A research on projects attached to industry of sugar in sugar factories of the Sudan (1962—2016)Tue, 17 Apr 2018
Dr. Amal Jādal Rab Fa¼l al Mawla
The research addressed projects attached to industry of sugar in sugar factories of the Sudan. Importantly, the research sees to it that these projects provide further labour opportunities at sugar factories, save foreign currencies whereby sugar factories had once imported production inputs like spare parts. Moreover, diversity strategy of projects of agricultural production can open other labour opportunities of transactions at markets for a big number of Sudanese people. The research aimed at the following:
- Acquaint with types of projects attached to sugar factories in the Sudan.
- Discuss reality of such projects in supporting sugar factories in the Sudan.
- Acquaint with problems facing projects attached to sugar factories in the Sudan and the way these problems can be resolved.
In fact, there are projects attached to industry of sugar, the important of which are industries related to production inputs like industry of spare parts in foundries and workshops. For instance Khartoum central foundry, whose management was devolved to factories of Sudanese Sugar Company, contributed to the production that covers requirements of industrial, agricultural and service sectors of castings of cast iron, copper and aluminum with their different kinds. So, before the year 2003, production had been about 700 tons per annum and the current production (2015) is 2.000 tons per annum. Similarly, the foundry of Kināna sugar factory contributed to different castings with a design capacity of 2.5 tons per day where the foundry produces gaskets of vehicles and heavy trucks, etc. besides, the research showed that there are engineering industries of Kināna sugar factory that provided equipments and machineries whereby technicians acquired great know-how that contributed to the great industrial renaissance at the plant. As to other projects attached to sugar factories, namely projects of agricultural production, Kināna Sugar Co. gained the greatest and leading role in industrialization of agricultural production. On a commercial scale, the company is involved in industry of meats, milks and poultry besides forest production like industry of timber. In spite of development of projects attached to industry of sugar, the research stated that this industry faces a number of problems, the greatest of which are poor financing and high price of scrap iron. For this reason, the research recommended that the government should support these projects so as to save hard currency spent in importation of spare parts, equipments and machineries from abroad. Moreover, industry projects attached to agricultural production need to be applied to all sugar factories which provide new labour opportunities and increase income for factories and inhabitants.
Development of industry is the mainstay of the developmental process because industrialization provides a leading role in industrywhich promotes peoples’ standard of living through generation of money and provision of welfare for human being besides assimilation of manpower and contribution to other economic activities like agriculture, trade and transport.
Industry of sugar opens a spacious field for creating complementary industries like industry of yeast and fodder out of molasses and industry of paper out of bagasse. Also, attached to industry of sugar are industries with front linkage and others with rear linkage. Lack of these latter industries poses a threatening factor against any strategy of agricultural expansion such as industry of tractors, equipments and different agricultural machineries including manufacturing of spare parts, irrigation equipments, packaging and inputs of refrigerated storage and such other industries(8).
Industry of sugar has posed an important pillar of national economy through its direct and indirect diverse contributions and its motivation for different sectors besides its growing role in social development and increasing demand for commodity of sugar. It is worth noting that geographical location of industry of sugar helped diversify industries given that disparity of the area and potentialities shows a big and effective aspect as far as land can be soundly invested and exploited besides possible linkage of various fields of industry. Therefore, industry of sugar, integration of engineering sectors and integration of food are implemented through manufacturing of agricultural production at schemes of cultivation of sugar cane(1).
In this part of the research, we address projects attached to industries of sugar where we can discuss industries that contribute to production inputs of sugar cane and, also, they include industries attached to agricultural and forest production.
Importance of the research consists of the following:
1/ projects attached to sugar factories in the Sudan provide further labour opportunities in sugar factories.
2/ projects attached to sugar factories in the Sudan provide, through strategy of diversity, other labour opportunities in markets for a big number of Sudanese people, particularly projects attached to agricultural production.
3/ projects attached to sugar factories in the Sudan, which are specialized in industry of production inputs, contribute to solution of problems of machineries, agricultural equipments, spare parts in factories and this reduces magnitude of stoppage.
4/ projects attached to sugar factories save foreign currencies which would have otherwise been used to procure production inputs from abroad to sugar factories in the Sudan.
The research aims at the following:
1/ acquaint with kinds of projects attached to sugars factories in the Sudan.
2/ discuss reality of projects as regards supporting sugar factories in the Sudan.
3/ discuss problems facing projects attached to sugar factories in the Sudan.
4/ set solutions and proposals for solving problems facing projects attached to sugar factories in the Sudan.
Sugar factories in Sudan have been interested in establishing projects attached to industry of sugar. Some of these projects are with front linkage and others with rear linkage to industry of sugar in a production covering requirements of industrial, agricultural and service sectors of different castings. Likewise, there are engineering industries of Kināna sugar factory that provided equipments and machineries whereby technicians acquired great know-how that contributed to the great industrial renaissance at the plant. Meanwhile, industry in other projects attached to sugar factories, namely projects of agricultural production, has commercially developed and this directly impacted development of quality and quantity of production of these industries. In spite of development of projects attached to industry of sugar in the Sudan, industry faces a number of problems, the greatest of which are poor financing and high prices of scrap iron needed for industry of castings.
The research assumes the following:
1/ great development of projects attached to industry of sugar in the Sudan. This development provided a lot of indispensible requirements of industry and, thus, provided labour opportunities for citizens.
2/ in spite of the great development of projects attached to industry of sugar in the Sudan, problem of financing is one of the greatest hurdles that challenge projects attached to industry of sugar, particularly projects attached to production inputs.
The research used descriptive method in the industry attached to sugar factories, i.e. it described industries attached to production inputs in sugar factories like description of engineering industries, casting and workshops and also description of industries attached to agricultural and forest production. Additionally, historical method was used for acquainting with history of this industry attached to industry of sugar in the Sudan. Moreover, quantitative/ statistical/ analytical method was used for analyzing some data of statistical reports collected from relevant parties for knowing quantity of production.
Secondary information was collected from books and periodicals in universities’ libraries of Khartoum State while initial information was collected from statistical reports of the relevant parties and library of Federal Ministry of Industry.
Industry of sugar sector has distinguishably maintained its assets and infrastructure and continuously developed its capacities. So, in addition to production of sugar, sugar schemes are accompanied by other projects which can be addressed by this research in two sections. One of these sections discusses industries attached to production inputs concerning industry of spare parts in foundries and workshops besides engineering industries like industry of equipments and machineries in sugar factories. The second section is concerned with industry attached to agricultural production and its diversification by introducing animal in agricultural rotation in sugar schemes of the Sudan. These sugar schemes possess competent cadres and research centers and they have become an engine of agriculture and agricultural industrialization and, thus, industry of sugar has integrated food and renewable energy. Anyway, we can address this in the following:
1/ projects attached to production inputs:
All bilateral agreements in the Sudan have imported equipments and ready-made factories. Actually, this makes Sudan a depository for different types of machines and plants and always makes the country urgently needful of spare parts for these machines and plants. Till the late ‘seventies of last century, it had been a big problem that Sudan could not manufacture these spare parts(4).
Projects attached to production inputs include the following:
1/ central foundries:
Metal industries are concerned with extraction of metals out of their ores and molding them into special shapes or into standard sections usable in other industries through removing the clinging blotches from ores and separating them from their chemical ingredients. This is done by processes of heating, melting and reduction in industry of iron and steel, copper and aluminum which are poured in moulds whose shapes will be in accord with the final product which is called casting process(6).
Central foundry contributed to manufacturing of spare parts of cast iron, copper and aluminum. Again, this contributed to developmental renaissance of the country and that demand to spare parts has increased while magnitude of demand is continuously growing with making use of workshops attached to Sudanese industrial institutions.
Manufacturing of spare parts aims at the following:
1/ make use of scraps in manufacturing spare parts instead of exporting them abroad.
2/ develop and promote level of national expertise and competencies and acquire new capabilities at manufacturing spare parts to help local industrialization and make substitute for imports.
3/ save hard currency which had been used in importing spare parts from abroad.
4/ evade foreign pressures practiced by some industrial nations through spare parts in order these states can impose their policies on the country(5).
The following are foundries of the Sudanese Sugar Co.
A/ Khartoum central foundry and workshops of Sudanese Sugar Co. factories
The foundry was established in 1971 with an aid donated by UNIDO and government of Yugoslavia. It was established as a training unit for qualifying cadres at fields of engineering industries in the Sudan. The design capacity of Khartoum foundry are 25 tons of cast iron, 20 tons of copper and 10 tons of aluminum per annum and all of which equals 55 tons in the year(4). Generally, these are small capacities, yet if the establishment develops, production will highly multiply.
In 1990, cost of total requirements of spare parts for Sudanese industrial sector reached (12956 million US dollars!!!!!). However, out of this sum, three million US dollars was the total cost of spare parts for factories of the Sudanese Sugar Co. while spare parts for factories of the Sudanese Sugar Co. were imported for 11,965,115 US dollars and 12,146,528 US dollars in 1994 and 1995 respectively( 2). Regrettably, this figure is too great!!! to affect public money as this sum, in that period, was sufficient enough to establish a whole factory or contribute to establishing numerous small plants specialized in manufacturing of spare parts for different industrial units. In fact, domestic manufacturing of spare parts saves a lot of hard currencies which are mostly wasted over importation of those spare parts from abroad. Actually, payment of a price of a spare part for domestic currency makes it easy for beneficiary corporations to pay for spare parts and abide by their commitments, particularly in absence of a hard currency due to the economical blockade imposed on the Sudan by nations of western world.
Khartoum central foundry was devolved to Sudanese Sugar Co. in 2003 where it was rehabilitated with a number of technical and administrative reformations and modifications and supplements in order to raise design capacity from (700 tons/year) to (3000 tons/year). Furthermore, the foundry got permanent manpower of 29 employees and 69 seasonal workers. For creating appropriate infrastructure to support industrial sector, develop the foundry and to quantitatively and qualitatively keep up with productive leap, the Company aimed at the following:
- Raise capacity and lessen cost.
- Improve labour environment to be compatible with the global ISO system.
- Meet requirements of both public and private industrial sectors as regards their needs of castings.
- Introduce modern technology system.
- Introduce castings system with S. G. IRON quality.
- Introduce castings with INVESTMENT CASTING System.
- Introduce castings with centrifugal casting system.
- Acquire ISO Certificate.
- Train the needed technical cadre in field of casting.
- Enter world markets.
The foundry delivers the following services:
- Cover the country requirements of castings.
- Provide spare parts for industrial sector.
As to production of the foundry, it is as follows:
- Production before 2003 was about 700 tons/year.
- Current production (2015) is 2.000 tons per annum.
- Planned production for coming years is 5.000 tons per annum(1).
In this respect, all spare parts are meant to be home-made and provided for factories and the country is to be ushered in manufacturing of plants to become locally made in 100%.
The foundry covers needs of industrial, agricultural and service sectors of cast iron castings, copper and aluminum with their different kinds. Nowadays, the foundry deals with sectors of sugar, oil, cement, railways, irrigation, communications and agricultural irrigated schemes (JazÌra, Rahad and all other agricultural schemes).
Technological processes of the foundry are controlled by a competent management of planning and quality. The management displays products on labs of chemical/mechanical/physical analysis before acquiring an ISO certificate. Also, the management is committed to timely handing over the product(1).
Products of the foundry include spare parts, different kinds of light machineries like electricity conductive wires, spare parts of factories of sugar, textile and grains. The foundry is also committed to providing original spare part with reasonable prices and in time.
There are agricultural workshops attached to the factory of Sudanese Sugar Co. where spare parts sections are managed by widely experienced professional officials, for instance the Jinaid agricultural workshops maintain machines of agricultural section. These workshops represent a navy for preparing land and loading and transporting of sugar cane along with other aiding machines of agricultural and service machines. In this context, agricultural workshop is responsible for substitution of factory machines. As to agricultural workshop at Newalfa factory, agricultural engineering section makes some equipment instead of importing them. Additionally, for keeping up with expansion of the factory, a new workshop was established on scientific, technical and hygienic bases for cost of five million German marks and twenty one million SD. The workshop is charged with preparing, repairing and maintaining heavy and light tractors, vehicles and trailers which prepare land and agricultural processes. Similarly, at A'salāya factory, the workshop is charged with preparing, repairing and maintaining heavy and light tractors, vehicles and trailers which prepare land and agricultural processes on a hand and harvest, load and transport sugar cane on another hand. Also, the workshop prepares and secures spare parts and necessary materials from domestic market and from abroad.
B/ foundry of Kināna Sugar Co.
Foundry of Kināna Sugar Co. was established in the year 2000 with a daily design capacity of 2.5 tons of different castings. The cost of the foundry was 85 million dinars, out of which 60 million dinars for buying machines from a British company and 25 million dinars were cost of buildings. This foundry makes spare parts for sugar as a whole and it produces the following:
1/ gaskets of vehicles and heavy trucks.
2/ some parts for steam boilers.
3/ some parts for big vehicles.
4/ some parts for agricultural equipments and parts for irrigation gates.
As well, Kināna Co. makes spare parts in its other workshops like central workshop, factory workshop and agricultural workshops. The company maintains the machines operating in agricultural section where these machines prepare land and load and transport sugar cane along with other aiding machines of agricultural and service machines. Moreover, the company provides a lot of spare parts in the workshop which is managed by skillful engineers and labourers where the number of employees of the navy and workshops equals 2248 workers(2).
2/ engineering industries attached to sugar factories in the Sudan:
In the world of the day, engineering industries represent an important pillar for economy of any contemporary nation since necessary elements of production are mobilized and oriented by these industries. This industrial sector includes basic industries of foundries, spare parts, iron products and zinc plates while the total complex capacity of this sector is estimated to be 250,000 tons per annum.
We can discuss projects attached to industry of sugar in fields of engineering industries through factors that help create engineering industries at Kināna sugar factory. These aiding factors are:
- Training and qualifying employees to meet the growing demands of the sector.
- Training center of the sector at Kināna has effectively contributed in last years to creation of a durable industrial base regarding national experiences.
- Kināna Co. finished a study on development of the training center in order for that center to be a nucleus for Kināna technological institute in which a specialized cadre at industry system will graduate.
Factories provided expertise and skill at sugar sector, continuous training and openness to the world industry of sugar which created typical environment for progress of engineering industry. And industry has greatly advanced in homemaking of many industrial components and with global levels(3).
These industrial projects which contribute to production inputs can be discussed as follows:
- Manufacturing of equipments and machineries in Sudanese sugar factories:
Engineering industries change products of metal industries into direct usable commodities. They include industry of agricultural machines and equipments, engineering accessories for factories and industry of spare parts(7).
Kināna Sugar Co. established Kināna Unit for manufacturing equipments and machineries (KEM) in 1986. Therefore, technicians have acquired great know-how in this field which helped in the large industrial renaissance of industry of sugar. This unit helps perform the following:
- Qualify poles of sugar cane mills which were previously loaded to England and India in order to be re-pruned.
- Manufacture reception stations of sugar cane at the factory.
- Manufacture some components of sugar refineries and units of treatment.
- Manufacture small trailers for carrying liquids and dry stuffs.
- Manufacture 25 agricultural machines for different agricultural processes of land plowing, leveling, fertilizing and cleaning. These machines are operated under a patent in the name of the company.
- Install production units for the new projects like fodder, ethanol, slaughter houses and storage containers.
- Manufacture water purification units (ACU Sudan) which have become leading units in markets and absolutely solved problems of drinking water in the states.
- Manufacture spare parts for the factory and water pumps.
- Make all castings in the foundry attached to the unit(3).
According to what was discussed above, engineering industries contribute as possible as they can to development of factories and operation of industrial establishments, knowing that stoppage of these establishments creates great problems facing engineering industries, particularly spare parts. Notably, such problems are caused by difficulties facing importation such as delay of financial appropriations and high prices of foreign cash which impact costs of production regarding domestic industrial commodities. However, the more sugar factories achieve self-sufficiency of spare parts and engineering industries in the country, the more they spare much time supposed to be wasted by importation of spare parts from abroad. On another hand, the domestically manufactured spare parts guarantee sustainability of production and continuation of industry in case of lack of spare parts. Alternatively, yet resentfully, many industries in the Sudan depend on importation of spare parts and this wastes time and consequently affects production.
As regards treatment of manufacturing spare parts and engineering industries with castings, sugar sector has globally advanced as ratio of stoppage, including preventive maintenance, reached 3% in Kināna Co. and 9% in the Sugar Co. compared to a global average equaling 15%(5). This affirms that industry of sugar in the Sudan has greatly developed, particularly concerning human cadre which acquired great expertise in field of agricultural manufacturing as this industry requires a great technical skill, particularly engineering industries and spare parts.
3/ plastic bags factory (A'salāya):
Sudanese Sugar Co. accustomed to importing about 5.1 million plastic bags for packing the produced sugar for annually 5.1 million US dollars while the cost increases with an annual rate equaling 5%. To meet the needs of the four sugar factories, the company earnestly decided to establish a factory of plastic bags to be attached to A'salāya sugar factory and, thus, a great amount of the company resources of foreign cash can be saved. The total cost of the project reached about 4.1 million US dollars in addition to ten million SD as clearance and shipping charges besides the local component which is more than 200 million SD.
In 1992, the Sudanese Sugar Co. signed a contract with Overseas Solidarity Projects Company for importation of the factory of plastic bags. In 1997, the factory began operating where the company signed contract with Chinese experts for operating the plant and training employees for a year. There are 58 permanent employees and 50 temporal employees.
According to the agreement, design capacity of the factory is three million bags (with 100 kg each per annum). But, according to global orientation for production of bags with capacity of 50 kg in the year, productive design capacity became about four million and a half million bags and currently production capacity is 18 million bags per annum. Lastly, all requirements of the Sudanese Sugar Co. of packing bags have been covered.
Raw material and machines and equipments of the factory:
Polypropylene is used in manufacturing sugar bags. Here, master bash stuff is added to polypropylene with 2% to 5% for bleaching, durability and preservation of the product. As to low thick polyurethane, it is used for making internal casings for bags. Also, polyurethane with high thickness is used for marketing bags. For its production, the factory uses a part of Sudanese raw material produced in Khartoum Refinery Co.
The factory consists of several parts which are: blending& melting machine - fourteen textile machines - cutting & sewing machine - bag machine - printing machine - bag cutting& welding machine - presses - pen machine for manufacturing internal coating and marketing bags. Of late, melting machine of damaged material was imported for remanufacturing this material.
More important advantages of the project:
1/ provided requirements of sugar factories of the company with avoiding problems caused by lack of bags.
2/ reduced cost of the bag by one third.
3/ accomplished the substitute of imported bags.
4/ saved hard currencies of about 5.7 million dollars.
5/ secured opportunities of manpower for about more than hundred personnel.
6/ helped making use of extra electricity at A'salāya factory.
7/ restored the capital for about 5.3 years(1).
As industry of sugar bags is related to production inputs, it solved the problem of lack of bags for factories of the Sudanese Sugar Co. and this helped preserve the produced commodity against damage.
Agricultural machineries, irrigation systems, water, electricity, steam, various expertise and skills are available in industry of sugar. These elements are integrated with by-products of industry and thus provided advantageous environment for high feasible projects which became a part of sugar industry system in the following fields:
1/ food and energy:
In field of food, sugar factories, in addition to production of sugar, produce sugar cane honey, meats, poultry, fishes, milks with their derivatives, fodders for animals and coincided crops. According to sugar system report (2015), this can be discussed in the following:
- Products of milks, poultry and red meats:
- To introduce animal in sugar industry system, some models are now carried out in Sugar Co. in coordination with Ministries of Agriculture and Livestock.
- Kināna Sugar Co. has presented an integrated commercial model for this activity through the agricultural productive unit at which 230 employees work and it was involved in commercial production in 2004/2005. In field of agricultural production, the company owns numerous projects:
- Animal production:
Animal production includes the following:
1/ products of milk:
The company owns a dairy farm with a capacity of 1200 milking cows where the farm is attached to a factory for production of pasteurized milks, yogurt, kinds of cheeses and butter. Capacity of the factory is about 30,000 liters for one shift. Helpfully, production of milk, feeding and manufacturing is automatically accomplished in the farm. Moreover, attached to this farm is a unit of artificial pollination to improve progeny of domestic cows, a process which neighbouring vicinities of Kināna benefit from through establishing aexemplary farm of crossbred cows. The dairy aims at producing 3.7 million liters annually but now it produces two million liters and at the same time there is a three year plan for boosting up the production to 8 million liters per annum. This plan of expansion is built on programs of artificial progeny for improvement of breeds specialized in production of milk and importation of cows with high productivity to increase the number of herds.
2/ products of meats:
Meats are produced by fattening calves through artificial pollination of herds of cows and calves which are bought at and brought from production areas for producing red meats. This farm produced 2600 calves and there is a three year plan for producing 20000 calves besides 1.541 million kg in the year. The plan of expansion aims at importing progenies specialized in production of meats with an accompanying program for improving domestic progenies and thus changing the cost in cooperation with Ministry of Livestock.
3/ poultry products:
Poultry products are produced through closed barns farm and automatic slaughterhouse with a capacity of 1.200 hens/ hour!!!and a refrigerated storage capacity of 30 tons. Now the current production capacity is two thousand tons per annum with a three year plan of expansion for producing 4000 tons.
Poultry production: there is a unit for production of white meats of poultry producing a million chickens in the year. Also, there are attempts to boost up production to upwards of three million chickens in the year with preparing a slaughterhouse of poultry with a capacity of three million chickens a year.
- Products of vegetables and fruits:
- These products are produced through specialized orchards scattering in the scheme. These orchards produce banana, grape fruit, orange, lemon, mango and guava with a capacity of 0.5 million kg per annum, besides seedlings of fruit and ornament with a capacity of 0.5 million saplings per annum.
- Orchards are currently rearranged for expansion and making centers in cooperation with a foreign house of expertise.
- Greenhouses for flowers and ornamental plants: greenhouses for flowers and ornamental plants produce vegetables and export them.
- Sudanese Sugar Co. has centers for production of milks, poultry and vegetables at all factories. These products aim at meeting all needs of employees and their families as well as requirements of neighbouring communities.
What was mentioned above shows big development of diverse industries attached to projects of agricultural production of sugar schemes in the Sudan, particularly of Kināna Sugar Co. Likewise, introduction of livestock in agricultural rotation contributes to improvement of type of soil found in the cultivated area and neighbouring area and increasing of its fertility through diversification of crops and exploitation of wastes of cow and poultry farms. All these natural treatments have good impact on crop quality and they purify it from chemical enhancers which proved to be harmful to human being for medium run and they also enhance organic products.
- Production of timbers from commercial forests:
Commercial forests of camphor trees extend in commercial areas in the five factories of sugar and in the White Nile Sugar Scheme. As shown in table (1), more than 15000 faddāns of the tree were cultivated to improve environment and pose barriers against winds and illegal cutting of trees and alleviate impacts of desertification.
Forests represent the greatest product of timbers in the domestic market. These woods are produced of camphor trees for different usages, for instance for furniture, building and burning. In this regard, commercial production of timbers by companies has largely contributed to requirements of the market and positively contributed to ending illegal cutting of forests(3).
According to figures of table (1), of all sugar factories in the Sudan, Kināna Sugar Co. is a leading one in regard to looking after forest sector. The company exploits a wide area for cultivation of forests with 39.7% of the total area cultivated with forests in Sudanese sugar schemes. The average harvested area of it is 500 faddāns in the season which equals 62.5% of the annual harvested area of forests in sugar schemes while average number of the cut trees is 250,000 trees in the season which equals 61.7% of the total cut trees in sugar schemes.
As to factories of Sudanese sugar Company, the cultivated area of forests is 4100 faddāns which equals 27.2% of the total cultivated area of forests in sugar factories in the Sudan while average harvested area of it is 300 feddāns in the season which equals 37.5% of the yearly total average harvested area of forests in sugar factories. As well, average number of the cut trees in the season is 15,5000 trees which equals 38.3% of the total cut trees in sugar factories.
Regarding the factory of the White Nile Sugar Company, it occupies the second place in relation to the cultivated area of forests where this area equals 5000 faddāns, i.e. 33.1% of the total cultivated area of forests in Sudan sugar factories. Nevertheless, the factory has not exploited forests at commercial scale, given that it is a new factory not exceeding six years.
According to the above, it is obvious that sugar factories have accompanied the sustained development program along with their strategy through preservation of environment. This is due to the fact that sugar belt extends in poor savanna territory in desertification-affected-Central Sudan. Furthermore, with their trade value in markets, forests play a great part in the economy of sugar factories through scientifically organized and planned cutting.
According to sugar industry system in the Sudan (2015), importance of industry of sugar concerning preservation and improvement of environment consists in the following:
1/ combat of desertification:
- Sugar schemes play an effective role in restoration of vegetation through sugar cane fields and the accompanying commercial forests which equal 5% of the area of every scheme which helps stop illegal cutting of forests.
- Direct relationship between restoration of vegetation and rainy environmental systems in districts close to desert and thus reverse desertification and restore vegetation.
- Current and future sugar projects, within the grand plan, will pose infallible confrontation line for stopping desertification at low cost.
2/ reduction of greenhouse gases:
- Sugar cane fields resemble a huge lung that absorbs carbon dioxide in the space and breathe oxygen which makes environment hygienic and ideal in sites of factories.
- Reduction of temperature by an average of 2 ° C in sites of factories and this have had positive impact on environment and reduced evaporation losses.
- Environmental pollution caused by usage of chemical fertilizers is to be ended by vinasse and clay of filters in addition to utilization of organic fertilizers introduced by research centers.
Table (1) cultivated forests in sugar factories in the Sudan
Area forests (feddans)
Average harvested area in the season (feddan)
Average number of cut trees in the season
Sudanese Sugar Co.
White Nile Sugar Co.
Source: Sugar System, 2015
Sugar factories are concerned with training and qualifying employees at workshops and foundries and in engineering industries because training has become an investment occupation rather than a job earning insofar as in order that sugar can keep up with development and the expected renaissance in future plans. As a result, trainees can be employed in other new factories for any kind of other food industries in the Sudan. We can explain the role of training centers in sugar factories in relation to engineering industries as follows:
Sugar sector is concerned with training and qualifying employees in order to meet the growing needs of the sector.
- Sugar sector has two training centers at Kināna location and Sinnār location. These centers have effectively contributed to creation of a durable industrial foundation of national expertise in last year.
Kināna Sugar Co. has accomplished a study on development of the training center in order to be a nucleus for Kināna technological institute which will be specialized in graduating competent cadres at industry system. In fact, provision of expertise and skill in sugar sector through continuous training and openness to world sugar industry has created the typical environment for progress of engineering industry attached to industry of sugar. In this regard, Kināna Co. has largely accelerated industry as regards localization of manufacturing many components of engineering industries at global levels(3).
- National training center of the Sudanese Sugar Co. in Sennar:
National training center of the Sudanese Sugar Co. in Sinnār consists of 33 permanent employees and 28 temporal workers. The center aims at accomplishing training purposes in the following:
1/ promote professional capacity of basic manpower in industry of sugar.
2/ train technicians, i.e. medium technical manpower, in supervisory levels concerning industrialization, technology of sugar and workshops.
3/ train engineers in technological fields and in fields of equipments and maintenance in order to keep up with technological development and prepare specialized seminars on industry of sugar.
4/ cooperate with training centers and similar institutions both at home and abroad in order to provide training opportunities for employees.
Among fields of training concerning industry of sugar is training of employees in professional and engineering field which is a basic element in development of industry. In so doing, the workforce can acquire experiences which qualify them in engineering industries and thus manpower can locally solve problems of industry without outsourcing, whether these industries are of apparatuses, equipments or spare parts. For Sudanese Sugar Company, training in engineering and professional fields is shown in the following:
- Professional field:
Here employees are trained in field of metals forming, economic usage of gas in cutting, welding of trailers, high pressure welding (containers/ pipes), mechanical filing, milling and gear cutting, economic exploitation for indentation of equipments, welding of steel and cast iron, adjustment and rolling and manufacturing of pipes, training in industrial supervision.
- Engineering of sugar in maintenance and processing:
Employees are trained in steam boilers, squeezers, steam turbines, manufacturing equipments, Centrifugal machines, equipments of fumigation, cooking and crystallization, maintenance of electrical equipment, control device, maintenance and installation of balls, training in supervision, oil and lubricants, rehabilitation of electric motors (rolling and maintenance), maintenance of refrigeration equipment, shift management (personnel, time, materials), maintenance of pressure and heat meters, reading the diagram of the closed control circuits and measuring the effectiveness of circuits, maintenance and processing of scales, maintenance of generators and diesel, weights necessary for conveyors of mechanical movement (chains and belts, etc), industrial security, maintenance management, measurement of labour(1).
Wherever there are diverse specialized fields of training for Sudanese sugar factories, they contribute to solution of problems of engineering industries and spare parts which themselves represent greatest needs that contribute to production requirements of raw material, machines and equipments as this industry entails high technical skill which spare high wages of outsourcing and save hard currency for the Sudan which can be exploited in development of industry of sugar.
7/ problems facing projects attached to industries of sugar:
Though industry of sugar has greatly developed in diverse fields of industries attached to sugar, these assets have not optimally been capitalized on because of a number of problems facing them which are:
1/ engineering industries, which are placed in the first position, are challenged by costly requirements of production of sugar industry, particularly by raw material.
2/ problems of engineering industries are represented by high wages of manpower as this industry entails high technical skill and high wages.
3/ manufacturing of spare parts in workshops and foundries of Sudan sugar factories is challenged by high prices of different types of scrap and this results in high cost of the commodity.
4/ high cost of financing of engineering industries and, as well, high cost of projects of milks and meats as these products require refrigerators, prepared vehicles and paved transport roads for distribution of production in neighbouring areas and markets.
Sudan industry of sugar has witnessed large developments in attached industries, for instance manufacturing of production inputs like spare parts in central foundries and like workshops in factories of sugar companies (Kināna and Sudanese Sugar Co.) which contributed to development of industry of sugar while global demand for it kept growing. This kind of industry has spared time vis-à-vis its importation from abroad, secured sustainability of production, saved a lot of foreign currency by which industrial requirements had been imported, besides it qualified and trained Sudanese manpower on which engineering industries depend upon. On another hand, due to its financial and human resources, Kināna Sugar Company is concerned with engineering industries, i.e. equipments and agricultural machineries which contributed to development of production in Kināna sugar factories. Moreover, the company has expanded spheres of food industries by introducing animal in agricultural rotation and, consequently, food industries are placed in the first position in relation to other industries. likewise, food manufacturing includes a set of food industries, all of which depend on agricultural and animal products such as industry of meats and milks which are needed by consumers. There are also unmanufactured foods like fresh fruits which are immediately deliverable to consumers. Furthermore, sugar companies have cared for planting trees to protect environment and pose an additional economic resource in industry of timbers. Generally, these industries have a lot to do with rural development in vicinities of sugar industry and with limiting migration.
The research arrived at the following results:
1/ devolution of Khartoum central foundry to Sudanese Sugar Company in 2003 is of paramount importance as the foundry provides requirements of industrial, agricultural and service sectors such as castings of cast iron, copper and aluminum. Therefore, comparatively, production before the year 2003 had been about 700 tons per annum while current production (2015) is 2000 tons per annum. As to production of the coming years, it is planned for to be 5000 tons in the year. Also, workshops of sugar factories make a lot of spare parts. Foundry of Kināna Sugar Company, established in 2000 with a design capacity of 2.5 tons per day, produces different castings like gaskets of vehicles and heavy trucks and some spare parts of steam boilers and large vehicles.
2/ Kināna Sugar Co. established Kināna Unit for manufacturing equipments and machineries by which technicians gained great technical know-how contributing to the large industrial renaissance of industry of sugar. Helpfully, the Unit manufactures a number of components of sugar factory such as receiving stations of sugar cane, some components of sugar refineries and 25 agricultural machineries for different agricultural operations. Advantageously, this manufacturing spared importation of these tools from abroad and, thus, saved hard currency for the country.
3/ Sudanese Sugar Company established a plastic bags factory attached to A'salāya sugar factory. This factory has met all needs of packing bags for the Sudanese Sugar Co. with production capacity equaling 18 million bags in the year. Economically, this production capacity of locally made bags has annually spared 5.1 million dollars for importation of bags for packing produced sugar, knowing that this cost increases with a rate of 5% in the year.
- 4/ Kināna sugar Co. has gained the leading position in manufacturing of agricultural production on a commercial scale like industry of meats, milks and poultry with a model dairy of crossbred cows which produced two million liters with setting a three year plan for increasing production of milk to 8 million liters in the year. As to poultry production, there is closed barns farm and automatic slaughterhouse with a capacity of 1.200 hens/ hour!!!and a refrigerated storage capacity of 30 tons and now the current production capacity is two thousand tons per annum. As to Sudanese Sugar Company, it has centers for production of milk, poultry and vegetables at all factories. These products aim at meeting all needs of employees and their families as well as requirements of neighbouring communities. Also, there is forest production for manufacturing of timbers.
5/ projects attached to industries of sugar provided new jobs for labour at these factories and created new labour opportunities for a big number of Sudanese people and for merchants in areas of sugar factories.
The research recommends the following:
- Care should be given to engineering industries by determining all data and statements of potentialities and requirements and coordinate with all relevant parties for boosting up production and productivity of spare parts and engineering industries.
- Basic production inputs should be exempted of customs and taxes in order to create comprehensive industrial renaissance which delivers inputs for many industries to help localize industry of spare parts in sugar factories, particularly effectiveness of these spare parts matches that of imported machineries and equipments.
- Domestic technical cadres must be trained according to needs of industrial sector such as in equipments, machineries and spare parts in order to reduce high waged foreign manpower.
- Necessary financial should be saved for support of establishing accompanying factories whose industry depends on agricultural production for all projects of Sudanese Sugar Co. These factories can contribute to industrial diversification which citizens of sugar areas in particular and of the country in general benefit from.
- Plans need to be drawn up to develop forests and introduce them in agricultural rotation besides making nutrition of green and dry fodder for animal while introducing animal in agricultural rotation in all sugar schemes. Commercially, introduction of animal in agricultural rotation improves marketing of agricultural products, animal production, products of milks and create new labour opportunities in markets and neighbouring areas of sugar factories in the Sudan.
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