Republic of the Sudan: location, political borders, administrative division and important towns

Sun, 09 Apr 2017



Dr. Ali Mohammed Isa Salih

Abstract:
The study addresses both astronomical and geographical locations of Sudan along with its political borders, administrative division and important towns. However, for collecting data, the researcher depended on a number of sources of published and unpublished books and researches, scientific papers, periodicals, formal reports and the online (Internet) locations of the states. The paper focuses on using maps as a more effective tool to reflect facts on the ground, besides population survey which depends on population census, geometric projections of statistics department and other sources certified by the state. The study highlights the importance of the geographical location of Sudan at both international and regional levels, as this location has an impact on the extension of geographical areas, varieties of vegetation, climatic regions and the diversity of natural resources. Besides, the paper discusses political borders with neighborly nations. Noticeably, these borders were demarcated under international agreements and protocols during the period of English colonialism, from 1899, which overlooked national will and participation. In the first place, the demarcation of the borders was carried out on maps without observance for humanitarian and ethnical realities on the ground. The process of border demarcation was even left for international joint committees which were tasked with tackling border flashpoints which could only be settled by referring to the international recognized agreement and consensus of neighborly nations.
On another hand, the study highlights developments of administrative divisions of local government through all periods of the united Sudan since Turkish-Egyptian rule which had ranged between absolute centralization and restricted decentralization up to the establishment of a federal government. In the process, administrative divisions of states and localities were drawn up and important towns of the Sudan were defined.

• Historical term of Sudan
• Astronomical and geographical location
• Political borders
• Administrative division of Sudan
• Current administrative division of federal government and important towns
• Sources and References

Historical term of Sudan:
The term “Sudan” was used both historically and ethnically to refer to the extensive region of the Africa continent that extends from Mediterranean coast southwards up to a distance not far from the circle of the Equator. Then latitudeinaly extending from the Red Sea coast westwards to West of Africa and the Atlantic coast
The world had, for so long, known the term “Sudan” to connote the black skin of the people who lived in the northern region of Africa, i.e. Abyssinia. However, this designation had historically appeared in different forms, the eldest of which was the kingdom of Kush, an old pre-Pharaonic Egyptian designation attributed to one of the Prophet Noah’s offspring whose sons were all of black skin. Noah’s descendants were said to have lived in the eastern parts of Sudan and, of late, the designation was developed into the term “Abyssinia” which referred to the people who used to live in the farthest southern domains of the Greek civilization, south of the Mediterranean, which were identified with Sudan, Ethiopia and Eretria of the current day (Saudi, 1983). During the period before Christ, this land was known as Nubia over which the Nubian kingdoms of Napata and Meroe had succeeded till they demised upon the emergence of Islam in the 4th century. Eventually, the sketch of Sudan, with its current united geographical borders, appeared during Mohammed Ali Pasha’s suzerainty, 1821; see al Naqar (2005). From then on, Sudan had continued to be a united nation till the separation of South Sudan under the Naivasha peace agreement.
Astronomical and geographical location:
The Republic of Sudan lies in the north eastern part of the African continent between the longitudes (21° 49´) to (38° 34´) east and latitudes (8° 45´) to (230 8') north of Equator. Out of the total area of the land, the River Nile basin poses 67.4%. By and large, the area of Sudan equals 1,882,000 square kilometers (see al-Tom, 2004), an area that puts it as one of the largest states in Africa, second only to the Republic of Algeria. As compared to Arab states in area, Sudan is the third largest Arab state after Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Algeria and the 16th overall in the world.
Sudan has long borders with seven neighboring states. It is bordered to the north by the Arab Republic of Egypt, to the north west by Libyan Republic, to the south by the state of South Sudan, to the west by the Republic of Chad and the Central African Republic, to the east by Ethiopia and Eritrea while it is separated from Saudi Arabia by the Red Sea (periodical reports of the Republic of Sudan, 2008).

                      Map 1: Astronomical and geographical location of Sudan

 
                      Source: Sudan Survey Authority, 2015

Importance of the location of the Sudan:

The study of the political geography for any state is relevant to its astronomical and geographical location because, according to geopolitics, numerous economic and political activities have to do with this location. On the other hand, the study of regional units is apparently linked with politics and the Earth’s surface, i.e. natural and humanitarian resources are employed and directed to realize development goals and, subsequently, provide security and welfare for the population.  Sudan, however, is geographically and strategically located, insofar as to be a link between all directions of the African continents. Also, it occupies a tract of the globe where Arab and African civilizations were intermingled and ethnicities and nations mixed. The location of Sudan has military importance, given its strategic depth for Arab nation and as it poses an entrance to the African continent whether along the pivot that links it with West Africa nations or along the Nile pivot towards the states of the Nile’s sources (Ibrahim, 2015). In fact, the geographical location of Sudan poses a commercial and cultural bridge between Northern and Southern Africa on the one hand and between the Arab peninsula and the nations of East and West Africa on the other hand.

The sizable area of Sudan plays an important role in geographical, strategic and geopolitical terms. This large area represents an important criterion of Sudan political power as the immense size of the state creates diversity of natural resources and assimilates a big number of populations to be a potential source for its power. Given the vast defense depth, the massive area poses a vital factor that helps the nation defend itself against any foreign attack. Still, the immensity and vastness of the State make available a variety of climate, soil and agricultural resources with their both plant and animal. Moreover, the large size of the country provides underground potential resources for minerals, energy and aquifer, all of which contribute in providing various and large economic resources (Saad, 2001).  Furthermore, expansion of the area of Sudan alleviates overpopulation and helps the state arrange development schemes that secure both economic and social balance among its different regions and states (Sudan Ministry of Information, 2011).

Political borders:
Like other African countries, post-independence Sudan inherited borders which were both defined and demarcated without its will. These borders, agreed upon by colonial states at the Berlin Conference, 1884, were marked with some flaws and shortcomings caused by generalities of depiction, division of cross-border tribes and absence of planning and clear landmarks on the ground. Even in cases of border planning, it was depended on signposts of stones and termite mounds which were removed by natural factors or by the actions of man (Ikhlas, copied from al-Jaali, 2006). Generally, during the African Summit Conference, Cairo, 1964, the then independent Sudan, like most other African nations, was committed to observe the standing borders which became one of the principles of international law (Sudan Ministry of Interior, 1965). Adding to that, involvement in evoking border questions might bring the nation into contentious issues with neighboring states and obstruct development plans. However, despite conflicts and flashpoints with some neighboring nations, Sudan’s borders had remained stable till after the year 1956. The following is a detailed presentation for Sudan borders:
Land borders with neighbor states:
Border with Libyan Republic:
The land border with the Libyan Republic is 380 km governed by 1899 agreement signed between Italy and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and the 1924 protocol. The latter protocol defined the trio convergence of borders of Sudan, Libya and Chad. Then, 14 km were demarcated on the ground as from the trio convergence point of borders of Sudan, Libya and Egypt southwards along the longitude 250 east. However, the rest of the borders were not demarcated because they lie on abarren land (Mohammed Khair, 1999).
 
2/ Border with Central African Republic:
They are 1070 km long (reports of the Republic of Sudan, 2008) and governed by the Franco-British accord, 18 September, 1919 and the 1924 protocol (Sudanese-Central African Republic border committee), (Ikhlas, 2006), and the border line begins from the latitude 50 north up to the latitude 110 north at the trio convergence point between Sudan and Central Africa, and Chad and Belgian Congo down to the convergence point of longitude 240 east with the latitude 19o 30’ north. It is known that border agreements provided for the formation of a joint committee from either party to draw borders while the said committee is tasked to survey and prepare a map on which a border line is sketched out and the map is to be attached with the agreement.
Nevertheless, on application of agreements’ provision, the joint committee was faced with some obstacles in interpreting the treaty’s provisions as these treaties provided for “that borders run along with the watershed of the Nile-Congo Rivers till they cut across the circle of latitude 11o north. In the process, it should be observed that the border line is to be drawn in such a way that separates areas of the Ta’aisha and other tribes of dar Malia and dar Qimir. But, on carrying out the drawing, it became clear that the watershed of the two rivers ends up at the latitude 9o 45’ north and cuts short before reaching the circle of latitude 11o north, the south of which lives most of the Ta’aisha tribes where the border question was settled on a tribal basis and the line separated the Ta’aisha tribe from other tribes (Ikhlas, copied from Taha, 2005).  
3/ Borders with the Republic of Chad:
The 1924 protocol governs Sudanese-Chadian borders where the length of the joint border between the two countries reaches some 1280 km. the border runs in parallel with both states of West and North Darfur and begins from the trio convergence point between Sudan, Chad and Central Africa, at lake Tizi, down to wadi Hawar where it runs by the wadi from longitude 24° east till it cuts across the latitude 19o 30’ north at the trio convergence point between Sudan, Libya and Chad. So, according to the description included in the protocol, the committee could not put standing milestones in many areas as it depended on the description built on natural landmarks and imaginary lines.
Notwithstanding the two nations’ recognition of their standing borders as described in 1924 protocol, potential disputes will be inescapable because of the vagueness marking most of the protocol items. Consequently, some disputes emerged between the Chadian tribe of Daju and the Sudanese tribe of the Masalit in Gineina concerning borders opposite the Iniata area where the dispute has not been settled. However, these borders were endorsed in 1962 where border signposts were established with building concrete poles (Ikhlas, 2006, copied from documents of western borders). Moreover, another dispute emerged in 1971 over the Kulbus area and then some border allegations appeared in the area of wadi Salih where they were settled later.
The northern strip of the Chadian borders is marked with the existence of common tribes having themselves disputes with Zaghawa, Bidayyat, Zayyadia, northern Rizeiqat, besides other disputes with the Ta’aisha tribe on the southern strip. As a result of the improvement of relationships between the two countries since 1995, borders and individuals have been secured under agreements signed by the two countries. Accordingly, Sudan’s Ministry of Interior formed a commission of experts to redraw the joint border with Chad. To that end, the joint ministerial commission was held in 1994 and the maps attached to the protocol were agreed upon as a basic document. Also, in October, 1994, the joint commission held a meeting and passed what was agreed upon in this respect. With all that done, border landmarks were laid to identify the western border strip with Chad as a first phase of 400 km. Also, the two parties agreed to draw up the second phase of the border through the meetings of the joint ministerial commission in February, 1999. But, the process of border demarcation has not yet been carried out, notwithstanding the efforts of the government of the Republic of Sudan to complete the work (western borders’ documents, 2000).  
4/ Border with the Arab Republic of Egypt:
According to periodical reports by the Republic of Sudan, 2008, this border extends to 1280 km and it is governed by a number of accords, one of which is the Anglo-Egyptian agreement, January, 1899 (Sudanese-Egyptian border file, January, 1984). However, the border begins from Jebel ‘Uweinat, at the Egyptian-Libyan border in the west, and runs from the longitude 22° east crossing the desert through an unpopulated region and continues as the crow flies with the circle of latitude 22o north and then cuts across the River Nile while cutting through Nubian lands at Wadi Halfa. After that, the border line follows up the circle of latitude 22o north, and when it approaches to the Red Sea Hills, it diverges up to the circle of latitude 23° 8´ north to include Halaib Triangle which extends between circles of latitudes o22 - 23° 8´ north. The latter lands are inhabited by Beshariyin tribe, a branch of the major Beja tribes which live in east and north-east of Sudan, while their lands and pastures extend from the margins of River Atbara down to the latitude 23° 8´ north. However, this Triangle includes a number of the main towns: Halaib, Menya, Daqona, Adleet and Abu Ramad. The Triangle, whose area equals roughly 18500 square km, ends at Shalatin well to the farthest north.
The Egyptian historian, Mohammed Awad Mohammed, 1956, was reported to have said that the proximity of Sudan’s north-east district bordering Egypt, and its its richness in minerals, made Egypt to have had earlier contact with that region and be historically concerned with it. In this regard, Awad noted that both Port Isis “near Egyptian border” and Port ‘Aqeeq near Toker, were built by the Roman ruler, Ptolemy, to enhance the trade of gold, ivory, ostrich feathers and other African products. Notably, the Egyptian historian confirmed this data only two years before the dispute erupted in 1985 when Sudan claimed that the Egyptian borders lie north to the antiquarian town of Isis which is located on the latitude 24o north (Awad, 1956). 
5/ Borders with Eritrea:
Length of the border with Eritrea is 605 km (periodical reports of Republic of Sudan, 2008) and the border is governed by a number of agreements signed by both Britain and Egypt (condominium) and by Italy through the period 1891 to 1905. So far, no difference between Sudan and Eritrea on interpretation of those agreements and protocols concerning the border whose demarcation was already carried out and landmarks were laid on the ground. Yet, most of these border signs were removed by either factor of time or human action. Generally, contention between Sudan and Eritrea is caused by Eritrean expansion into district of south Toker which is inhabited by common tribes of Bani ‘Amir and the Habab (Ministry of Interior, 1990).
6/ Borders with Ethiopia:
The length of the borders with Ethiopia is 725 km (periodical reports of Republic of Sudan, 2008) and the border is governed by agreements and protocols signed during the period of condominium between Britain and the Ethiopian government, i.e. 1902 agreement and 1903 protocol according to which the border, being based on the general depiction and for execution of the 1902 accord, was physically laid. After all, Ethiopia didn’t sign the agreement as it didn’t recognize the border demarcation which it only came to recognize later in 1972. However, the problem between the two countries is posed by the Ethiopian existence in the Fashaqa area since 1957, when Ethiopian farmers removed border signs to intentionally expand their agricultural lands. For its part, Sudan has till now kept tackling these problems and settling disputes through reconciliation, though Ethiopia itself recognizes the documents that confirm Sudan ownership of those lands (Ministry of Interior, 2002). 
 7/ Borders with Southern Sudan (post-separation borders - 2011):
The new international political borders of the nascent state of South Sudan were not established to be international ones as such, but to only serve as joint internal administrative borders with other Sudanese administrative units. This, in a way, means the absence of sensitivity in defining these borders as they, on another hand, represent the southern boundaries of provinces of Kordofan, Darfur and the Blue Nile as was previously provided in the demarcation of 1956 boundaries of provinces. 
On a deeper scrutiny of the borders with South Sudan, it will be obviously that they are neither engineering nor astronomical borders save at specific points. And they lack natural landmarks except for Bahr Alarab which poses a natural distinct landmark to draw common international borders on. But, at the border with Unity state, Bahr Alarab becomes a part of South Sudan (Awadallah and others, 2011).

Some tribes spread out along the border strip in small colonies where they pose border ethnicities rendering some of border domains a link for social communication and for grazing and trade. They, also, provide inter-tribal population movement from the Blue Nile, Sennar and White Nile up to Upper Nile. Similarly, in Unity state, the Miseiria tribe of Humr south to Bahr Alarab interacts with Dinka Ngouk in Abyei. As well, this tribal social interaction takes place in South Darfur in an area of 13 square kilometers inhabited by Darfurian tribes, and in Dabbat al-Fakhar south to Juba and Jebel Migeinis districts both of which lie south west of White Nile State and in Kaka, its alias Kaka altijaria, which separates South Kordofan and Upper Nile states (Jezira net, Khartoum, 2012). As stated on the dependable map of the Republic of Sudan, all contentious areas are Sudanese lands. In spite of the efforts of the joint commissions charged with drawing up borders between the two nations, border conflicts have not been settled. However, Abyei’s issue was submitted to the International Court because border demarcation with Southern Sudan is a complex matter and cannot be settled but by reconciliation between the two nations and to the exclusion of international interventions which do not serve the benefit of the two neighboring nations, given a number of bilateral linkages of cross-border tribes, grazing lands, trade, Nile water and other common benefits.

Secondly: sea borders:

The length of Sudan’s sea border of is 870 km (periodical reports of the Republic of Sudan, 2008). In this regard, Saudi Arabia is a coastal neighbor. Also, Sudan shares coastal borders with two neighboring littoral states, i.e. Egypt and Eritrea.
The sea borders of Sudan have not been specified but articles 15, 74, 83 of UN convention, 1982, which Sudan signed with neighboring states, provided that sea borders would be identified in such a way that fairness would be realized to the relevant parties and according to international border systems. Notably, Sudan has not been concerned with its sea borders and to it the sea is nothing but a bridge that links it with the external world. As other nations are concerned with seabed wealth to benefit from, Sudan has paid attention to the importance of the Red Sea as a depository of mineral wealth. Of late, it was discovered that the depository of this wealth is located to the west of the midline within the domain of the Sudanese continental shelf, and that is the reason why Sudan issued in 28, November, 1970, the sea regional law to secure its sovereign borders. Thereafter, in 1974, an agreement between Sudan and the government of Saudi Arabia was signed to jointly exploit natural wealth in the seabed of the Red Sea.

Administrative division of Sudan:
Turkish-Egyptian rule (1821 – 1885):
Turkish-Egyptian rule divided Sudan into provinces and thus appointed a governor for every province who was immediately responsible before the governor-general in the capital of the state. In his turn, the latter was responsible before the Khedive of Egypt. To establish itself, the Turkish government tried, from the start, to make use of the tribal and clannish structure of the Sudanese community which is originally built on loyalty to the system of the family, clan and tribe. By so doing, tribal leaders and sheiks, who capitulated to the government, became a tool for running affairs of the country regarding maintenance of security and order and collection of taxes. Though apparently surrendering to sovereignty of the central state, those leaders and sheiks enjoyed a measure of self-independence among their own tribes (Barber, 1964).
Period of Mahadism (1885 – 1898): 
During that period, a regime of both religious and military nature was established in Sudan, but it had been a sheer centralized regime. The Mahadist government divided Sudan into twelve provinces or ‘amala, on the top of which there was a governor or ‘amil representing political, military and administrative command of a province. As a result, the Mahadist state deprived leaders of the clans of their leadership status, and that situation had continued till the re-conquest of the country by the Anglo-Egyptian invasion in 1898 (al Asum, 1983).
Anglo-Egyptian period (the Condominium, 1885 – 1898):
In the early years of the Condominium, the administrative system was marked by the military nature of the civil administration. Then, Sudan was divided into eight first-class provinces, which were: Kasala, Northern Province, Blue Nile, Kordofan, Darfur, Upper Nile, Bahr el Ghazal and Equatorial province. Every province was presided over by a governor who was aided by inspectors and deputy-inspectors, where the inspector was responsible for one of the centers of a province. However, at the highest level, the governor-general and his advisors sat in office. Of those advisors was the civil secretary who was responsible for the provinces’ affairs and officials, i.e. the head of both political and executive branches, and the legal and financial secretaries. The authorities and duties of governors of provinces were confined to maintenance of security and order besides assessment and collection of taxes. At the time, the administrative system was of a centralized hierarchical nature where power had incrementally gone top-down, namely from the governor-general down to a junior official in the center. In 1935, the native administration system was reviewed by the civil secretary when three legislations of local government were issued including ordinances of councils of towns, rural areas and municipalities. Then, those legislations were considered as constitutional base for local authorities (al Asum, 1983).
Post-independence local government, 1956:
After Sudan’s independence, the governor-general’s powers were devolved between the prime minister and the chief-justice. As to governors of provinces, they became accountable to the Ministry of Interior, while heads of departments became accountable to their central ministries; this is the thing which changed the hierarchy of the previous administrative powers.
Local government system during military rule, 1958 – 1964:
During that period, all parties and political organizations were dissolved and their activities banned. A year later, the military regime declared a formation of a committee with an unconditional mandate to see to the means that may secure popular participation in local government affairs. In this way, administrative system in Sudan became a pyramid with the central council at its summit and local councils at its base. In the interim, military governors were appointed to govern the provinces and the situation continued as such till the October revolution, 1964.
Administrative system during October revolution, 1964:
In this period, the previous government representative office, namely the military governor’s office, was annulled and replaced by a representative of local government. As to councils of provinces and local councils, they were not changed, and even the former had maintained their powers concerning supervision over the latter. This administrative system continued till 1971.
Administrative system in May period, 1969:
In this period, the second stage of the experience of a democratic liberal government in Sudan came to an end. Instead of that, the revolutionary regime adopted a people’s government as a channel to practice the new democracy through. Consequently, and according to the law, the people’s local government controlled executive branches. Meanwhile, the new local government was issued in 1971 and provinces were re-divided in the years 1974 and 1976. However, the general framework of the government system was based on a pyramid structure with the provinces’ executive councils at its summit and at the base of which were councils of neighborhoods, villages, nomadic makeshifts, towns and rural councils. By and large, that system was considered a move towards decentralization.
Administrative system in the Ingaz period since 1989:
Law of the constitutional decree was issued in the year 1991 and, later, came the 1998 constitution to strengthen this option. The second article of the constitution provided that the Republic of Sudan is a federal republic and should be governed by a federal system. Whereby Sudan was divided into 26 states. Later on, however, when South Sudan separated and became independent, northern states were reduced to sixteen states (Suleiman, 2008). Thereafter, two states, East Darfur state and Central Darfur state were added to make the total number eighteen states. Constitutionally, the head of the state is a wali, i.e. governor, aided by the legislative council of the state besides the executive branch. However, the former is directly elected by inhabitants of the state while the latter is represented by the state council of ministers. The states, themselves, were divided into town localities, each of which is headed by a commissioner who is again aided by administrators as well as a locality council, i.e. local council, and localities were divided into administrative units. Though the period of federal system in Sudan is a little bit short, addressing this system by different political forces has become top of the agenda for these forces and, thus, it will become difficult for any ruling regime to go back on this federal experience in the future.
Horizontal increases of constitutional, legislative and executive jobs has made management of these states more costly. The cost, in some states, reached 90% of monthly federal support offered to them by National Fund for Support of the States or through state and local revenues. Hence, costs of running state machineries are deducted at the expense of development projects and deliverance of basic services such as education and health. Thus, the lack of services has negatively encouraged internal migration from the states to Khartoum (Suleiman, 1992). Given all this, federal system needs to be comprehensively reviewed by being well studied, evaluated and assessed, besides reducing its exorbitantly high costs in a country that has already suffered from scanty resources, poverty, low development rates, modest necessary services and a number of economic problems.
 

Important towns in the Sudan:  

In view of the history of development of Sudanese towns, they were created and prospered because of the characteristics they are enjoyed, such as the following:
1.    Administrative functions as being a capital of the state and/or administrative capitals of states and localities at the time.
2.    Towns located at railways and land roads.
3.    Towns located along land, sea and river roads.
4.    Trade centers lying at cross-roads which control transport and trade and being ports for transport and trade.
5.    Towns which prospered and developed, given their locations in the middle of agricultural production areas, oil fields or other minerals.
6.    Historical towns that had acted as administrative centers during previous historical periods but lost their functions at the present or, alternatively, their old functions were changed to new ones.
7.    Towns of antiquities containing remnants of a period of ancient Sudanese history.
8.    Towns that prospered as service centers in fields of health and education which may be, otherwise, called educational or medical towns.
9.    Tourist towns acting as recreation and entertainment centers for both internal and external tourism.
Given the functions played by urban centers, Sudan is one of the states regarded as having plenty of towns. In this respect, Sudan prepared the rules under which towns may be categorized and distinguished in relation to the countryside. These rules are measured by the average population which is not to be fewer than 5 thousand persons with a population density no fewer than 1000 persons per square km who work in various urban posts such as: industry, services and trade which are practiced in a permanent central market. According to these rules, Sudan is one of the states in which the number of towns has increased and, on another hand, it has experienced high rates in proportion of urban population (population census, 2008).

Current administrative division of federal government and important towns:
Khartoum State:
Khartoum state lies in central Sudan between the longitudes 31° 45' and 34° 30' east and latitude 15° 00' and 16° 45' north. The state is bordered on the north east by River Nile State, on the north west by Northern State, on the west by North Kordofan State, on the east and south east by states of Kasala, Gedarif and Gezira, on the south by White Nile State. Khartoum is located at an altitude of 1352 feet above sea level and its area is estimated to be 22.736 square km (Sudan Survey Authority, 2005). According to the 2008 population census, the state's population was 5.274.321 people, while now its population is estimated to be about 7,274,321 people (population’s projections -- 2015 census). These inhabitants represent all ethnical, social and political spectrums and are divided among seven administrative localities: these localities are Khartoum, Jebel Awlia, Bahri, and East of the Nile, Omdurman, Karari and Umbadda. However, the number of the state population has greatly increased since the year 1984 as a result of the migration of a large number of inhabitants from Sudan’s other states to Khartoum. Currently, the state has become overpopulated and is inhabited, more or less, by one-fifth of the country’s population. This internal migration, being a measure indicator, reflects the low rates of regional development in the Sudan.
 

Important towns:

Khartoum: the political capital and capital of Khartoum state in which all economic and service institutions are concentrated.
Omdurman: Sudan national and cultural capital.
Khartoum North: an industrial town in which manufacturing and constructional industries are concentrated.
Northern State:
Northern state lies between the longitudes 25° 50’ and 32° 10' east and latitude 16° 00' and 22° 00' north. The state is bordered on the north by the Arab Republic of Egypt, to the east by River Nile State, on the south by Khartoum and North Kordofan States, and to the west by North Darfur State.
Population: The state is inhabited was 699,065 people (population census, 2008), and its population is currently estimated to be about 860,950 people (population projections -- 2015 census). The state includes seven localities, which are: Halfa, Dalgu, Argu, Dongola, Al Golid, Debba and Marawi.
Important towns:
Dongola: the capital of the state, it includes administrative and service institutions, besides the great part of colleges of the University of Dongola.
Karima: a trade and antiquities town that includes some historical sites of the kingdom of Napata.
Marawi: an administrative center. On the construction of Marawi Dam, the town has prospered and experienced an urban and service revival. As well, it has an international airport.
            
River Nile State:
River Nile state is located between the longitudes 32° 00' and 36° 00' east and latitudes 16° 00'  and 22° 00' north (Sudan Survey Authority, 2005). The state is bordered on the north by Arab Republic of Egypt, on the east by the Red Sea State, to the south by both Khartoum and Kasala States and on the west by the Northern State.
The state's population was 1,157,917 inhabitants (according to the fifth population census, 2008), and its population is currently estimated to be about 1,387,513 people (population projections -- 2015 census). However, the state comprises six localities, which are: Abu Hamad, Berber, Atbara, al Damar, Metamma and Shendi. Also, the state contains some historical sites of the ancient Nubian kingdoms, namely the pyramids of Bajrawiya and the Royal city in Kaboushia, Naqa’a and Musawarat.
Important towns: 
Al-Damar: capital of the state and it includes administrative, economic and service institutions. Also, it is surrounded by a number of cement factories. Spiritually, the town is a traditional center for Sufi tarikas, i.e. mystical denominations, particularly the Madhzubia tarika (of the Madhazib) in Timeirab, west of al-Damar.
Abu Hamad: an administrative and service center. Thanks to gold mining in its vacinity, the town has prospered and experienced an urban and economic boom.
Berber: one of the oldest towns of the state. It had been a trade center during Turkish-Egyptian era.
Atbara:  it had once gained the appellation of capital of Iron and Fire. Situated there are the headquarters of the Railways Authority and important railway workshops. It became the first cosmopolitan town in Sudan and it witnessed the birth of the trade union movement in Sudan. That movement had been represented by the Railway Workers’ Union which gave birth to Sudan’s Workers Trade Union Federation last century. The Union once contributed effectively in the struggle for Sudan’s national independence.
Shendi: an old administrative and trade center. It is located in a dense agricultural domain known for the production of onion, potato, legumes, citrus and alfalfa.
Metamma: an important historical town located to the west of the Nile, with a countryside known for the production of onion and citrus.

Red Sea State:
The state is located between longitudes 33° 03' and 38° 05' east and latitudes 17° 00' and 23° 02' north. It is bordered on the north by the Arab Republic of Egypt, to the south by Eritrea and Kasala State, on the east by the Red Sea, and to the west by River Nile State. Fortunately, Red Sea State enjoys great strategic importance as it embraces Port Sudan and is connected by the external world through the Red Sea. Moreover, most of Sudan exports and imports are transited through the ports and docks located along the Red Sea coast, the most important of which are Port Sudan and the historically at Sawakin.  
Population:
The state was inhabited by 1,396,110 (population census, 2008) and its population is currently estimated by 1,414,417 (population projections – 2015 census). It comprises eight localities, which are: Genab, Port Sudan, Halaib, Sinkat, Sawakin, Toker, ‘Aqeeq and Haiya.

Important towns:

Port Sudan: capital of the state, it is the main seaport for Sudan and border trade of the neighboring nations. It is an important trade and tourist center.
Sawakin: a historical and archeological town where the port of Osman Digna is located.
Bash’ir: an important oil exporting port for both Sudan and South Sudan. 
Kasala State:
Kasala State lies in the eastern part of Sudan between longitudes 33° 00' and 37° 50' east and latitudes 14° 10' and 17° 50' north. It is bordered on the north by both the Red Sea and River Nile States, to the south by Gedarif State, on the east by Eritrea and finally to the west by Khartoum State.
Population:
The state was inhabited by 1,789,806 (population census, 2008) and its population is currently estimated to be 2,238,054 (population projections – 2015 census). It comprises eleven localities: New Halfa, the Countryside of Aruma, Countryside of Talkouk, Countryside of Khashm al Qirba, Countryside of the Northern Delta, Countryside of West Kasala, Rural Kasala, Rural Atbara River, Hamashkorib, wad al Hilaiw and the town of Kasala.
Important towns:
Kasala: capital of the state, it extends along the two banks of the Algash River. The town includes administrative, economic and service institutions. As well, it is located in an agricultural domain known for the production of onion, vegetables, banana and some citrus.
Khashm al-Qirba: an administrative, trade and service center. The town gained importance upon the establishment of New Halfa scheme and the construction of the Khashm al-Qirba Dam. It is famed for irrigated agriculture and fishing.
New Halfa: an administrative, trade and service center. The town was built in the 1960’s on the heels of the Nubian exodus from Wadi Halfa in Northern State. It gained importance as an economic center on the establishment of New Halfa scheme and the Halfa sugar factory.

Gedarif State:
It lies in the eastern part of Sudan between longitudes 34° 00' and 36° 00' east and latitudes 12° 00' and 17° 00' north. The state is bordered on both northern and western boundaries by Khartoum and Gezira States, to the east by Kasala State and Ethiopian borders and to the south by Sennar State.
Population: The state was inhabited by 1,789,806 (population census, 2008), but the number of population is currently estimated by about 2,283,054 (population projection – 2015 census). It comprises ten localities: Butana, Rahad, Fao, Fashaqa, Eastern Gallabat, Western Gallabat, Kassab, Gala’ el Nahal, Gedarif and Central Gedarif.
Important towns:
Gedarif:  capital of the state and an administrative, trade and service center. It is considered as one of the most important Sudanese towns in relation to its strategic location, economic and military importance, political and historical role, besides its social fiber which poses a melting-pot in which different Sudanese tribes and non-Sudanese groups are melted. Moreover, Gedarif is located in the middle of the richest agricultural and nomadic areas. The state has also an international market for crops, particularly for maize and sesame.
Fao: an administrative, trade and service center. It is located in an agricultural domain and is known for the production of maize and sesame.
Eastern Gallabat:  an administrative, trade and economic center. It is located on a steep slope hill foot on the western side of khour Abu Nakhara. Gallabat is a small border town, about 97.5 miles away from the state capital. It has gained paramount importance because it became an outlet to Ethiopia.
Gezira State:
It is located in central Sudan between longitudes 32° 20' and 34° 17' east, and latitudes 13° 30' and 13° 27' north. The state is bordered to the north by Khartoum State, on the south by Sennar State, on the east by Gedarif State and the west by White Nile State.
Population: The state’s population was 3,575,280 (population census, 2008), however the population is currently estimated to be about 4,600,700 (population projection – 2015 census). It comprises seven localities: Kamlin, Hasahisa, Managil, Umm al-Gura, South Gezira, East Gezira and the Greater Madani.
Important towns:
Wad Madani: capital of the state, and an old administrative, trade and service center, it had once been the first capital during the Turkish-Egyptian rule. Madani is one of the towns that connect a number of the states of Sudan with the national capital, Khartoum. It is well known for economic, agricultural and industrial activities.
Hasahisa: an administrative, trade and service center. It is located in the middle of the Gezira scheme and as a result has prospered and experienced an industrial and urban boom. The town, however, is also known for manufacturing and textile industries, besides it made its own contributions in the Sudanese national struggle against English colonialism last century.
Managil:  a traditional administrative, industrial and service center, it poses an extension for the Gezira scheme. Also, it is known for onion, legumes, vegetables produce and manufacturing industries. 
Rufa’a: an administrative, trade and service center for East Gezira locality. It had been a nucleus for education of girls in Sudan, given the founding by Babikir Badri of the first school for girls in 1907. Later on, Badri transferred the school to Omdurman where it has now become Ahfad University for Women.
Kamlin: an old administrative, trade and service center. It had been the capital of Blue Nile province during the period of the Turkish rule and continued to be till the advent of Mahadist State and the era of English colonialism. The town was known as a cultural and literary center where cultural clubs, which led to National liberation against the colony, were founded.
Blue Nile State:
A border state which lies in the south eastern part of Sudan between longitudes 33° 05' and 35° 30' east, and the latitudes 9° 30' and 12° 30' north. It is bordered to the north by Sennar State, on the south and south west by South Sudan and on the east by Ethiopia.
Population: The state was inhabited by 832,112 (population census, 2008), but the population is currently estimated to be about 1,022,378 (population projections – 2015 census). The state comprises six localities: Attadamon, Damazin, Ruseiris, Kurmuk, Bao and Geisan.

Important towns:
Damazin: the capital of the state and an administrative, trade and service center. In Damazin, there are financial institutions and a market for agricultural crops such as maize, sesame, forest products and livestock. However, the town has been greatly affected by the civil war between north and south Sudan, and this came at the expense of its development and prosperity.
Ruseiris: an administrative, trade and service center where the Ruseiris Dam was built in 1966 to provide electricity for the country. Following upgrading of the Dam in 2009, the town has prospered and experienced an urban and economic boom. Ruseiris is also known for the production of maize, sesame, legumes, vegetables and banana around the neighborhoods of the Dam.
Kurmuk: an administrative, trade and service center. In view of its border location between South Sudan and Ethiopia, it poses a strategic location for the Republic of Sudan regarding military, economic and social aspects. Given this reality, Kurmuk is an interaction point for various ethnical groups of the three states and a market for exchange of commodities between the neighboring nations. Nevertheless, the town was one of the flashpoints centers between rebels and the government of Sudan before the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed in 2005.
Sennar State:
A border state lying in the south eastern part of Sudan between longitudes 33° 50' and 35° 50' east and the latitudes 11° 30' and 14° 20' north. It is bordered on the north by Gezira State, to the south by Blue Nile State, the east by Gedarif State and Ethiopia, and on the west by White Nile State and the Republic of South Sudan.
Population: The state was inhabited by 1,285,058 (population census, 2008), but this number is currently estimatedto be about 1,710,369 (population projections – 2015 census). The state comprises seven localities: Sennar, East Sennar, Singa, Alsuki, Addali, Dindir and Abu Hijar.
Important towns:
Singa: capital of the state and an old administrative, trade and service center. It is located in an agricultural domain known for the production of maize crops, sesame in big schemes, and also legumes, vegetables, tomato, citrus and banana on the banks of the Blue Nile. The town has also a market for crops, forest products and livestock, in addition to being a major point for border trade between Sudan and neighboring states.
Sennar: an administrative, trade and service center. It had been the capital of Funj sultanate (1505 – 1821). Sennar poses a conjunction for Sudan’s railways and there is the Sennar Dam which represents an apparent milestone built during the period of English colonialism to irrigate agricultural schemes and generate electricity. Moreover, the town is famous for the production of maize, sesame, legumes, citrus and vegetables.
Dindir: an administrative, trade and service center. It lies east  of Singa and it is considered one of the greatest trade centers for the eastern and western districts of the al-Dindir River, besides being a market for important agricultural crops like maize, sesame and some of cash crops like gum Arabic. Socially, groups of Sudanese tribes and non-Sudanese groups are melted together in the town.
Alsuki:  an administrative, trade and service center and is considered one of the greatest towns of Sennar state. It is located to the east of the Nile, 48 km away from Sennar Dam. Alsuki is characterized by being a great town east of the Blue Nile, and a headquarters of the Blue Nile Agricultural Schemes’ Farmers Union. The town represents a civic façade for East Blue Nile in which various groups of Sudanese tribes coexist.

White Nile State:
A border state located in the southern part of Sudan between longitudes 31° 30' and  330 15'east and f latitudes 11° 50' and 15° 16' north with a longitudinal extension through which the White Nile runs. The state is bordered to the north by both Khartoum and Gezira states, on the south by South Kordofan State and by South Sudan, on the east by Sennar State and on the west by North Kordofan state. It is the center of the sugar industry in Sudan where there are three plants for sugar: Kenana, Asalaya and White Nile Sugar factories. Moreover, it is an agricultural state where pump-irrigated agriculture is concentrated on the banks of the White Nile. It also includes about 70% of Sudan’s freshwater fish.
Population: The state was inhabited by 1,730,588 (population census, 2008), but this number is currently estimated to be about 2,244,619 (population projections – 2015 census). The state comprises eight localities: Giteina, Duweim, Umm Rimta, Rabak, Kosti, Gabalein, al-Salam and Tendelti.
Important towns:
Rabak: capital of the state and an administrative, trade and service center. It contains financial institutions and the Rabak Granary. The town experienced an urban and economic boom and also prospered when a number of manufacturing and cement industries were built.
Kosti: an old administrative, trade and service center. It played a historical role in the era of Mahadist revolution. It contains a greatest port for river transport in Sudan and has an important railways station linking western and northern Sudan. The town is famous for manufacturing industries, the production of vegetables, legumes and citrus along the bank of the White Nile.
Duweim: an old administrative, trade and service center. It is known for being a lighthouse of learning and knowledge where there was the Bakht el Rida Institute which was founded in the year 1934 for training teachers and developing education curricula in Sudan. However, the institute has been transformed into the University of Bakht el Rida with its various colleges.
Kenana: a trade economic center. It was established upon the advent of the Kenana Sugar factory. After localization of the sugar industry in Kenana, the town has become one of the service centers. 
Gabalein: a border town and an important trade and service center for Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan. The town is a domain of economic and security importance for the nation.
North Kordofan State:
It is one of Sudan’s central states, with Obeid as its capital. Its area is estimated by about 700 square km and is located between longitudes 27° 00' and 32° 30' east and latitudes 12° 00' and 16° 50' north. Its climate develops incrementally from a semi-desert climate in the north to the rich savanna climate in the south. The population of the state depends on agriculture, grazing, exportation of oil seeds, maize, millet and gum Arabic. Also, the state is considered as the greatest market of gum Arabic and exportation of livestock, particularly the exportation of sheep to remote markets.
Population: The state was inhabited by 2,920,992 (population census, 2008), but the population is currently estimated to be around 3,120,942 (population projections – 2015 census). The state comprises eight localities: Sheikan, Umm Ruwaba, Bara, West Bara, Rahad, Sodari and Gabrat el Sheikh.  
Important towns:
Obeid: capital of the state and an old administrative, trade and service center. The town is the greatest of Kordofan towns and the historical capital of the greater Kordofan province. It had played an important historical part during the Turkish and Mahadist eras and was where the Battle of Seikan was fought between Mahadist armies and the Turkish government led by Hicks Pasha. Obeid is a trade exchange town for western Sudan and is famous for the cultivation of millet, ground nuts, sesame and gum Arabic in the surrounding area. It has also a great cattle market, especially for Hamari sheep. Lately, the town has become a center for manufacturing industries and petroleum refining. 
Umm Ruwaba: an administrative, trade and service center. It is located in an agricultural and pastoral domain, it has prospered and experienced a construction boom. It is known for the production of maize, sesame, ground nuts, vegetables, tomato, and citrus in the muddy plains around khour Abu Habil. Umm Ruwaba is exceptionally distinctive with its fresh groundwater. Moreover, the town has vegetable oil squeezers and other manufacturing industries.
Bara:  an old administrative, trade and service center. It is famous for production of millet, melon seeds, citrus and vegetables. Bara, an oasis-like town, is well known for its waterwheels by which farms inside the town are irrigated, particularly for the irrigation of lemon trees and cultivation of vegetables. Also, in the close neighborhood, west of Bara, there is the Kheiran area, which is similar to Bara in the way of irrigation by waterwheels and shadufs.
South Kordofan State:
A border state located in the southern part of  Sudan between the longitudes 29° 20' and 32° 30' east and the latitudes 9° 40' and 12° 50' north. It is bordered on the north by North Kordofan State, on the south by Republic of South Sudan and the north east by White Nile State. Kadugli is the capital of the state. The lands of the state are of a mountainous nature penetrated by valleys and natural fertile soil. However, its economy depends on rain agriculture with its two sides, traditional and semi-mechanized farming, besides the rearing of animal.
Population: The state was inhabited by 1,406,404 (population census, 2008), but the population is currently estimated to be about 1,925,606 (population projections – 2015 census). It comprises seventeen localities: Abu Gibeiha, Abu Karshula, Rashad, al-Buram, Attadamun, Dalanj, Eastern Countryside, al-Abbasia, Guz, Al Liri, Umm Durein, Talodi, Dallami, Kadugli, Gadir, Habeela and Heiban.
Kadugli: an old administrative, trade and service center. It played an important part during the Mahadist revolution and during the struggle against English colonialism in the 1940’s. The town experienced prosperity and development after the construction of cotton scutchers for Nuba Mountains’ rain-fed cotton project in the surrounding area. But, the outbreak of mutiny in 1983 again made it developmentally backwards.
Dalanj: an administrative, trade and service center. The town includes financial and educational institutions, the most famous of which was Dalanj former Teachers’ Institute which is now Dalanj University. The town is located in a rain-fed agricultural domain and known for the production of maize, sesame in the surrounding area. After the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the town an experienced urban and economic boom.
West Kordofan State:
It is located between longitudes 27 10'and 29° 50' east and latitudes 9° 10' and 14° 10' north. It had been Sudanese state but was later cancelled due to the execution of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Nevertheless, on the heels of the separation of South Sudan, it was again reinstated in January, 2013. The state includes fifteen localities: Khowei, Nuhud, Alsalam, Meiram, Babanusa, Abyei, Muglad, Abu Zabad, Lagawa, Keilak, Dibabb, Gibeish, Wad Banda and Sunut.
Population: The state was inhabited by 1,320,405 (population census, 2008), however the population is currently estimated at about 1,925,606 (population projections – 2015 census).
Important towns:
Al-Fula: capital of the state. It contains administrative and financial institutions and it is an important trade and exchange center. It has experienced an urban and economic boom, particularly after being selected as the capital of West Kordofan State. It is famous for the production of maize and sesame in the surrounding areas.
Nuhud:  an old administrative, trade and service center. It is the seat of the University of Alsalam and some of its colleges. It is located in a pastoral and agricultural domain and known for the production of ground nuts and gum Arabic. Additionally, the town is the main home of the Hamari sheep breed.
Muglad: a trade and service center. The town gained importance after the discovery of petroleum in the areas surrounding it, and consequently it experienced a remarkable urban and economic boom.
East Darfur State:
It is one of the states of western Sudan and is borders with the Republic of South Sudan. It is located between longitudes 25° 00' and 27° 50' east and latitudes 9° 30' and 13° 00' north. It has an area of almost 111,373 km2 (Sudanese Survey authority, 2015).  
Population: The state is inhabited by 1,320,405 (population census, 2008), but this number is currently estimated at about 1,925,606 (population projections – 2015 census). It comprises nine localities:  Abu Karinka, Adeela, Di’ein, Shi’airia, Yaseen, Asalaya, al-Firdus, Abu Gabra and Bahr Alarab.
Important towns:
Di’ein: capital of the state and an administrative and service center. It has gained its importance upon becoming capital of the nascent state of East Darfur.
Abu Gabra: an administrative, trade and service center. The town has prospered and developed by the discovery of the Abu Gabra oilfield.
South Darfur State:
The state lies in the western part of the Sudan between longitudes 32° 15' and east and latitudes 8° 30' and 13° 13' north. It is bordered on the north by North Darfur State, on the west by Central Darfur State, on the south west by the Central Africa Republic, on the south by both West and North Bahr el Ghazal states and on the east by East Darfur State.
Population: It was inhabited by 4,093,594 (population census, 2008), but the population is currently estimated at about 4,958,148 (population projections – 2015 census). The state comprises 21 localities: al-Radum, Alsalam, Asunta, Alwuhda, Umm Dafouq, Buram, Baleela, Tulus, Damasu, Riheid el Bardi, Sharg Aljebel, Shattaya, Id Alfursan, Gireida, Kass, Kubum, Kateela, Marshanj, Niteiqa, Nyala, Shamal and Nyala Janoub.
Important towns:
Nyala: capital of the state. It is an old administrative, trade and service center containing financial institutions. Also, the town is a residence for a number of international organizations working in Darfur. It experienced an urban and economic boom before the 2003 outbreak of armed conflict in Darfur. With the amount of conflict, the town has become a destination for displaced citizens of the surrounding areas. Nyala is famous for the production of crops like ground nuts and maize as well as production of onion, vegetables and citrus in the surrounding areas. Moreover, it has a greatest cattle market in western Sudan.

Central Darfur State:
It is a border state lying in the western part of Sudan between longitudes and 25° 00' and 22° 30' east and latitudes 13° 30' and 13° 40' north. It is bordered on the north by both North and West Darfur states, on the south by South Darfur State, to the west by Chad and on the east by South Darfur State.
Population:  The state was inhabited by 1,123,748 (population census, 2008), but the population is currently estimated to be around 4,958,148 (population projections – 2015 census). It comprises eight localities: Azoum, Umm Dukhun, Bandasi, Reikarwa, Zalingei, Makgar, Nertati and Wadi Salih.
Important towns:
Zalingei: capital of the state where there is to be found management and service institutions and trade centers. It has gained its importance after it became a capital for the nascent state of Central Darfur. As well, it is considered a town for trade exchange between neighboring nations.
North Darfur State:
It is a border state lying in the western part of Sudan between longitudes  27° 30' and 22° 50' east latitudes 11° 50' and 22° 00' north. This state takes up more than half area of the greater Darfur region as its area is estimated to be about 296 thousand km2 which again equals 12% of the total area of Sudan. It is bordered on the north by Northern State, on the south by both East and South Darfur states, on the west by West Darfur State and on the east by North Kordofan State.
Population: It was inhabited by 1,033,690 (population census, 2008), but this number is currently estimated to be around 2,267,680 (population projections – 2015 census). The state comprises seventeen localities: Malha, Kuma, Mallit, Kutum, Umm Baru, Karnuya, Tina, Umm Kaddada, al Fashir, Taweela, Kabkabiya, Sireif, Sireif ‘Umra, Kalamandu, Dar el Salam, Tuweisha and Li’iet.
Important towns:
Al Fashir: capital of the state and an old administrative, trade and service center. It had once been the capital of the Fur sultanate for over five centuries. Al Fashir is famous for a number of milestones, the more distinctive of which are the University of al Fashir with its different colleges and the Sultan Ali Dinar Museum. The town is also considered as a center for trade and exchange with neighboring nations.

West Darfur State:
It is located along longitudes 23° 25' and 22° 10' east and latitudes 11° 30' and 15° 30' north is the farthest western part of Sudan. It is a border state, with Gineina as its capital. Bordering West Darfur on the north is North Darfur State, on the south is Central Darfur State, on the east by both South and Central Darfur states and on the west by Chad. The area of the state equals 79,460 km2.
Population: the total inhabitants of the state is estimated to be about one million. It comprises eight localities which are: Gineina, Kulbus, Sirba, Kireinik, Habeela, Baida and Khour Baranqa.
Important towns:
Gineina: capital of the state and an administrative, trade and service center. The state witnessed, during the colonial period, a conflict between Britain and France. It is known for the production of crops of millet and maize in the surrounding area. Additionally, the state is a center for trade, exchange and cultural interaction with both Chad and the Central African Republic.


Sources and References:
First: Arabic Sources and References:
    Al Gaali, al Bukhari Abdullah, (1980); Border Conflict between Sudan and Ethiopia, (study on diplomatic developments and legal situations for Sudan borders with Ethiopia and Eritrea).
    Tireifi, al-Ajab Ahmed, (1983) Scientific Paper; Studies on National Unity in Sudan: Council for Regional Government Studies. University of Khartoum.
    Al Asum, Mukhtar, (1983); Local Government in Sudan: Its Making and Development. Sudan Bookshop House.
    Naqar, Mu’az Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed, (2005); Border Conflict Between Sudan and Egypt: Halaib Triangle and Protrusion of Wadi Halfa, In The Light of International Law. Khartoum University Publishing Press, Sudan.
    Suleiman, al Khair Omer Ahmed, (1991); Political Resolution in Sudan. al-Sharif Academic Bookshop, Khartoum.
    Al Agdami, Husham Mahmoud, (2009); Challenges of Contemporary National Security: A Historical Political Approach. University Youth Publishing Foundation, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Saad, Abdel Mun’im, (2001); Geography of Sudan. International Center for African Studies, Khartoum.
    Al Tom, Mahadi Amin. Abdullah, Babikir, (   ); Natural and Human Geography of Sudan. Open University of Sudan, Khartoum.
 Secondly: unpublished theses:
    Ahmed, Amal Zakaria Ali, (2006) MS Thesis; Political Borders Between Sudan and Ethiopia: Problems and Solutions. University of Khartoum, Sudan.
    Abdullah, Ikhlas Hussein, (2006) MS Thesis; Sudan Western Borders and Their Impact on Its Relationships with Both States of Chad and CAR. University of Khartoum, Sudan.
    Khair, Abbas Mohammed, (1999); A Study on Problems of Border Demarcation and Re-demarcation. Khartoum.
    Salih, Ali Osman Mohammed, (n.d.) A Scientific Paper; Sudan Cultural Heritage through Centuries. Archeology Department, University of Khartoum, Sudan. 
Thirdly: reports:
    Republic of the Sudan, (2011); Sudan, Land of Opportunities, Facts and Figures. Ministry of Information, Khartoum.
    Republic of the Sudan, (2008); Periodical Reports of The Republic of Sudan, Second and Third Vol. (2003 – 2008), Under Articles 16 and 17 of the International Convention Concerning Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

Fourthly, English sources and references:
K, M.Barbour, (1964); The Republic of Sudan. University of London Press, Warwick Square, London.
Ahmed, Rafia, Hassan, (1983); Ethnic and Socio-Cultural Pluralism in Sudan. Occasion Paper: Sudan Academic of Administration Sciences, Khartoum.
Fifthly, websites:
-http://www.rivernilestate.gov.sd/pages/intro
-shttps://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/
-http://www.gadarifstate.gov.sd
-http://www.kassalastate.gov.sd  
-http://whitenilestate.gov.sd
-www.marefa.org

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