Minerals sources in Sudan

Thu, 28 Sep 2017



 

  Dr. Badr Eldin Taha Osman

 

Abstract:

This article addressed mineral resources in Sudan through the following points: mineral resources, geology and sources of minerals, geological research, mining and exploration in Sudan. Also, the article addressed the different kinds of minerals in Sudan which includes the main minerals, namely gold, chrome, copper, manganese, gypsum, mica, talc, iron, sodium salts (salt and natron), building and decorative stones (granite, marble, sandstone, limestone), kaolin, bentonite, basic metals, rare earth metals (zinc, lead, aluminum, cobalt, nickel, and uranium), and agro-minerals (phosphate, gypsum, minerals rich in potassium and calcium nitrate).

The article assigns two definition parts, one of which is for unfolding reserves of mineral resources in Sudan and contributions of the mining sector in gross domestic product (GDP) and the other for clarifying problems that accompany the mining sector and the resolutions proposed to support and develop the sector. Notwithstanding scanty data and statistics in this field, the article could refer to more than seventy references and sources including: scientific articles, press investigations and Sudanese official internet websites, a head of which are Ministries of Minerals and Industry, and specialized studies prepared by relevant parties. Moreover, the article found access to available statistics from the Ministry of Finance, Central Bank of Sudan and annual issuances prepared by US Geological Survey on minerals around the world.

The article comes to define efforts exerted for structuring the mining sector in order to administratively, technologically and economically develop the sector and improve its performance. This improvement would be carried out through diagnosing and resolving the problems in this sector according to plans, criteria and steps taken in similar sectors at both regional and global levels.

 

introduction:

Mineral resources in Sudan:

On the separation of its southern part, Sudan has become the third largest state in Africa with an area estimated to be more than 1.8 million square kilometers and a population upwards of 38 million people according to 2013 estimates, the third of whom inhabit Khartoum and other urban areas. The majority of the inhabitants practice cultivation, traditional grazing, trade and lately native mining as shown in Figure 1. Topographically, Sudan has a semi-flat surface descending towards the Nile and Red Sea, besides mountainous heights of up to 3,000 meters above sea level, namely Jebel Marra in western Sudan, and there are also the Nuba Mountains, Red Sea Hills and other isolated hills. Naturally, the River Nile and its tributaries pose a great important topographic and geographic milestone. Sudan bordered, clockwise, on Red Sea, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Eritrea and Ethiopia in the east, Southern Sudan to the South, Central Republic of Africa and Chad in the west, Libya in the North West and Egypt in the north.  

Sudan possesses great mineral resources and potentials which have remained untapped and unexplored. In this regard, contributions from the mining sector does not exceed 8% of the GDP, notwithstanding the remarkable increase in mining activity which included gold, chrome, gypsum and crudes of cement industry during the past ten years. To boost up this percentage, Sudan, represented by Ministry of Mining and Ministry of Industry and other parties concerned with investment, has sought to encourage both national and foreign investment in the field of mining and transformative industries. This encouragement of investment will be carried out through legislation of investment laws, improvement of infrastructure like roads and energy and betterment of security and administrative situations in all states of Sudan. Accordingly, a number of agreements were signed between the government of Sudan and concerned Sudanese and foreign companies for exploration and production of numerous minerals. So, according to the Investment Promotion Law, 1999, with its supplement amendments and minerals law, these agreements provided many preferential advantages for promotion of investment in the mining sector. In this process, the Ministry of Minerals, i.e. management of minerals and miners, represents the government of Sudan on signature of agreements and issuance of investors’ licenses, besides the supervision over phases of exploration, development and production by registered corporations under Companies Registration Law for 1925 (later amended law)  for practicing mining works in Sudan (Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

 

Figure 1:  Native and investment mining in the Sudan

Source: www.alsharq.net.sa

Officially, under Republican Decree No. (22), 2010, the Ministry of Mining is the empowered establishment to apply mining investment system and supervise its implementation in the Republic of Sudan. In this respect, one of the main tasks of the Ministry is to promote and attract both local and foreign investments in order to develop the mining sector in the Sudan. Furthermore, specialties of the Ministry involve the following:

  • Supervise processes of survey, geological exploration, searching for minerals and natural resources across Sudan’s soil, regional waters and continental shelf.
  • Draw up national policies and plans in the field of mining.
  • Advertise for investment in the mining sector.
  • Enhance policies that are able to attract investors with maintenance of the rights of the nation.
  • Sign contracts with and issue licenses for investors.
  • Control corporations which are legally allowed to explore and extract minerals.
  • Set technical standards for establishments, production and requirements of safety and preservation of environment regarding mining activity in coordination with relevant parties.
  • Supervise public corporations or companies that the government has a stake in as to works of mining.
  • Supervise researches and studies concerning minerals.
  • Develop and qualify human resources in the field of mining and mining derivatives.
  • Develop and advance national relationships with relevant regional and international organizations and institutions
  • Represent the nation abroad in mining sectors (Ministry of Mining, 2015).

Article 3 of the Mines and Quarries Act, 1972, defines minerals as all natural mineral substance other than earth surface which is used for farming. However, the definition involves mineral waters, above-ground or underground or even on earth surface, which are usable and prepared for commercial ends. Exceptionally, petroleum is otherwise construed in the Petroleum Resources Act, 1998, or any act that may amend or replace it. As well, according to Article 4 of the Mines and Quarries Act, 1972, the state will hold all minerals and quarries’ substances found on or under its lands or under its regional waters or along its continental shelf. Consequently, the state has an absolute right in mining and searching for those minerals and quarries’ substances, all of which will be at the disposal of the state (Al Tahir, 2010).

 

Minerals are a part of natural resources that are naturally formed. These natural resources maybe renewable such as sun light, air, water, plant, animal and maybe nonrenewable or of slow renewability like coal, oil, natural gas and minerals (www.study.com). Geologically, mineral resources are classified according to geological vestiges and the economic value of mineral deposits. These mineral deposits contain mineral resources which have a potential value with an economic benefit as they also contain mineral reserves or are reserves with a value that can be legally, economically and technologically capitalized on (Dill, 2010, Staff, 2012 and US Geological Survey, 1980).

Geology and mineral sources of the Sudan:

Geological milestones and facts in Sudan are related with numerous formations as shown in Figure 2. They are represented by the basement complex of the Precambrian age and river sedimentary silty rocks from the Quaternary Age. The geological history of Sudan has been dotted with long periods of erosion processes and backfill since the late Precambrian Age till the latest Albaliose Age. These geomorphologic processes have removed ancient sedimentary rocks save some isolated exposed rocks in Kordofan, at the Sudanese-Chadian borders, near to Jebel Uweinat and in north western Sudan. In the Mesozoic Age, Nubian sandstone deposits were formed and they kept resisting erosion, particularly in basement complex basins and Albaliose cover. However, tectonic movements related with the Great African Rift system in the middle and latest Tertiary Age formed vast geologic basins like basins of Bara, Dindir and Baggara.

In the Late Tertiary and Early Quaternary, volcanic activity formed basaltic igneous rocks in Jebel Marra and Jebel Meidoub in western Sudan and it caused basaltic flows in the Bayouda Desert in the north and Gedarif region in eastern Sudan. In the Plio-Pleistocene, basins which had been formed in the Tertiary were filled with thick river and lacustrine sediments of Umm Ruwaba sedimentary formations (Wikipedia, Whitman, 1971), 2015. Different formations and effects of this Geological history created a sedimentary and basement complex in Sudan’s earth. In terms of expansiveness, basement complex covers vast areas reaching more than 60% of earth surface and spreads out through the districts lying between the River Nile, Red Sea and Nuba Mountains. Again, it stands out in the remote west of Sudan and extends northwards to wadi Hawar. This basement complex contains the main reservoirs of minerals, the reason for which it enjoyed sufficient studies. As to sedimentary rocks, they involve two groups: sediments of Nubian sandstone and sediments of formations from Umm Ruwaba. These rock formations are of paramount economic importance, because they contain a large stock of underground water, hydrocarbons and industrial minerals.

Geological excavation and mining in Sudan:

Sudan’s public authority for geological researches, a subordinate of Ministry of Minerals and a technical supporter in this respect, is tasked with researching and exploring minerals. The authority exerted considerable efforts in fields of exploration and mining, though not that ambitious endeavors because of the limited financing offered to the authority. However, most of processes of exploration and mining depend on programs of foreign technical and financial aid and donations offered by some nations and corporations such as the following:

  • UNDP (a donation for surveying the crude asbestos at Anqasana Hills, 1967).
  • Chinese Mission (to study crude chrome at Anqasana Hills, 1974, 1977).
  • Russian aid program for Sudan (to search minerals at Red Sea Hills, 1970).
  • Sudanese-German cooperation at Bayouda Desert and Nuba Mountains, 1983.
  • Sudanese-French cooperation project for exploring minerals at Red Sea Hills.
  • Saudi-Sudanese cooperation (minerals of Red Sea water and seabed, Ministry of Minerals, 2015)

 

In the pre-1990 period, there were several studies and researches on minerals in Sudan but these studies did not reaches the level of production except for meager minerals like chrome, gypsum, talc, manganese, magnesite and mica. Commercially, exploitation of chrome was started in the early 1960’s, 1963, when all production had been exported overseas. Notably, those exploitative processes had been carried out by Anqasana Hills Corporation which was constituted in 1970 when both Sergas and Tchakiruglu companies were nationalized. In the 1972, the businesses of Anqasana Hills Corporation were enlarged when the corporation opened quarries for gypsum at khor Ayit on the Red Sea coast to meet the needs of cement factories of gypsum.

 

Figure 2: geology of Sudan

Source: Geological Research Authority of the Sudan, 1980

 

Several joint ventures between the Sudan Corporation for Mining, a public corporation, and foreign companies were launched in 1980. The mutual partnership had pledged to extract gold, as off 1987, in Gabeit district and many other mines near to the Red Sea Hills. So, in 1988, about 78,000 metric kilograms of crude gold in Sudan was extracted. Later, in late 1990, Sudan and two French gold mining companies made a joint venture to exploit gold reserves at Red Sea Hills.

Historically, archaeological discoveries note that Nubian Nation had been one of the more important nations regarding production of gold and precious stones in the world, particularly in kingdoms of Kush and Meroe eras (1500 – 650 B.C). At that time, those precious minerals were produced in Nubia and exported to the different Pharaonic kingdoms in Egypt and then to the other tracts of the Old World. It goes without saying that gold was one of the most important items of the agreements then signed between the armies of Islamic conquest and the Sudanese kingdoms of the time. Even some gold of Bani Shanqul in  Sudan was one of the goals of Mohammed Ali Pasha’s military campaign (Sudanese Chambers of Industries Association, 2010). In recent discoveries related to saving Meroe antiquities, the Kush Kingdom was known to be the home of first iron industry in the world, to wit, iron industry began in Kush. Moreover, there were some artifacts, statues and tools of bronze, copper and iron found in the area of Begrawiya, Northern Sudan, and in Hufrat Al-Nuhas in South Darfur. Recently, and in modern history, Sudan started minerals production during the 1940’s, when mining of mica and gypsum was started in 1945 and marble was extracted for Atbara cement production in 1947. Later, in 1960, there began production and exportation of chrome, iron and manganese. Also, during the period 1900 – 1954, a number of British companies began extracting a large amount of minerals in the district (three tons extracted from only one mine between 1924 – 1936). Of late, gold was produced from Aryab Mine at Red Sea Hills in 1991 (Suleiman, 2010).

Mining of crude chrome was started in the Anqasana Hills in late 1970 when the annual extracted amounts of the crude were estimated to be more than 20,000 tons.  At that time, Anqasana Hills Mines Co., a subordinate company of the Sudanese Mining Co., produced upwards of 16,000 tons out of that quantity. Then, crude chrome was exported to a number of states, the head of which were Japan and West Europe. By 1983, when civil war resumed, all production was stopped at the Anqasana Hills Mines and, consequently, production of chrome dwindled by 50%, i.e. 10,000 tons yearly, and the same production was reduced in 1988 to 5,000 tons. As a result of numerous negative effects, for instance the civil war, the ratio of mining industry sector lowered to less than 1% of GDP in 1990 (The Library of Congress, 2015).

 

Modern mining in Sudan began with the advent of the regular geological work in the year 1905 through the governmental geological bureau. The said bureau then developed into a geological survey unit in 1939, and the latter again developed into a department of geological survey in 1953. Lastly, the department was transformed into Public Authority for Geological Research in 1986. But, during this period, this institutional entity was changed and devolved into many ministries, consequently this negatively affected geological work. During 1905 to 1956, geological work had focused on searching for aquifers and on limited geological mapping. That stage was followed by another period from 1956 to 1990 when the number of geologists had increased and geological work ushered in geological surveys for exploration of mineral resources, aquifers and oil discoveries. To this end, the Geology Department had contributed in thirst combat projects and struck a number of agreements concerning exploration of oil with great companies like Chevron, Total, Union Texas, Phillips, Sun Oil and other such companies. After 1990, both sectors of water research and exploration of oil seceded from the Public Authority for Geological Researches where the role of the Authority was confined to carrying out geological surveys and exploring and developing minerals. Today, the mining sector relies on geological operations implemented by the Public Authority through researches and exploring minerals again by means of geological, geophysical and geochemical studies. These studies are applied by either Sudanese research teams or in cooperation with some foreign institutions. To this end, vast areas of the country were surveyed and an initial assessment for minerals, like gold and others, performed. Accordingly, promising areas were divided into blocks and offered for local and foreign companies for investment. By and large, responsibility became greater when the Ministry of Minerals was established in Sudan, and now the Ministry had set plans for the short, medium and long term for upholding the mining sector to play a complete role in developing resources and to effectively contribute to the national income (Ministry of Mines, 2015).

Studies that had been carried out during the post-independence period up to the 1980’s noted that basement complex covers upwards of 60% of the area of Sudan where most of mineral formations found in this basement complex. As a result of the studies carried out, Sudan is one of the states which is blessed with vestiges of minerals and important economic crudes such as gold, chromium, copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, iron, manganese, tungsten, uranium, gypsum, mica, marble, asbestos, magnesite, talc, kaolin, quartz, feldspar, elkinaat, phosphate, granite, black sand, natron and salt.

During different eras, geological survey departments, and later the public authority for geological researches, made considerable attempts and research for the exploration of minerals. But, owing to limited financing, most of the exploration projects were achieved by technical and financial aid offered by friendly organizations and nations. In regard to this aid, the following parties are worth mentioning:

  • The UNDP for surveying crude asbestos, 1967, in Anqasana Hills 1972 to 1974.
  • Russian Aid Program for Sudan in 1970 to explore minerals at Red Sea Hills.
  • Sudanese-German cooperation at Bayouda Desert and Nuba Mountains in 1983.
  • Sudanese-French cooperation project to explore minerals at Red Sea Hills.

In pre-1990 period, there were several studies and researches for minerals in the Sudan, though those studies hadn’t reached production level except for little minerals like chrome, gypsum, talc, manganese, magnetite and mica. Commercially, chrome stared to be exploited in early 1960’s, i.e. 1963, when all production had been exported overseas. Later,  the Anqasana Hills Corporation, which was established in 1970 when both Sergas and Tchakiruglu companies were nationalized, had carried out mining activity. In 1972, businesses of Anqasana Hills Corporation were enlarged when the company opened quarries for gypsum in khor Ayit on the Red Sea coast to meet the need of cement factories of gypsum. Similarly, the same corporation then issued mining licenses for talc, manganese and magnetite abundantly found in many locations at Red Sea Hills where this project was known as Red Sea Minerals Project. But, for technical reasons, Anqasana Hills Corporation could not maintain working in this project. In 1977, production of mica was started in Shireik area, Northern Sudan, with two great projects, one of which was public sector owned and managed by Sudanese Mining Corporation while the other private sector managed by Nilan International. In the interim, large amounts of both clipped and scrap mica were produced. Unluckily, Sudanese mica then faced a big difficulty in marketing due to Indian monopoly in the market of this commodity. In addition to the above mentioned minerals, iron had been produced at Red Sea Hills and exported to Australia but its production was stopped in 1967 owing to difficulty of marketing (Ministry of Defense, 2015).

Kinds of mineral resources:

There are great mineral resources in the Sudan distributed in many parts of it as shown in Graph 3A and 3B. According to mineral heritage, successive geological surveys, evidence of production, statistics and economic assessments, real or potential (non-petrol) minerals include gold, chrome, copper, manganese, gypsum, talc, mica, iron, sodium salts (salt and natron), building and decorative stones (granite, marble, sandstone, limestone), quartz, glass sand, feldspar, asbestos, magnesite and basic minerals (zinc, lead, aluminum, cobalt, nickel, tungsten, kaolin and bentonite) and rare earth metals (uranium) and agro-minerals (phosphates, gypsum and minerals rich with potassium, calcium and nitrates) – (Ministry of Minerals, 2015 & Yager, 2012, 2014).

 

Figure (3 -A)

 chrome

   gold

        

     kaolin        

phosphate                                 

                            Figure (3B) States of Sudan with their mineral map

   Source: Ministry of Minerals (2015)

Gold:

Sudan was known for extraction and exploitation of gold since the Pharaonic age and Turkish era. This mineral had been traditionally extracted in districts of River Nile, Blue Nile and Northern Sudan where there has been roughly 120 old mines discovered in those areas. Physically, gold is found in the form of fine grains mostly scattering in quartz veins crossing Nubian basement complex and Red Sea Hills. Also, gold is found associated with river deposits and water courses scattered across the country, for instance in areas of Aryab Mining Company at Red Sea Hills, gold mining districts in South Blue Nile (Kurmuk and Qeisan), North and South Kordofan, South Darfur and in other dispersed districts of the country. Physically, gold is found merged with some metals like copper, silver, lead and uranium such as that kind found in Hufrat al-Nuhas. Currently, production of gold is concentrated in the Aryab area, Red Sea State, where production of the mineral reached 5.67 tons of pure gold as shown in Figure 4. Ministry of Minerals, 2015, (Suleiman, 2010). On another part, the so-called traditional/native mining has contributed to the majority of gold production in Sudan. In this regard, during the first six months of 2010, native/traditional mining produced about 10,000 kilograms of gold compared to the total national production of gold equaling 14,914 kilograms in 2009. In relation to non-traditional mining, La Mancha Resources of Canada produced 2,129 kilograms of gold from the Hassai mine, north eastern Sudan, in comparison to 1,922 kilograms produced in 2009 as shown in Figure 5. However, depending on the outcomes of the study, production in Hassai can be yearly boosted up to more than 4,800 kilograms as off 2013 through the six years period of the project (La Mancha Resources Inc., 2011), Bank of Sudan, 2010, 2011 (Miningreview.com,).

Figure 4: Locations where gold is found and mineralized

Source: Ministry of Minerals (2015)

 

Figure 5: non-traditional mining (institutional mining) in the Sudan

Source: Hassai website

 

Chrome:  

Mining of chrome was commenced in the 1970’s, and is now produced in the district of Anqasana, Blue Nile State, where the chrome reserve is estimated to be about two million tons with a concentration ratio of up to 48 – 60% in the high quality chrome. There are also economic quantities of the mineral within alaoviuliet rocks in the districts of Kurmuk and Qeisan, but the more important deposits are found in the Anqasana block where those sediments were collected by Aldwinat in the deep tectonic complex of Aldoant and Alharzbargit in the western part of the block. Also, chromium is found in a number of districts like Red Sea, Nuba Mountains and Northern State. Chromite is used as a main source for chrome element which, in turn, is used in the corrosion and rust resistant steel industries. Additionally, chromite is used in the dyeing, leather tanning and refractory bricks, the latter of which is used in cement manufacturing kilns and minerals smelting furnaces (Ministry of Minerals, 2015 & Suleiman, 2010).

Copper:  

Copper is found in the western districts of Sudan where, of late, Bilton Sudan Co. has carried out further studies in the area of Hufrat al-Nuhas, South Darfur. Here, some evidence notes that copper had once been utilized by successive sultanates of Darfur. These results research confirmed what is already known of mineralization types and concentration of crude copper, particularly malachite metal. As to the Red Sea Hills, studies proved that there are copper sulfate, lead and zinc in the Abu Samar area and that where the deeper it is, the more reserve ratio increases. Though crude copper is abundant in the Sudan, it has not yet economically exploited (Ministry of Minerals, 2015 & Suleiman, 2010).  

Manganese:

Crude manganese is found in the Red Sea and Northern State and other areas in Sudan. In the Red Sea, mineralization ratio ranges between 47 – 50% while in Northern Sudan the ratio gets to 40%. Commercially, the Wadi Mineral Co. exported 1100 tons of manganese to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1999, besides this some companies involved in this field of business are likely to produce their share before long. Though mines of crude manganese are numerous, few of them are usable for economic exploitation, the more important of which are in the Red Sea Hills where crude manganese is found in the form of lenses with average thickness of nearly two meters within the basement complex. Geologically, the crude manganese consists of psilomelane, manganite and minerals of pyrolusite. As well, deposits of crude manganese are found in the west Berber area but the reserve ratio in these areas is unconfirmed. As to Halaib area, north eastern Sudan and close to the Red Sea, deposits of manganese are found in the form of lenses and pockets filling cracks while the mineral reserves are estimated to be about 120 thousand tons. Economically, manganese is used in the manufacturing of steel, dry batteries, paints and chemical industries (Ministry of Minerals, 2015 & Suleiman, 2010).

Gypsum:

Gypsum is dispersed in the littoral district of the Red Sea, particularly at Beer Ayit, its alias khor Ayit, which is 77 kilometers north to Port Sudan. The certain reserve of the mineral is estimated to be about 220 million tons with high purity and quality but it is currently produced to meet requirements of building and cement manufacturing in the country. Moreover, gypsum is especially used in sulfuric acid, building materials and plaster (Suleiman, 2010 & Ministry of Minerals, 2015). It is noteworthy that production of the mineral reached 13,304 tons in 2003.

Talc:

Talc consists of magnesium hydrogenated silicate. It is resistant to heat, electricity and acids and associated with almagendzaat which in itself poses an economic value if only separated from talc and refined. Industrially, talc is utilized in several industries like manufacturing of papers, plastic, soap, paint, lubricant oils, gilding, rubber, food stuffs, electric cables, pharmaceutical materials, cosmetics, some medical drugs, artificial detergents, ceramics, welding and forming of metals in foundries. Geologically, deposits of talc are found in a number of districts in Sudan, the significant of which are: Nuba Mountains, Anqasana Hills in Blue Nile State, Halaib Province in the Red Sea Hills, Shireik in the River Nile State, Galaa al-Nahal in Butana district, Gedarif State and Jebel Rahib in the North West of the country. However, reserve of talc in Galaa al-Nahal areas is estimated to be about 25 million tons with a ratio of talc equaling 49.5% and of almagendzaat equaling 41.5% (Suleiman, 2010). As to crude almagendzaat, it was estimated as follows:

  • About 10 million tons in Jebel Umm Kiteirat, Nuba Mountains.
  • About 20 million tons in Galaa al-Nahal area.
  • About 500 thousand tons in Red Sea Hills, with a ratio of magnesium oxide equaling 37% (Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

Mica:

Muscovite type mica is found at Rahaba mine, west to Shireik, in River Nile State. The reserve of mica in this area is estimated to be about 147,378 tons, 700 tons of the mineral was produced up to the year 1971. Historically, mica was one of the first minerals that were mineralized and exported abroad since 1945. At that time, mineralization had been intermittently carried out according to supply to and demand from the international market. Nevertheless, surface mica is manually extracted and sold as a crude mineral which will be of less value in the market. This mineral is used in manufacturing electrical and thermal insulators, paints and electronics (Wikipedia, 2015, Suleiman, 2010 & Ministry of Minerals, 2015), (form 6).

Iron:

Crude iron in Sudan covers most of the areas of Nubian sandstone while associating with this sandstone which itself covers an area of 900 square kilometers and extends on to Abu Hamad and intermittently to Shendi. The crude iron has three types including, as to colour, black crude which covers the majority of the Nubian sandstone district, and there is the more concentrated red crude and the medium concentrated brown crude. What is more, crude iron is found in other areas, the important of which are the following:

  • Garura, Fadkowan and Sifayya. In the latter area, Sifayya (Red Sea Hills), the magnitude of reserves are estimated to be about 500 million tons of crude iron with an average iron ore of 40 – 50%.
  • Jebel Abu Tulu, South Kordofan State, with an average iron ore of 40% and a crude iron of about 60 million tons.
  • District of Wadi Halfa where initial assessments reveal huge amounts of grain iron of sedimentary origin with an average iron ore of 60%.

 

Commercially, exploitation of these mineral resources depends largely on foreign companies as shown in Figure 6, (Suleiman, 2010 & Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

                  Figure 6: districts of mineralization of graphite, mica and asbestos

                  Source: Ministry of Minerals, 2015

 

Sodium Salts:

Sodium carbonate sediments (natron and soda ash) are found in the oases of Salima, Nikheila and Atroun in North Darfur as shown in Figure 7. As to sodium chloride sediments (salt), they are extracted from sea water through vaporization by means of slatterns which are scattered along the Red Sea in areas lying north and south to Port Sudan (Sudan Salt Company, Ba’bud, Prisons saltern, etc). As well, these sediments are extracted from well water in Al Qa’a and other areas in North Kordofan. Industrially, these sediments are considered to be the main source nominated for many industries like food industries, leather tanning and the glass industry. Likewise, they are an important sources for sodium and chlorate which are involved in several chemical industries, the important of which are caustic soda and hydrochloric acid (Suleiman, 2010). Currently, salt is extracted out of the Red Sea with quantities sufficient for local consumption as production, for instance, reached about 61,096 thousand tons in 2003. Also, there are a number of companies and individuals working in this field. On the another hand, natron is important for many industries such as non-organic chemical industries, glass, soap and caustic soda (Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

                       Figure 7: locations of mineralization and reserves of iron

                       Source: Ministry of Minerals (2015)

Building and decorative stones:

Decorative stones are promising mineral resources which will probably be of paramount importance. These stones are abundant and vastly spread out in Sudan’s lands as they include most of the chains of the Red Sea Hills, Northern Sudan, Blue Nile, Nuba Mountains and East Sudan. Secondly, these decorative stones are marked by a great diversity of rocks whether they are igneous or metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. However, the more important kinds of decorative rocks in Sudan are:

  • Granite (found in different tracts of Sudan like Sabaloka in states of Khartoum and River Nile)
  • Marble (in Butana, Red Sea Hills and west of Atbara).
  • Limestone (along Red Sea coast and River Nile and other dispersed areas).
  • Sandstone is a sedimentary rock consisting of pieces with different size and shape and marked with their brightly colours, particularly white, yellow, pink and red colours (found in dispersed areas, some of which are Al Markhiyyat Hills, River Nile State and  district of Gedarif and others), (Suleiman, 2010).

Both marble and granite are important stones for building, but marble in itself is the main element in manufacturing of cement and lime, besides it is an export commodity to numerous states in the Middle East and Europe, etc. Moreover, there are a number of companies working in the field of marble and granite for purposes of decoration (Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

There are other minerals utilized in building and other purposes including quartz, glass sand, feldspar and asbestos. The mineral quartz is found in a number of locations in Sudan, the notable of which are Jebel Umm Saqta, Gedarif State, Red Sea Hills and the Bayouda Desert. Relatively, the silica ratio in quartz reaches about 98%. Industrially, quartz is mainly used in optics, yet ultrapure quartz is used for manufacturing of solar cells and semiconductors. As to glass sand (abundantly found in form of high quality white sands in the district of Bara, North Kordofan, and in River Nile State), it is used in glass. Additionally, one of the minerals is feldspar which is found in many locations like Sabaloka area, north to Khartoum and Shireik area in River Nile State. The mineral of feldspar is mainly used in manufacturing of ceramics, porcelain, Chinese pots, refractories and glass. As to crude asbestos, it is found in the district of Fao where reserve of the mineral is estimated to be more than 16 million tons (with an extracted fiber ratio equaling 2.7%), and also in district of Galaa al-Nahal where its reserves reach more than 4 million tons (with an extracted fiber ratio equaling 1.75%), (Suleiman, 2010 & Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

Kaolin:

Kaolin or Kaolinite is a clay mineral, with a white colour and high melting degree, besides being the most heat resistant kind of clay. In terms of manufacturing, kaolin is one of natural substance utilized in a lot of industries like papers, paints, plastics, rubbers, ceramics, refractoriness and numerous other usages. But, kaolin is used in these industries after being refined of impurities and highly ground to the point of softness of less than ten microns. Kaolin is found in many districts of Sudan, the more famous of which are Gedarif in eastern Sudan, wadi Almilk in the North West of Sudan and the area extending from Omdurman in the south up to Shendi and west to Atbara on to Marawi area in northern Sudan. Analytically, initial studies along with physical and chemical tests carried out on crude kaolin confirmed that its qualities are suited to several industries found in Sudan such as ceramics materials, refractoriness, and white cement. As well, it can be used in the manufacturing of papers, plastics (where tens of factories in the Sudan are engaged in manufacturing them) and rubbers and paints (14 factories in the Sudan), (Suleiman, 2010 & Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

Bentonite:

Bentonite is found in many locations in Sudan, the significant of which, in terms of economy, is the area of Umm Ali (River Nile State, north to Shendi town) and the vicinity. On the economical side, Bentonite is considered as more important one of the clay minerals. This mineral physically belongs to the montimorllinite group and it is generally has complicated chemical nature which mostly resembles sodium and calcium. There are two types of Bentonite with chemical formation: the first type has sodium element involved within its ingredients and its size multiplies many times, maybe twenty fold, when water is added to it. This kind of Bentonite is known as “sparkling clay” and used in digging wells and casting of metal templates in foundries, etc. As to second type of Bentonite, it cannot swell up during the process of mineralization but can be explored when water is added to it. Chemically, Bentonite is mostly formed of calcium elements, and it is used in whitening oils (Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

Basic minerals and rare earth metals elements:

They include basic minerals and rare earth metals like zinc, lead, aluminum, cobalt, nickel, uranium. Comparatively, zinc is the more important mineral and next only to silver. These minerals can be listed as follows:

  • Zinc is found in areas of Abu Samar, Taquteib hills in the Red Sea, eastern Nuba Mountains and hills of North Kordofan. However, reserves of crude zinc are about 60 million tons with a concentration equaling 3.5%.
  • Lead is found in district of Kutum, North Darfur, and later in South Darfur, North Kordofan and eastern Nuba Mountains.
  • Cobalt is likely explored in the Red Sea and nickel in the Red Sea, Blue Nile and South Kordofan. Similarly, locations of the crude tungsten are confined to Jebel Ayoub, 225 kilometers south west to Port Sudan.
  • Uranium poses the more important mineral of the rare earth metals. This mineral is found in Hufrat al-Nuhas of Darfur, south and west of Kordofan, the Red Sea and Butana as shown in Figure  8 (Metz, 1991).

Agro-minerals:

Agro-minerals are sub-group minerals contributing in feeding and fertilizing the soil or in improving the substratum of the soil. On the another hand, agro-minerals represent some bio-ingredients of agro-fertilizers which normally include the mineral phosphate, in eastern Nuba Mountains and other areas as they also include gypsum and minerals rich with potassium like potash salts, nitrates, dolomite, calcite, limestone, clay, zeolite and mica. These agro-minerals are found in different quantities in Sudan, for example they are found in the Red Sea, River Nile states, South Kordofan, Blue Nile and Darfur. In eastern Nuba Mountains and other districts, reserves of phosphate equal about 400 thousand tons. Normally, agro-minerals, like phosphates, need mineralizing and manufacturing treatments before they can be utilized (Ministry of Minerals, 2015 & Yassin et al, 1984). 

Reserves of Mineral Resources in the Sudan:

Khartoum based Arab Industrial Development and Mining Organization (IDMO) stated that it submitted a detailed report for Sudan’s national authority on 7th October, 2014. The report confirmed that Sudan has enormous reserves of different minerals, particularly gold, chrome and manganese. Furthermore, the same report affirmed that mining sector of Sudan has a potential promising contribution in the economy of the country as shown in Table 1. However, a report issued by mineral resources unit of IDMO, stated in detailed statistics of minerals reserves that there are 700 thousand tons of chrome, 100 thousand tons of manganese, 53 million tons of asbestos, 25 million tons of talc powder, 150 million tons of gypsum and 1.5 million tons of magnesium. The report, along with other accounts, added that the mining sector with both its extractive and transformative branches produced in 2012, 14% of the GDP which then reached up to $9.7 billion US dollars. Additionally, the report stated, that the mining sector has provided new jobs and reduced the level of unemployment, besides developing local communities and improving levels of livelihood and the investment climate in the country (Sudan Tribune, 2014)  as shown in tables 1 and 2, (appendix d 1-4).

 

To encourage investment in this sector, Sudan has struck agreements to assess Sudanese mineral resources. This step encouraged investors from China and other states to invest in strategic Sudanese minerals like diamonds, in eastern, western and central Sudan besides investing in copper and gold, etc. Also, the Sudanese Ministry of Minerals struck a contract with BGS International for the collection of geological data so as to attract foreign investment to the mining sector. To that end, the Ministry signed a three year cooperation agreement with the Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources. Under that contract, the relevant Chinese Ministry would set a program for geochemical studies, assess mineral resources in Sudan and, moreover, geologists would be trained by Chinese experts in Chinese Geological Research Authority (African Development Bank, 2012 and 2013).

 

           Table 8: Areas of reserves and mineralization of iron

           Source: Ministry of Minerals, (2015)

Table 1: Actual growth rate (%) for mining sector and other sectors, 1998 – 2001

 

Item

1998

1999

2000

2001

Agricultural Sector

8.3

8.5

0.7

4.0

Irrigated agriculture

7.5.73

-4.8

7.6

10.2

Mechanized rainfed farming

36.6

47.7

55.7

5.4

Traditional rainfed farming

13.6

24.6

6.0

-12.6

Animals' resources

15.2

8.9

5.6

6.0

Forests

4.0

4.0

5.0

5.0

Industrial sectors

5.7

11.4

46.5

17.3

mining

0.0

125.5

328.2

22.5

Manufacturing industries

4.1

6.0

11.5

12.0

Water and electricity

3.9

2.0

5.5

5.5

Construction

10.0

2.3

3.4

3.5

Service sector

3.1

0.4

1.6

4.2

Government Service

17.5

0.0

2.5

9.8

Other service

0.5

0.5

1.5

3.0

Domestic product (Constant price)

6.0

6.0

2.3

6.1

 

Source: Ministry of Finance and National Economy

Basement complex covers upwards of half the area of Sudan where most of mineral formations with economic value in Africa are found within this basement complex. For this reason and other reasons, Sudan is considered as one of promising states in this field. In this regard, studies which were made on exploration of minerals in Sudan prove that there are economic reserves of a group of minerals though small in comparison of the vast area of Sudan. These minerals are: gold, silver, chromium, iron, copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, almangenaz, tungsten, uranium, gypsum, marble, mica, asbestos, almagnzaat, talc, kaolin, kurtz, sand, feldspar, elkinaat, granite, black sand, natron and salt. Though Sudan is rich with mineral resources, the contribution of these resources to the national economy is still extremely limited, given that Sudan, compared to other African states, is the lowest one in mineralization. And because of the limited financing for mining, Sudan is still lagging behind in relation to exploration of minerals. Nevertheless, extensive and successful efforts by the state during the latest decade of the last century have made prospects of a significant role of mineral resources for the time being as shown in Table 2 (Suleiman, 2010).

     Table 2: Estimated production of minerals in 2012

Amounts in (tons)

Mineral commodity

Number

60

gold

1

7

silver

2

75

chromium

3

200000

crude iron

4

50

crude manganese

5

30000

feldspar

6

100

mica

7

20م2

marble

8

40000

gypsum

9

200000

salt

10

10000

fluorite

11

5000

talc

12

 

   Source: (Ministry of Minerals (2015)

According to the Sudanese Ministry of Minerals (2015), production of gold in the country reached in the year 2014, 34 tons, 29 tons of which were produced through native/traditional mining and the rest of production by companies working in mining. Relatively, native/traditional mining brings about 90% of gold production in the Sudan, the proceeds of which will be for the benefit of native miners. But, unfortunately, most of the production of this sector is smuggled through open borders into neighborly states. Statistically, the number of miners working in native mining and related vocations are about 5 million persons while sites of native mining is disperse throughout more than 800 locations across most of the northern and western states of Sudan. As to exports of gold of the country, they reached more than four billion dollars during last years. However, the more important sites of native mining are as follows:

  • River Nile State (localities of Berber, Abu Hamad, Sidun – and areas of Abeedia, Wadi Al Himar, Wadi Al ‘Ishar, Umm Tarabeesh, Shireik, al-Nigeim and Kuru).
  • Red Sea State (localities of Haya, Ginnab, ‘Uwleib, Durdeib – areas of Bahoura, Wadi Amour, Gabgaba, Tijna, Braitik, Wadi AL Darbakan and Barkatib).
  • Blue Nile State (areas of Jam, Bao, Dering, Kurmuk, Bani Shangul, Jebel Karba and Balqawa).
  • South Kordofan State (Abu Gubeiha locality – Terter Hills, Wakara and Gadeed Abu Nuwara).
  • North Kordofan State (locality of Gabrat ‘AL Sheikh – Sifayya area).
  • States of North and South Darfur.
  • Gedarif State (locality of Galaa al-Nahal).
  • Gezira State (Abu Dileig area) (Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

Except for petroleum which experienced advanced stages of commercial production and manufacturing in Sudan, mining manufacturing represents a low ratio in economic activity which not more than 3% of national income in 2007. However, mining production is confined to building materials (gravel, sand and stone), chromium, gold, silver, limestone, marble, granite, kaolin, magnesite, natron and salt. Compared to global standards, the undiscovered reserve of crude minerals in Sudan is of a small magnitude, given scantiness of investment in searching, exploration and deep detailed studies as shown in table 3 (Suleiman, 2010). 

Mining in Sudan – problems and solutions:  

As far as quality progress is concerned, the mining sector in Sudan has lately boosted up both the national economy and income as shown in Figure 9. Really, this mining sector has added all that thanks to its contribution in Sudanese economy, given that the sector has exploited vast areas which, in total, pose barren deserts or uninhabited foothills or deep seas and rivers. In the circumstances, the mining sector has come to exploit these areas which have long remained untapped and inaccessible to other economic sectors.

In relation to the contribution of the mining sector in socio-economic aspects and poverty alleviation, the number of miners has reached more than a million workers in 2012, besides some mining related activities. On its part, the Central Bank of Sudan bought and exported a quantity of the produced gold to gain its proceeds of hard currencies for meeting the requirements of the country. Economically, production and the exportation of gold and other minerals of Sudan represent a real diversification of economic activity in the country. This production was started by transference of new experiences and technologies through engagement of foreign companies in mining, besides the importation of new sophisticated tools such as a gold refinery which the Ministry of Minerals installed and operated, along with exploration apparatuses to unearth and extract minerals. Furthermore, production of minerals provides important inputs for new industries in the country, though introduction of these inputs is so far unclear (Ministry of Minerals, 2015) (Abdel Rahim, 2013).

Table 3: Sudan production of minerals, 2004 – 2008

 

Mineral

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Cement/ton

307100

331200

202200

354200

330000

chromite /ton

26000

21654

28772

15476

15000

Gold/kg

5000

3625

3158

2703

2276

Gypsum/ton

11000

9000

7000

7974

8000

Kaolin

-

-

11641

27846

28000

Manganese ore/ton

-

-

400

400

 Na

marble

24000

24000

26000

26000

26000

Magnisite

-

-

-

-

1500

      

 

        Source: USGS (2008)

Figure 9: contribution of mining sector in national production

Source: Bedawi 2009

Contribution of minerals to the gross national production didn’t exceed 2% before 2015, but retraction of oil manufacturing due to separation of South Sudan made the concerned ministry think search for new or further resources, particularly in the mining sector. As a result, successes made by native/traditional mining along with the constitution of a related ministry raised production of gold through the years 2009 – 2011 and, thus, the ratio of the contribution of mining sector has greatly increased to the extent that exports of minerals, particularly gold, reached 70% of Sudan exports in July, 2012, i.e. upwards of 43 tons of crude gold. Comparatively, this magnitude of production represents a significant increase in the sector growth rate reaching more than 215%, knowing that prospects of production for the year 2016 may reach 100 tons (Ministry of Minerals, 2015).

In the year 2010, the contribution of the transformative industries sector to GDP was 11%, oil was 7.5% and mining and quarrying was 0.5%. While oil and crude oil decreased by 5.1%, compared with the year 2009, increase ratios of minerals value was as follows: production in mining and extractive industries was 9.3%, chromium 303%, salt 296%, cement 240%, gold 76%, silver 53%, mica 90%, kaolin 11% and manganese also greatly increased. Meanwhile, value of exports reached $9,410 million US dollars or 82% of the total exports, export of gold 9% and oil products 3% (Bank of Sudan, 2011 & US Congress Library, 2011).

 

Ironically, these successes and structural transformations in the social and economic role of the mining sector have put this sector before several challenges, some of which are:

* Economic, social, health, security and environmental problems caused by native mining.

* Regularize and develop this sector and reconcile it with mining activity of companies, given the approval of the state to these companies to practice mining as long as they adopt scientific and technological approach and add a value to producers and communities.

* Increasing the number of native miners at the expense of manpower in other sectors, particularly in the agricultural sector.

* Complicated problems concerning licenses of micro-mining.

* Control investing companies that gained concessions of large blocks of mining, besides following up the different phases of their mining activities up to stage of production.

* Protection of mining companies against infringements of contracts, attraction of expertise and acceleration of production.

* Grand companies need to concede additional lands to be allocated for native miners.

* Improve and control buying prices, in coordination with Bank of Sudan, to stop smuggling production of native mining.

* Employment of better technologies to multiply extraction of gold from rocks and soil so that the ratio of the mineral may reach, at least, more than 60% instead of the current ratio of 30%.

Conclusion:

To conclude, the article points toward the following points:

  • Develop and maintain structures of Ministry of Minerals and its specialized units like the geological research authority and strike agreements, encourage investment for studying, assessing and extracting mineral resources and train geologists and workers who engage in the mining sector and related sectors.
  • At mining workshop organized by Ministry of Minerals, participants agreed that mineralization represents the future of the Sudan in the forthcoming stage as it represents its strategic and structural project for supporting other socio-economic sectors and activities such as agriculture, livestock, industry and external trade.
  • According to reports of IMF, Sudan will be listed as the fifteenth country among large state producers of gold in the world and the third one in Africa, given accelerated growth of Sudan mining of gold during the last century.
  • Sudanese authorities reckon that native or traditional mining employs approximately one million active workers in the gold mining sector, that is to say about 11% of the total manpower market.
  • There are a number of laws set to regulate mining like law for development of mineral resources and mining for 2007. This law includes a regulation for controlling native mining of gold and the way this kind of mining observe environmental safety within its domain and rules of labour law concerning engagement of women and children with mining.
  • It is inevitable to develop studies and researches of mining to serve the practical research in the field of mining and its different technologies. Moreover, the studies and research can deliver data to decision makers and investors, publicize other minerals and encourage treatment and manufacturing of minerals at home.  

    Appendixes:

    Appendix (A): trends/direction of changes of selected macroeconomic variables (2004 –2013)

     

    Indicator

    Average Trend/ Direction of Change in the indicator

    2004-2007

    2008-2010

    2011-2013

    2013

    Real Sector and Prices

    Overall GDP

    Growth

    Strong increase

    (9.3)

    Increased at a

    Declining rate (5.3)

    Steep decline albeit

    In a low positive

    temitory (2.1)

    Slight increase (2.6)

    Agriculture Growth

    Modest increase

     (7-2)

    Modestly

    Increasing Trend

    Declining (5-7)

    Increased declining

    Trend (3-6)

    Increased declining

    Trend (3)

    Industry Growth

    Steep increase

    (14-3)

    Increased

    Declining

    Trend (4-2)

    Steep drop in the negative temitory

    (7-5)

    Recovering (2.3)

    Services Growth

    Steep increase

    (8-6)

    Modest

    Increase (7-4)

    Flat (0)

    Recovering (2.8)

    Structure of the Economy: sector share in GDP:

    Agriculture

    Decline (34)

    Almost flat (35)

    Almost Flat (34)

    Flat (34)

    Industry

    Increase (oil factor)

    (23)

    Increasing at a

    Decreasing rate

     (24)

    Decreasing trend

    (19.5)

    Flat (20.4)

    Service

    Increase (44)

    Almost flat (42)

    Increase (47)

    Almost flat (46.5)

    Per Capita Real

    GDP Growth

    Steep Increase

    (25.5)

    Marginal

    Increase (1.1)

    Steep Decline (-12.1)

    Steep decline

     (-13.0)

    General Inflation

    Increased at

    Declining rate (8)

    Increase (13)

    Steep Increase (29)

    Increasing at

    Declining rate (25.6)

    Fiscal Sector:

    Domestic Revenue

    As % of GDP

    Increasing (16)

    Flat (15.9)

    Declining Trend (12)

    Declining (11.5)

    Oil Revenue as %

    Of GDP

    Increase (7.1)

    Increasing

    Trend (8.9)

    Steep Declining

    Trend (3)

    Declining Trend

    (2.7)

    Non-Oil Revenue

    As % of GDP

    Increasing (9.0)

    Almost flat (7.0)

    Increase (9.0)

    Almost flat (8.8)

    Public Expenditure

    Increase (16.9)

    Almost flat (16.6)

    Declining Trend (15)

    Declining Trend (14)

     

     

    Economic activities

    1993

     

     

    2004

     

     

    2008

    2008

    M

    W

    MW

    M

    W

    MW

    M

    W

    MW

    M

    W

    Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing

    38.79%

    21.94%

    60.74%

    32.6

    18.46

    51.08

    32.57%

    16.00%

    48.56%

    48.13%

    49.48%

    Industry

    9.09%

    0.56%

    9.74%

    7.63

    1

    8.19

    6.92%

    0.73%

    7.65%

    10.22%

    2.27%

    Manufacturing

    4.81%

    0.54%

    5.35%

    4.04

    0.46

    4.5

    3.09%

    0.43%

    3.52%

    4.57%

    1.32%

    Services

    23.51%

    4.53%

    28.04%

    19.61

    4

    23

    24.29%

    7.26%

    31.55%

    35.90%

    22.45%

    Activities not adequately defined or classified

    1.07%

    0.41%

    1.49%

    0.64

    0.56

    1.2

    2.89%

    8.34%

    12.24%

    5.75%

    25.80%

    Total

    72.46%

    27.54%

    100.00%

    60.48%

    24.02%

    83.47%

    67.67%

    32.33%

    100.00%

    100.00%

    100.00%

     

     

    Table 2.2

     

     

    Structure of Sudan economy

    GDP

     

    Balance of trade

     

    (share of sectors in GDP)

     

    Year

     

    Total

    Growth

    rate

    Per

    capita

    Per capita

    Growth rate

    Inflation

    rate

    Unemployment

    rate

    Exchange

    rate

    Balance of payment

     

    Exports

     

    Imports

     

    Balance

     

    Agriculture

     

    Industry

     

    Services

    1990

    244.7

    4.5

    47.7

    0

    41

    14.2

    0.45

    -76.1

    374

    618.4

    -244.4

    30.3

    15.4

    54.4

    1991

    276.8

    7.5

    81

    69.8

    62.7

     

    0.69

    -101.3

    308.7

    890.3

    -581.6

    28.7

    17.6

    53.9

    1992

    4.327.8

    6.5

    17.2

    -78/8

    105.4

     

    9.7

    -58.1

    319.3

    820.9

    -501.6

    33.7

    49.1

    49.1

    1993

    5.862.1

    4.5

    37.6

    118.4

    115

    10.3

    16.1

    37.3

    417.3

    944.9

    -527.6

    37.9

    17.4

    44.5

    1994

    6351.2

    1

    72.5

    92.7

    96.3

     

    29.6

    17.9

    535.6

    1.059.6

    -524

    40.1

    16.4

    43.5

    1995

    9.880.7

    5.9

    151.7

    109.4

    177.2

     

    55.9

    -58.1

    555.7

    1.184.8

    -629.1

    43.1

    15.8

    41.1

    1996

    8.259.3

    5.9

    375.9

    147.7

    76.3

    14.3

    125

    -63.9

    620.3

    1.504.5

    -884.2

    44.9

    14.5

    40.6

    1997

    10.684.8

    6.3

    563.7

    50

    52.6

    18.1

    156.9

    -36.2

    594.2

    1.421.9

    -827.7

    47.6

    15.1

    37.2

    1998

    11.513.7

    6.4

    743.7

    319

    28.2

    15.1

    198.8

    25.1

    594.7

    1.732.2

    -1136.5

    48.6

    15

    36.2

    1999

    10.325

    6.7

    892.3

    20

    6.4

    15.7

    252

    111.5

    780.1

    1.256.2

    -476.1

    49.8

    15.8

    34.4

    2000

    11.242.2

    8

    1.083.1

    21.4

    8.5

    15.2

    257.2

    81.5

    1.807

    1.553

    254

    46.4

    21.4

    32.2

    2001

    12.596.5

    6.6

    1.274.0

    17.6

    4.8

    15.0

    257.3

    -90.04

    1.547

    90

    45.6

    22.8

    31.6

    31.6

    2002

    3.924

    6.5

    1.457.4

    14.4

    8.3

    15.8

    236

    198.72

    1.949

    -230.11

    46

    23.2

    30.9

    30.9

    2003

    4.549

    6

    1.656.4

    13.7

    7.7

    16.3

    261

    422.6

    2.542.2

    6.07

    44

    24.1

    30.3

    30.3

    2004

    5.278

    7.2

    1.991.2

    20.2

    8.5

    16.3

    258

    730.2

    3.777.75

    191.57

    40

    28.0

    32.0

    32.0

    2005

    6.283

    8

    2.421.2

    21.6

    8.5

    16.2

    245.6

    530.5

    4.824.3

    -121.7

    39.0

    28.0

    32.0

    32.0

    2006

    22.217

    10.0

    2.719.0

    12.3

    7.2

    17.3

    2.0248

    -208.6

    5.656.6

    -1.4481.1

    36.8

    27.5

    35.7

    35.7

    2007

    22.21

    10.5

    3.059.2

    12.5

    8.1

    19.4

    2.0308

    -282

    8.879.2

    7.722.4

    1.156.8

    35.3

    30.6

    34.1

    2008

    26.03

    7.8

    3.262.6

    6.6

    14.3

    20.7

    2.09

    21.1

    11.670.5

    8.299.4

    3.441.1

    29.3

    29.2

    41.5

    2009

    27.63

    6.1

     

     

    11.2

     

    2.32

    -502.2

    7.822.7

    8.528.0

    -694.3

    31.1

    23.9

    45.0

     

     

    Commodity

     

    Major operating companies

    Location of main facilities

    Annual capacity

    Cement

     

    Atbara company Ltd.(Lafarge Group of France and Croup of Sudan)

    Plant at Atbara

    400,000.

    DO.

     

    Nile  Cement company(Government.100%)

    Plant at Rabak

    100,000

    Chromite

     

    Ingessana Hills Mines Corp

    Mine at Ingessana Hills

    48,000.

     

     

    Elneelain Works Co.

    NA

    NA.

    Cold

    Kilograms

     

    CompagineMiniere or (Government of sudan,60%

    .and Ariab mining  company Ltd.(AMC),40%}

    Mines  at Hassai

    5,000.

    Gypsum

     

    Sudanese mining Corp .(Government.100%)

    BirEit Mine

    15,000.

    Limestone

     

    Atbara Cement  company Ltd

    Mine at Atbara

    500,000

    DO.

     

     Nile Cement  company

    Mine at Rabak

    200.000

    Mica

     

    Sudanese mining Corp (Government.100%)

    Sheriek Mines

    1,800

    Petroleum:

     

    Crude             

    Thousand barrels

    Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Co.(GNPOC) (China National  Petroleum Corp.( GNPOC),40%;petronas Carigali Overseas Shd ., 25% Sudan Petroleum company Ltd.(Sudapet),5%)

     

    Block I,EIToor. Tooma South,

    and Unity Fields;BlockIA,

    Khairat and  Munga Fields;Block2,Graand Heglig field

    (Barki, Hamra, Heglig,Kanga

    laioba .Rihan,andToma

     Fields) ;Block2A,Bamboo

     and Garaad Fields; Block4

    Diffra  Fields.

    120,000

    DO.

    do.

    Petrodar Consortium {China National Petroleum Corp.,

    (CNPC) 14%; Petronas Carigli Overseas She. Bhd., 40%;

    Sudan Petroleum Company Ltd. (Sudapet), 8%; Gulf

    Petroleum Company of Qatar, 6%; Al-Thani Group, 5%}

    Blocks 3and 7

    3,800.

    DO.

    do.

    China National Petroleum Corp.

    Block (Fula Field)

    3.650.

    Refined

    do.

    Khartoum Oil Refinery {China National Petroleum Corp.

    (CNPC), 50%, and Sudan Petroleum Corp., 50%)

     Refinery at Jali

    33,000.

    DO.

    do.

    Port Sudan Refining Ltd. (Government, 100%)

    Refinery at port Sudan

    93Liquefied  petroleum gas;1,014gasoline;

    898kerosene;2,499diesel fuel.4.154residual fueloil;

    458naphtha

    DO.

    do.

    Government

    Refinery at El obeid

    3,700.

    DO.

    do.

    Concorp Ltd

    Refinery at  shajirah

    3,700.

    DO.

    do.

    Government

    Refinery at abu Jabra

    370.

    Steel:

     

    Crude

     

    Sudan master Technology

    Plant at Giad Industrial City

    60,000.

    Rebar

     

    do.

    do.

    150,000.

    Galvanized

     

    Sudanese Malaysian Co.

    NA

    8,000.

    DO.

     

    Hafez el Barbary

    NA

    7.000.

    NA Not available.

     

     

     

    SUDAN; STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN2010

    (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)

    Commodity

    Major operating companies

    Location of main facilities

    Annual capacity

    Cement

    Atbara Cement company Ltd.( Subsidiary of AL-Rajhi Group)

    Plant at Atbara

    1,900,000

    DO.

     ASEC Cement co.(Subsidiary of Citadel Capital S.A.E.)

    Plant atTakamol

    1,600,000

    DO.

     Barber Cement company Ltd.

    Plant at Barber

    1,600,000

    DO.

    Mass Global Investment co

    Plant at Atbara

    1,500,000

    DO.

    Nile Cement company Ltd.

    Plant at Rabak

    1,500,000

    DO.

    Al-salam Cement prodctioncoLtd

    Plant at Atbara

    600,000

    Chromite

    Ingessana Hills Mines Corp

    Mine at Ingessana Hills

    48,000

    Gold                         Kilograms

    Gamoagnie Miniere Or(Government of Sudan 56%and La Mancha Resources ine,.40%)

    Mine at Hassai

    5,000

    Gypsum                          

    Sudanese mining Corp(Govermment of100%)

    BirEit Mine in Red sea stat

    15,000

    Limestone

    AL-slamal Cement production  Co .ltd

    NA

    730,000 e

    DO.                          

    AL-Rahji Corp

    Mine atAtbara

    500,000

    DO.

    Nile Cement company ltd

    Mine at Rabak

    200,000

    Mica

    Sudanese mining Corp(Government of100%)

    Mine at Sheriek

    1,800

    Petroleum: 

     

     

     

    Crude             thousand  42-gallon    Barrels

    Petrodar consortium (China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC),41%and sudan Petroleum  Corp;50%)

    Block3,and7inUpper Nile State

    110,000

    DO.               do.

    Greater Nile Petroleum operating Co.(CNPC) ;40%);petronas Garigali Overseas Shd;Bhd;30%ONGC videsh Ltd ;25%;Sudan Petroleum

    Block1,2and4inU2ity Nile State

    55,000

    DO.                         do.

    Chaina National petroleum Corp(CNPC)

    Block6near muglad

    26,000

    DO.                  do.  

    White Nile petroleum operating Co,( petroleum Carigaliovereas Shd.Bhd.,68,6%ONGC videsk Ltd.,24.1%,Sudan petroleum Company Ltd.(Sudapet),7%

    Block5AUnity State

    22,000

    Refinddo.

    Khartoum oil  Refinery((China National  Petroleum Corp.(CNPC),50%and sudan Petroleum  Corp;50%)

    Refinery at Jali

    36,500

    DO.do.

    Port Sudan  Refinery  Ltd(Government Sudan100 %)

    Refinery at port Sudan

    7,900

    salt

    Sudan salt Co

    Main at port Sudan

    45,000e

    DO.

    Ba,bound  salt Co.

    do.

    30,000e

    DO.

    Prison salt Works(Government 100 %)

    Mines at port Sudan and Steel

    NA

    Steel

     

    Crud

    Sudan master technology

    Plant at Gaid Industrial city

    60.000

    Rebar

    do.

    do.

    150,000

    DO.

    Sundanese Steel products Ltd. (Subsidiary of Hafez ElsayedBarbary Ltd.)

    Plant at Khartoum

    150.000

    Galvanized

    do.

    Do.

    20,000

    Estimated. NA Not available.

     

    SUDAN; STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN2012

    (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)

    Commodity

    Major operating companies

    Location of main facilities

    Annual capacity

    Cement

    Atbara Cement company Ltd.( Subsidiary of AL-Rajhi Group)

    Plant at Atbara

    1,800,000

    DO.

     ASEC Cement co.(Subsidiary of Citadel Capital S.A.E.)

    Plant atTakamol

    1,600,000

    DO.

    Barber Cement company Ltd.

    Plant at Barber

    1,600,000

    DO.

    AslanCement co

    NA

    1,500,000 e

     

    Al-shamal Cement factory(Mass Global Investment Co.)

    Plant at Atbara

    1,500,000

    DO.

     Nile Cement company Ltd

    Plant at Aabak

    1,500,000

    DO.

    Al-salam Cement production co Ltd

    Plant at Atbara

    600,000

    Chromite

    Ingessana Hills Mines Corp

    Mine at Ingessana Hills

    48,000

    Gold           

    Mine                          Kilograms

    Artisanal miners

     

    Various sites

    45,000 e

    DO.                                    do.

    GamoagnieMiniereOr(Government of Sudan 56%and La Mancha Resources ine,.40%)

    Mine at Hassai

    2,000

    Refind                              do.        

    Government of Sudan

    Refinery at Khartoum

    328,000

    Gypsum

    Sudanese mining Corp(Government of100%)

    BirEit Mine in READ Sea state

    15,000

    Limestone

    AL-salam Cement prouductionCo.ltd

    Mine River Nile State

    730,000 e

    DO.

    AL-Rahji Corp

    Mine at Atbara

    500,000

    DO.

    Nile Cement company ltd

    Mine at Rabak

    200,000

    Mica

    Sudanese mining Corp(Government of100%)

    Mine at Sheriek

    1,800

    Petroleum: 

     

     

     

     

    Crude             thousand  42-gallon    Barrels

    China National Petroleum Corp;95%)

    Block 6near Muglad

    21,600

    DO.                                  do.

    Greater Nile Petroleum operating Co.(CNPC) ;40%);petronas Garigali Overseas Shd;Bhd;30%ONGC Ltd ;25%;Sudan Petroleum

    Block1.2,and4inUnity State

    17,700

    DO.                                   do.

    Star oil Co.(Ansan Wikfs Investments Ltd;66%and sudan Petroleum  Corp;34%)

    Block17 in South khordofan State

    5,500

    Refind                                do.  

    Khartoum oil  Refinery((China National  Petroleum Corp.(CNPC),50%and sudan Petroleum  Corp;50%)

    Refinery at port Sudan

    36,500

    DO.                                   do.

    Portsudan  Refinery  Ltd(Government Sudan100 %)

    Refinery at Jali

    9,100

    DO.                                   do.

    El-obeid Refinery  company(Government Sudan100 %)

    Refinery at         port Sudan     

    5,500

    Salt                         

    Bittar salt company Ltd.(Subsidiary of El-nilein Holding CO.)

    Refinery at    EL_Obeid

    100,000

    DO.

    Sudan salt CO.

                Mine at   port Sudan

    45,000e

    DO.

    Ba,boud salt CO.

    do.

    30,000e

    Silver, refined                 Kilograms

    Government of Sudan

    do.

    73,000

    Steel

     

     

     

    Crude

    Sudan master technology

    Plant at Giad Industrial City

    60,000

    Rebar

    do.

    do.

    150,000

    DO.

    Sudanese Steel products Ltd. (Subsidiary of Hafez Elsayed Barbary Ltd.)

    Plant at Khartoum

    150,000

    Galvanized

    do.

    do.

    20,000

     

    Estimated ,Dol;Do.Ditto.NA Not available .

    In addition  to the facilities listed,about 1.8 million barrels per year of crude Petroleum in the Abyei Area ,which was chaimed by both sout sudan and sudan .

    Bamboo , Bamboo West,Garaad,Heglig,Taiyib,and Toma oilfields only.prior to July 9,2011,capacity was 47 million barrels  per year and included the El-Haar,the El-Nar,the El-Haar-the El-Toor,the Khairat,the KhairatNortheast ,the Toma South ,and south ,and the unity oilfields,Which became part of south Sudan.

    TABLE 1

    SUDAN: PRODUCTION OF MINERAL COMMODITES

    Commodity2

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    Cement, hydraulic

    Metric tons

    189,500

    204,800

    271,900

    307,100

    280,000

    Chromite, mineoutput, gross weight3

    do.

    20,500

    14,000

    37,000

    26,000

    26,000

    Gold,mainoutput,Au content5

    Kilograms

    5,417

    5,239

    5,106

    5,000e

    4,7284

    Gypsum

    Metric tons

    2,422

    4,540

    13,304

    14,000e

    14,000

    Marble

    Cubic meters

    15,500

    22,000

    22,000

    22,000e

    22,000

    Petroleum:

    Cude,including lease condensate

    thousand  42- gallon Barrels

    77,755

    87,759

    103,400

    118,000

    120,000

    Refinery prducts:

    Liquefied petroleum gas

    Gasolin

    do.

    7,183 r

    7,456 r

    7,318 r

    8,109 r

    8,200

    Naphtha

    do.

    198

    301

    260

    248 r

    250

    Jet fuel

    do.

    910

    1,339

    1,236

    1,562 r

    6,660

    Kerosene

    do.

    230

    259

    282

    294 r

    300

    Distillate fuel oil

    do.

    7,198 r

    7,631 r

    8,241 r

    9,708 r

    9,800

    Residal fuel oil

    do.

    1,656

    1,991

    2,503

    2,444 r

    2,500

    Total

    do.

    19,868 r

    21,861 r

    22,498 r

    25,600 r

    26,000

    Salt

    Metric tons

    77,783

    83,340

    61,096

    62,000 r

    62,000

    Silver

    Kilograms

    1,598

    3,256

    2,844

    2,900 r

    2,900

    Steel,semi manufactured

    Metric tons

    42,785

    53,035

    63,936

    35,740 r

    36,000

     

    Estimated data are rounded to no more than three significant digits, may not add to totals shown .Revised..

    1Table includes data available through November30,2006

    2In addition to the commodities listed, the following are presumably produced although available information is inadequate to estimate output clay and/or shale for cement manufacture(normally about 0.4metric ton of clay and /or shale per metric ton of finished cement),limestone for cement manufacture (no cementmally at least 1.25 metric ton of finished cement), agriculture, lime manufacture, and construction aggregate and fill, other constructions materials (clay, and  gravel, stone, and others for local use),and mica

    3presumed to be ores and concentrates with an estimated average grade of about 54% chromic oxide.

    Source: Yager (2007)

    Appendix (D-2): Sudan production of mineral commodities (in metric ton –orexplained otherwise) 2006 – 2010

    SUDAN: PRODUCTION OF MINERAL COMMODITES

    (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)

    Commodity2

    2006                       

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2010

    Cement lydraulic

    202.200

    326.200

    246.500

    621.700

    2.112.600

    Chromite , mine output gross weight3

    28.772

    15.476

    27.094

    14.087

    56.823

    Gold mine output Au content                                                   Kilograms

    6.216

    6.049

    7.508

    14.914

    26.317

    Gypsum

    7.000

    7.974

    12.705

    30.000

    31.000

    Kaolin

    11.641

    27.846

    87.151

    36.799

    32.696

    Manganese ore

     

    400

     

    500

    378.990

    Marble    cubic meters

    12.000

    6.000

    1.6000

     

    16

    Mica

    NA

    NA

    66

    100

    10

    Petroleum

     

     

     

     

     

    Crude, including leasecondensate thousand 42- gallon barrels

    132.738

    176.574

    168.898

    173.453

    168.656

    Refinery products:

     

     

     

     

     

    Liquefied petroleum gas                                                                   do.

    3.742

    3.587

    3.332

    3.915

    3.798

    Gasoline     do

    9.717

    10.279

    9.244

    9.488

    10593

    Naphtha                                                                                            do

    216

    170

    219

    207

    180

    Jet fuel do

    1.445

    929

    836

    981

    1.059

    Kerosene do

    320

    239

    251

    240

    196

    Dislilate fuel oil                                                                               do

    13.554

    15.410

    13.903

    19.115

    17.489

    Residual fuel oil                                                                               do

    2.566

    4.175

    4.534

    2.108

    1.732

    Petroleum coke                                                                                 do

    --

    --

    1,632

    1,713

    1,774

            Total

    31.560

    34.789

    1.632

    1.713

    1.774

    Salt

    11.638

    22.922

    33.951

    37.767

    36.821

    Silver                                                                                          Kilograms

    2.437

    2.405

    10.581

    35.793

    141.840

    Steel semi manufactured

    67.000

    67.000

    --

    413

    631

    Talc

    216

    2.620

    4.667

    67.000

    67.000

    1Table includes data available though January12,2012

    2In addition to the commodities listed, the following are presumably produced although available information is inadequate to estimate output clay and/or shale for cement manufacture(normally about 0.4metric ton of clay and /or shale per metric ton of finished cement),limestone for cement manufacture (no cementmally at least 1.25 metric ton of finished cement), agriculture, lime manufacture, and construction aggregate and fill, other constructions materials (clay, and gravel, stone, and others for local use).

    SUDAN: PRODUCTOIN OF MINERAL COMMOD

    Commodity2

    2008                       

    2009

    2010

    2011

    2012

    Cement hydraulic

    246.500

    621.700

    1.929.700

    3.002.300

    3.476.600

    Chromite , mine output gross weight3

    27.094

    14.087

    56.823

    64.128

    18.300

     Gold mine output AuCONTENT     KILOGRAMS

    7.508

    14.914

    26317

    23.739

    46.133

    Feldspar

    NA

    --

    923

    9,519

    26,283

    Gypsum

    12.705

    36.799

    31.000

    13.000

    117.073

    Kaolin    

    87.151

    500

    32.696

    15.096

    1157

    Manganese ore

    --

    500

    --

    --

    --

    Marble  square meter

    1.600

    --

    1.625

    1.214

    115

    Mica

    60

    100

    10

    378

    324

    Petroleum:

     

     

     

     

     

    Grude, including leasecondensate thousand 42- gallon barrels

    168.598

    173.453

    168.656

    106,216

    37737

    Refinery products:

     

     

     

     

     

    Liquefied petroleum gas                                                                      do.

     

    3.915

    3.798

     

    3.515

     

    3.332

    9.488

    10.593

    106.216

    9381

    Gasoline     do

    219

    207

    180

    3.617

    71

    Jet fuel do

    836

    981

    1.059

    9.811

    1.068

    Kerosene do

    251

    240

    196

    177

    62

    Dislilate fuel oil

    13.903

    19.115

    17.489

    1.062

    14.669

    Residual fuel oil 

    4.534

    2.108

    1.732

    186

    663

     Petroleum fuel oil

    1.632

    713

    1.774

    15.460

    1.477

    Total

    33.951

    37.767

    36.821

    1.571

    30906

     Salt

    10.581

    35793

    141.840

    33.714

    26.315

    Silver

     

    413

    631

    10.791

    650

    Steel semi manufactured

    350.000

    380.000

    400.000

    650

    400.000

    Tale

    4.667

    1.167

     

    400.000

     

    Estimated data  are rounded to no more than  three significant digits may  not add to total shown revised do ditto31/2013

    1Table includes data available through October 31, 2013

    2In addition to the commodities listed, the following are presumably produced although available information is inadequate to estimate output clay and/or shale for cement manufacture(normally about 0.4metric ton of clay and /or shale per metric ton of finished cement),limestone for cement manufacture (no cementmally at least 1.25 metric ton of finished cement), agriculture, lime manufacture, and construction aggregate and fill, other constructions materials (clay, and gravel, stone, and others for local use).

    Source: Yager (2014)

    SUDAN;STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN2012

    (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)

    Commodity

    Major operating companies

    Location of main facilities

    Annual capacity

    Cement

    Atbara Cement company Ltd.( Subsidiary of AL-Rajhi Group)

    Plant at Atbara

    1,800,000

    DO.

     ASEC Cement co.(Subsidiary of Citadel Capital S.A.E.)

    Plant atTakamol

    1,600,000

    DO.

     Barber Cement company Ltd.

    Plant at Barber

    1,600,000

    DO.

    Aslan Cement company Ltd

    NA

    1,500,000

    DO.

    Al-shamal  Cement company Ltd

    Plant at Barber

    1,500,000

    DO.

    Nile Cement company Ltd.

    Plant at Rabak

    1,500,000

    DO.

    Al-salam Cement production co Ltd

    Plant at Atbara

    600,000

    Chromite

    Ingessana Hills Mines Corp

    Mine at Ingessana Hills

    48,000

    Gold Kilograms

     

     

     

    Mine

    Artisanal Miners

    Various sites

    45,000

    DO.

    GamoagnieMiniereOr(Govermment of sudan 56%and La Mancha Resoures ine,.40%)

    Mine at Hassai

    2,000

    Refind

    (Government of Sudan

    Refinery at Khartoum

    328,000

    Gypsum

    Sudanese Mining Corp. (Government of sudan,100%)

    BirEit Mine in Red sea stat

    15,000

    Limestone

    Al-salam Cement production co Ltd

    Mine in River Nile Stat

    730,000

    DO.

    Al-Rajhi Group

    Mine at Atbara

    500,000

    DO.

    Nile Cement company Ltd.

    Mine at Rabak

    200,000

    Mica

    Sudanese Mining   Crop(Government of sudan,100%)

    Mines at sheriek

    1,800

    Petroleum: 

     

     

     

    Crude             thousand  42-     gallon    Barrels

    China National petroleum Corp,.95%

    Block6nearMuglad

    21,600

    DO.                                  do.  

    Greater Nile Petroleum operating Co.(CNPC) ;40%);petronasGarigali Overseas Shd;Bhd;30%ONGC videsh Ltd ;25%;sudan Petroleum

    Blocks1,2and4Unity stste2

     

    17,700

    DO.                                  do.  

    Star Oil Co. (Ansan WikfsInvesmeents Ltd66%and Sudan petroleum Corp.,34%)

    Block 17in south kordofan state

    5,500

    Refind                                do.  

    Khartoum oil  Refinery((China National  Petroleum Corp.(CNPC),50%and Sudan Petroleum  Corp;50%)

    finery at Jali

    36,500

    DO.                                   do.

    Port Sudan Refining Ltd.( Government ofSudan100%)

    finery at port Sudan

    9,100

    DO.                                   do.

    EI-obeid Refining Ltd

    (Government of Sudan100%)

    finery at El-obeid

    5,500

    Salt

    Bittar Salt Company Ltd.(subsidiary of El-Nilein Holding Co)

    main at port Sudanese

    100,000

    DO.                                 

    Sudan Salt Co

    Do

    45,000e

    DO.                                 

    Ba boud Salt Co

    Do

    30,000e

    Silver  refind  kilogram

    Government of Sudan

    Refinery at Khartoum

    73,000

    Steel;

    crude

    Sudan Master Technology

    Plant at Giad Industrial City

    60,000

    Rebar

    do.

    do.   

    150,000

    DO.

    Sudanese Steel products Ltd. (Subsidiary of Hafez Elsayed Barbary Ltd.)

    Plant at Khartoum

    150,000

    Galvanized

    do.

    do.   

    20,000

    Estimated, Do,do, and ditto .NA not available.

    1In addition to the facilities listed, about 1.8 million barrels per year of crude Petroleum in the Abyei Area ,which was chaimed by both south sudan and sudan.

    2Bamboo , Bamboo  West,Garaad,Heglig,Taiyib,and Toma oilfields only.prior to July 9,2011,capacity was 47 million barrels  per year and included the El-Haar,the El-Nar,the El-Haar-the El-Toor,the Khairat,the Khairat Northeast ,the Toma South ,and  south ,and the unity oilfields,Which became part of south Sudan.

    Source: Yager (2014)

     

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