the past were interested in it, either by lengthening, trimming or adorning it, and each civilization had had a different shape for dressing hair.
In Sudan women havecharacterized by plaits since past time. Then this practice passed from generation to another in most Sudanese tribes, and it was called (Almushat). This practice has disappeared among women in the cities, but until now practiced by the women in rural areas.
The most Types of Mushat in Sudan:
a/ Mshat (Comb) (Algadria) or (Alfagiri):
This type is common in most of Sudan. In which the hair is divided into three parts, the front part of which is divided into two halves, then each half shall be plaited towards the ears, and some leave it without plaiting and called (Al Masair). The back part shall be combed in shape of thin plaits directed to back to cover the neck (shape No. 11 a). Women, in some tribes, adorn the plaits by what is called (Altarbal) which is a group dried perfumes extracted from some plants, including (Agurunful and Muhlab), being ground then mixed with animal fats (Al Wadak) and (Gum Arabic) to make it cohesive. It was prepared in shape of small balls to be fixed on the lower of each plait, which is wet helping in lengthening the plait, also the smell comes from it is good.
b/ Mushat Al khuda or SaridWarid:
It is a type of an old traditional mushat, used by all women in the past, and it was different from the normal mushat, as the hair is plaited after being divided into two longitudinallyhalves toward the ears, and it was known among Baggara tribes as (Al Khuda) because it was similar to the shape of Al khuza (helmet) which is worn on the head. In Eastern Sudan it was known (Al SaridWarid) (shape No. 11b).
c/ MushatAlgandoul:
This type was common in western Sudan among Baggara tribes, and it was similar to the previous one (Al Khuda), but there was a big plait added on the head longitudinally which is looks like the spike of the maize (Al Gandoul) (shape no. 11 c).
D/ MushatAlsulait:
Is regarding Bija tribes which was different from the other types, as the hair shall be combed in a shape of thin plaits, the hair would be divided into three parts, one in the right side, other on the left and the third part centred the head which is divided into two parts in two different directions, formed of a group of plaits, its number ranges between four to six be lowered behind the head on the neck, but the upper one shall be plaited like the same number of the first plaits but shall be in the direction of the forehead, as shall also be divided into two parts after being gathered in a round ring called (Almaroud), then goes towards the ears (picture No. 16 b). Sometimes another jewelry added to them called Algurait) (picture No. 16 a) (Zainab Abdullah, 2008, p. 118).
Results and recommendations:
Results:
Reviewing the Sudanese Clothing for men and women, the researcher has come out with the following findings:
1.    It is clear from antiquities studies that Sudanese Women clothing, has originally referred to the Sudanese ancient civilizations represented in the main clothing (Al gamis), (Al Fustan) "dress", and the outer garment (Tobe).
2.    The periods of colonialism and after that, has enabled the traders to import new materials to the local market, which has improved the materials used in the women traditional clothing their variation in its shapes and colours.
3.    However, the roots of the Sudanese tobe are the same, there have been a contrast and variations in the ways of wearing it among women.
4.    The men traditional clothing has old historical roots, and developed, particularly after the Arabmigrations to Sudan.
5.    Despite the changes of the materials and colours of men traditional clothing, it has been noticed that men have preferred the unflashy colours.
6.    Although,the men traditional clothing arecirculated, there has been difference in the ways of designing thereof, in different parts of Sudan.
Recommendations:
1.    To provide forums and mechanisms via ministry of General Education and ministry of Culture, during which the young people and youth, shall be advised to follow their heritage and to be proud of it.
2.    The information shall play great role in settling the values and original traditions.
References
•    AlkhateepAladnani: Clothes and Adornment in Islam- Beirut, Alintishar Arab Foundation- 1999.
•    John Lewis Burkhart: (translated byFu 'adAndrews)-Journeis of Burkhart in Nuba and Sudan country, Cairo: Alma'rifapriting press- no date.
•    Zainab Abdullah Mohamed Salih: Clothing and Adornment for Al baggara tribes in Sudan- Almisairia tribe- Khartoum- Gaf for Integrated printing press services 2000.
•    Zainab Abdullah Mohamed Salih: Clothing and Adornment for Bija tribes- Khartoum, AlmarkazAltibai, 2008.
•    Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Salem: Tools of Governance and Guardianship- Beirut- Dar Elfiker, 1971.
•    Mohamed Ibn Omer El Tunisi: Tashheez Al azhanbesiratBilad Al Araab- Cairo- The Egyptian General Foundation Publishing and Translation, 1965.
•    Noam Shaggier: Geography and History of Sudan- Beirut- Dar Althagafa, 1967.
•    TahiaKamil Hussein: Histroy of Clothing and Development. Part one, Cairo- El Nahda Bookshop and printing press,2000.
•    Samia Ibrahim Lutfi: History and Development of Clothing- Alexandria- Alexandria University, 1999.
•    SamiaAlnagar: Women Clothing and Social Change- Sudanese Studies, volume 11, Number 221, Khartoum- Afro- Asian Studies Institute, 1991.
•    Dr. Aun Al Sharif Gasim: The Dictionary of Colloquial in Sudan, Khartoum, Khartoum: Beirut, Al dar Al SudaniaFor Books in collaboration with Dar AL fakir, 1972.
•    Thouria Nasr: People Clothing. Cairo, AalamAlkutob, 1998.
•    Thouria Nasr: Zainat Ahmed Tahoon, History of Clothing, Cairo- AalamAlkutub (Books World), 2000.
•    Sanaa Abdurrahman Bilal: Clothes in the two Coptic and Islamic eras (cairo, Dar Al Nahda0 1982- 1983.




 

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