Cultural IndustriesTue, 17 Apr 2018
This article discusses the concepts of cultural industries and development before giving some examples of cultural industry activities that can be established in Sudan. It deals with music, some handicrafts, and then food and sports industries.
Since cultural industry is an activity of a state and part of its development plans, the article also discusses the role of the private sector to contribute in the successfulness of such activities, especially in under developed counties, as Sudan.
The economical problems are one of the biggest challenges that disturbs development plans of all nations and causes many social conflicts that sometimes lead to national wars due to lack of resources.
Culture provides many solutions for such economical problems especially in under developed countries, as Sudan, which has diverse cultural components and environments.
This article discusses the kinetic cultural resources of Sudan and how we can transfer them to cultural industries that generate money and contribute a lot in economical development.
According to international organizations such as UNESCO and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), cultural industries (sometimes also known as "creative industries") combine the creation, production, and distribution of goods and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by intellectual property rights .
The notion of cultural industries generally includes textual, music, television, and film production and publishing, as well as crafts and design. For some countries, architecture, the visual and performing arts, sport, advertising, and cultural tourism may be included as adding value to the content and generating values for individuals and societies. They are knowledge-based and labor-intensive, creating employment and wealth. By nurturing creativity and fostering innovation societies will maintain cultural diversity and enhance economic performance .
Nevertheless, such definition of cultural industry opens the door wide for all cultural heritage that could include clothing, decorative material for homes, such as the Nubians house decoration , food making and indigenous knowledge as traditional medicine and agricultural tools and activities.
It will be very difficult for local governments to maintain such fruitful economical activities unless the cultural heritage is protected by intellectual property rights. If the country is already signed the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Agreement , then, it is very important to register its cultural inventory making to be protected from steeling by other nations.
Folklorists think that development should take the socio-cultural dimensions into consideration, and be sensitive towards that . In other words, development projects should accommodate the traditional knowledge and mode of production, to address the real needs of the target groups as much as possible. Development does not start or stop with the production of goods. It starts with the people and the useable resources of people, such as motivation, initiative, and organizational discipline. Without this, all resources remain potential and untapped.
Development is an accumulative, continuous, socially controlled growth of productive forces involving the totality of changes, which pave the way for the creation of local mechanisms of accumulation and social progress. Development projects should avoid the disruption of the family and society, utilize local and national resources, as well as it should be friendly to the environment.
Work is a value in itself and an idle citizen is an insult. But, cultural industry will not only offer job opportunities for a group of people, but what is more important is that it contributes in raising their revenue and reducing their poverty. It deals with producing traditional commodities that can generate money, increase the income of the individuals and solve many financial problems that are facing the groups, the society and the state.
Such ideas meant to avoid or overstep the socio cultural context when implementing what is so called ‘development projects’. The folklore of different groups, whose development is being sought, should be respected studied and utilized as means to provide socio-cultural dimension, which is needed to a successful implementation of such development projects.
Cultural industry as an economical development issue needs, beside such a theoretical discussion, suggestions of practical ways of implementation. In this article, few examples of cultural industry activities are suggested, hopping that Sudan succeeds to implement them and consequently achieve its development targets and objectives.
Music as a commodity is now competing to be marketable. It has so many functions: entertainment, therapy and publicity. But, what is more important is to conduct socio – cultural studies of music that helps in analyzing the psychological components of the different nations needed for imperialism and cultural domination.
One of the researchers' achievements is that music practice, even for a limited period of time, affects the functions of the brain's cells through the re-verification of its response to musical frequency. Researchers have now perceived the possibility to identify the essential tones or frequencies of any living organism (that affects its safety and its nourishment) by drawing the "frequency map" of his hearing cortex. This can be done by observing the musical tone or tones that produce the maximum response of the hearing cortex-cells .
Cultural publicity needs internet connectivity. All countries that are in the interest of building cultural industry must have a database that allows others to compare and choose between different cultural commodities that will be subjected to specific criteria of quality and perfection. Many cultural formats will be produced as films, compact disks, and other formats, and will be distributed all over the world to identify the market’s needs for music.
That means local mediators who use to publicize their music should be aware of its quality which should be suiting the international criteria of perfection. Cultural commodities of low production quality can hardly be distributed or be marketable.
The situation in many third world countries, including our African and Arab origins, is characterized with interlocking relations between the European musical culture and the local and regional musical cultures. The assumption is that the centre, which is now representing the west, is opposing the margins, the rest of the world, and this centre is supplying these margins, does not reflect all the reality; the margins are also affecting this centre.
Accordingly, there are two hypotheses: the first suggests a common criterion for evaluating music. And such criteria are built on the European perspective. The second one describes the situation as a process that creates a different kind of music described as: creolisation; hybridization and transnationalization .
According to the last assumption, there is an obvious effect of non European music in many European countries, and sometimes such music is popular and acceptable. From the other side the European music is also popular and acceptable in communities and cultures which are not European. This is why the supporters of this hypothesis look at the process as an intensity factor for these social changes .
But, I think this hybridization, if we accept it, is not a mechanical process. It is an intellectual activity looking for answers for questions like: what are musical elements which are not available in the European music and which are not conflicted with local cultural components that can be used to create this musical hybridization; or to create what is now known as the “World Beat” .
We have to look for the suitable elements available in our music that can contribute in this ‘world beat’. A lot of research and experiments must be done before we can compose such kind of music.
In Sudan, for example, there are some musical instruments that have distinct tune clear and distinct playing techniques that are not used in any other European musical instrument: the big ritual - Jangar lyre of the Ingasana ethnic group , with its unique strings, and the unique Waza trumpets of the Berta ethnic group ; both of the Blue Nile Region.
These musical instruments have the same tuning; and the characteristics of such musical instruments give us the chance to compose a unique Sudanese music of an additive value to what is now available in the world’s market.
What we suggest is a cultural dialogue between these local instruments and part of the Europeans musical instruments that we are used to, specially the strings. We are looking for a cultural industry that can be appreciated by others and consequently be distributed in other countries to create revenue and support development in poor communities.
Musical festivals are one of the successful means of cultural publicity; they generate a lot of many if they are well organized. In Sudan, we have big potentials to conduct such musical festivals; we have already regularly scheduled performances, like Burhaniya Sufi annual festival for the cultivation rituals of the Nuba Mountains and that of the Blue Nile area , in addition to the Hamad El Niil weekly performance in Omdurman.
All these examples of scheduled festivals remain as raw cultural material that need to be organized in a more attractive manner. The costumes and accessories of the active participants, the roads that the audiences take to reach the location of the festival, and the services offered for the visitors are all important issues that need to be managed if we want to make such festivals attractive inside and outside Sudan.
The openness of the West towards the other musical cultures led to some challenges facing the domination of such traditions of classical music of the European musical culture itself. The musicians of the European classical music and those who appreciate it should revise their opinion about this kind of music and start to raise questions as: what virtuosity consists of, and what are the factors that measure perfection? And other similar questions should be raised.
This openness of the West towards the other musical cultures has also an effect on the concepts that are dominated the West for a long period of time. The Europeans are obliged to reconstruct their concept: “music in a way or another over lap’s culture” which was strongly dominating in the nineteenth century.
The nations that are willing to publicize their music must start with knowledge. They have to know the components of their musical culture: the musical systems; the different rhythms; elements of virtuosity available in their culture; and the different functions and role of music in their societies.
In Sudan, if we want to conduct such duties, we have to restructure the musical curriculum of the single musical college available in Sudan to enable its students to be acquainted with their musical culture, jointly they have to be acquainted with the other’s musical culture, specifically the West which represents the centre where the products of cultural identity are publicized.
This knowledge enables the nations to identify the elements of virtuosity available in their musical cultures that can contribute in the formation of the ongoing ‘world beat’ which is now marketable. Shall we give the rhythm and drumming the major domination in our musical composition, as the drums are the most useable musical instruments in Africa?
A Senegal’s citizen called Doudou Rose who is educated in European classical music composed a musical ensemble titled “Wolof Drumming” adapting the European style of musical expression, without using any European musical instrument. His work is built completely on different sizes of African drums accompanied by human voice. The outcome is an amazing musical composition that gave him fame, recognition, money and reflected his cultural identity .
Shall we use the distortion technique in melodies and rhythms when composing music; as distortion is one of the famous techniques used by the African artists to break monotony in their artistic work? Or is it better to depend on improvisation in playing musical instruments and dancing to reflect the virtuosity we have? Or is it better to insist on the horizontal style of composing music depending on the intensiveness of melodically structure we are familiar to?
To answer such questions, we need brain in storming and a lot of experiments to elaborate ideas that we are agreed upon, Ideas suitable to be part of the ongoing process of the “world Beat”, and establish a foundation for our cultural industry in the field of music.
The word now is looking for new thoughts, new techniques, and new ways of performance in the field of music to beak monotony. In Sudan, we have a rich and diverse culture, but it is still raw material. With a reasonable afford, good planning and seriousness we can export to the world a musical cultural industry, partially manufacture if we are not able to complete the mission. Such an activity is much better than to leave our cultural heritage untapped; a raw material that is accessible to anyone to steel it and clam its belonging.
In many countries all over the world there exist a lot of handicrafts and traditional technologies that need to be economically utilized for the benefits of such countries and their inhabitants. At the most basic level, craftsmanship is the demonstrated skill or dexterity resulting from years of practical experience. But, continuous improvement in process, skills and productivity must be a way of life if we are to make use of the kinetic potentials and the tangible-intangible cultural heritage to build a national cultural industry. We have to encourage people to improve their situation by making them active participants in the productive economical process.
In this context, we are trying to look for local and international donors that can support a proposed activity titled: ‘Handicrafts, Development and Poverty Reduction’ based on indigenous knowledge and technology, and supported by technical training, publicity and marketing. Such activities can increase the income of the individuals; maintain the environment, enforce the cultural heritage and the psychological balance of the community. In this article, we suggest some handicrafts that can be transferred to cultural industries.
In many areas of Sudan there exists a traditional oil mill (a’ssara) which is an animal powered mill, where the camel is the only source of energy. The number of such mills is decreasing due to the appearance of the modern mills. Such a traditional mill produces sesame oil, which is an organic oil derived from sesame seeds, noted to have the distinctive aroma and taste of its parent seed. It is often used in Sudan and in other countries as a flavor enhancer, e.g. adding it to cooked instant noodles.
Chemically, sesame oil is a refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of sesamum indicum . It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap and cosmetics .
But traditionally, sesame oil is mainly used in Sudan and other similar countries as cooking oil. It carries a premium relative to other cooking oils and is considered more stable than most vegetable oils due to antioxidants in the oil. Sesame oil is least prone, among cooking oils, to turn rancid. This is because it has a very high boiling point. In effect, sesame oil retains its natural structure and does not break down even when heated to a very high temperature.
Sesame oil is reputed for its ability to penetrate the skin easily. Sesame oil is immensely popular in Sudan where it is used in oil massage and in perfumed-oil (khumra and dilka), especially for brides in northern and central Sudan. Applying sesame oil for the hair is believed to result in darker hair. So, it is recommended for hair and scalp massage.
It can be used in alternative medicine. Physicians also say sesame oil is a good source of vitamin E; it is suggested that due to presence of high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in sesame oil, it might help in controlling blood pressure; and various constituents present in the sesame oil have anti-oxidant and anti-depressant properties, therefore, proponents encourage its use to help fight senile changes and bring about a sense of well being .
In the rural villages where sesame is cultivated the raw material for producing oil (sesame seeds), the energy needed for production (camels), the wood to make the parts of the mill and the technical know-how are all locally available. The traditional process to obtain sesame oil was by the use of a grinding machine, a’ssara, (resembling a scaled-up pestle and mortar), powered by a single camel. The sesame seeds were placed into the machine via the top of the bowl and then the wood grinder was pushed in to position. The grinder was then rotated by the camel's walking around the grinder .
The transfer of such traditional industries to cultural industries needs a lot of efforts to maintain high quality product, perfect and attractive packing that reflects images of the country where such commodities are produced, and a good plan of marketing strategy.
In many pioneer countries in cultural industry, people used to conduct annual festivals for such activities; e.g. for dates, olive oil, camel racing…etc. The major element of such festivals is the cultural industry product in focus, but many other cultural activities that attract tourists are accompanying. Such festivals encourage the producers of cultural industries and make them known locally and internationally, and that offers them and their trade - marks fame and wealth.
Maintaining such criteria of perfection needs to conduct many research studies in order to upgrade the components of production; the wood used to build the traditional mill should be of high quality, the speed of the camel rotation which is correlated to the amount of oil produced per hour should be adequately adjusted, sesame used in production should too be of good quality and purity, and other technical matters should be taken into confederation.
We are intending to produce a cultural industry that can compete what is available in the market, though Sudan’s sesame in itself is of high quality and recommended worldwide is not included in the American list of sanctions.
Such an activity is a core function of the local administration towards the citizens, and it should be done in collaboration and partnership with the private sector to improve the income of their local craftsmen and consequently contributes in improving the national economy.
Leather and palm leaf are available in different places of Sudan where many people used them to produce different kinds of handicrafts. If we succeed to supply the local craftsmen with necessary tools of production and instruct them to learn new patterns of design, beside the traditional forms, then, we can obtain a high quality hand- made commodities of leather and palm, marketable inside and outside Sudan. Such products increase the individual’s income, reduce the poverty level and contribute to the national income.
In Dar Fur and Omdurman, where leather production process and working with leather is an ancient profession, many individuals are very famous of their excellent leather-craftsmanship. Raw material is available and production is still locally marketable and can be distributed outside these areas.
Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattle hide. The tanning process converts the prescribe skin into a durable, long-lasting and versatile natural material for various uses. Leather is an important material with many uses, and leather is a fashionable product. Together with wood or palm leaves, leather formed the basis of much ancient technology.
The most commonly used leather types in Sudan are cow and sheep leather. Yet, other types of leather like crocodile and snake is also used. The leather manufacturing process is divided into three fundamental sub-processes: preparatory stages, tanning and crusting. All true leathers will undergo these sub-processes. A further sub-process, surface coating can be added into the leather process sequence but not all leathers receive surface treatment.
In Sudan, people use traditional methods and organic material (Garad: acacia nilotica) to prepare the leather to work with; and such a traditional process, which is not chemical, is reducing the negative impact on the local environment. Nevertheless, there are four major modern tanneries in Sudan, one is located in Southern Dar Fur, and the leather crafts makers are not obliged to tan the leather themselves, though the traditionally tanned leather is preferable.
In Sudan, where leather production process and working with leather is an ancient profession, many individuals are very famous of their excellent leather-craftsmanship. If such people are financially and technically supported with construction tools needed for pattern layout, cutting, skiving, punching lace holes, stitching holes, rivet and snap holes, edging, setting snap fasteners, plus a marble slab for tooling, can produce valuable hand-made leather products, marketable locally, regionally and internationally.
Leather handicrafts need a number of workers together in the process of production i.e., a leather handicraft is an employment activity. Leather craftsmen work in workshops each can recruit five to seven craft men, working in collaboration to produce one pace of leather. Such craftsmen create their own folklore genres that distinct them from others; they build very strong social relations and social ties .
In Northern Sudan, Blue Nile, and Southern Dar Fur too, there are talent women characterized by their distinct palm leaf products and they represented the major suppliers of such products to many areas of Sudan in former days. Their production has been refined through generations of craftsmen. The supply of such products makes the daily life of many people in Sudan easier.
The wonderful colors used in such products are achieved by the use of organic dyes. Products such as: Guffa, reka, ‘aumra, tabag, manduala, habbaba and birish, are all traditional palm leaf handicrafts that are still functioning in many areas of Sudan. But, newly introduced forms and styles can also be produced.
The production of palm leaf handicrafts should not be confined to traditional forms and styles only, but newly suggested forms that mix palm leaves with leather or cloth to produce nice hand bags and other commodities, marketable in big towns of Sudan, can be introduced. Here, we are trying to make use of the Kenyans experience in this field and we are complementing the palm leaf crafts with the leather making.
Also, we can make use of the Egyptian experience in making durable fruit baskets and furniture from palm branches and palm leafs too. Such fruit baskets can be used by many farmers in different areas of Sudan instead of metal tin containers, which spoil the fruits and vegetables for they generate heat, or carton containers, which are not durable and can easily get torn by moisture.
Here, cultural industry is aiming to use palm leaf products in the battle against plastic bags. Such battle can hardly be gained unless a successful and convincing alternative is made available to the users. Here, we are not putting a new product into circulation, for guffa (a palm leaf bag) was traditionally the only container used by households in Sudan, before the plastic bags dominated the shopping places. A newly designed guffa should be introduced, which has a light weight, can easily be stored and it should be part of the sealing process without costing the customer any extra money to pay.
Pottery is one of the oldest human technologies and art-forms, and remains a major industry today. Pottery includes both decorative and practical items such as bowls, vases, dishes, and lamps. Four steps are needed to make a pottery product: preparing the clay mixture, shaping the clay, decorating and glazing the item, and firing (baking).
The potter's most basic tools are the hands, but many additional tools have been developed over the long history of pottery manufacture including the potter's wheel and turntable, and other tools that help him finishing his product.
The firing temperature gives pottery its finished appearance and its strength. It is only after firing that the article can be called pottery. Kilns in Sudan traditionally used to be heated by burning wood, coal and gas, or recently by electricity. “When used as fuels, coal and wood can introduce smoke, soot and ash into the kiln which can affect the appearance of unprotected wares and negatively affect the environment. We think gas is the most reasonable for heating the kilns; it does not introduce smoke and it is cheaper than electricity.
Pottery making is an ancient activity in Khartoum area, but it needs to be protected and developed in a manner that makes it able to depart its locality to compete internationally. In Sudan, all the elements necessary for pottery making are available: the raw material, the technical know- how and the training intuitions. All these factors can help in creating a distinct cultural industry that generates a lot of money with a very low cost. Such activity can be conducted in collaboration with the local Ministry of Culture and the Department of Tourism.
Recently, statues from a highly advanced African civilization that thrived for 1,200 years along the banks of the Nile River have been uncovered by a team of archaeologists working in Sudan. These statues are sculptural masterpieces and important additions to our knowledge of the history of the region . This statement shows that the Sudanese are traditionally sculptors since ancient times and are still doing so.
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping commonly stone, metal, glass, or wood, which is one of the most popular materials used in African sculpture. The popularity of wood can be partially explained by the fact that it can be found in abundance. In addition, wood is a popular material generally because, in a culture where sculpting tools are often not very advanced, it is much more malleable than other sculpting materials. Moreover, wood people in Sudan use another less durable material, calabash, which is much easy to cut or cave, and stone too.
Around Khartoum, there exist approximately twenty five persons who showed a high degree of efficacy to produce pieces of sculpture desirable and marketable in Khartoum streets. If such people collected together and are financially and technically supported, then, they can produce a remarkable and valuable amount of sculpture sufficient enough to improve their economic situation.
The minimum unemployment rate in the Sub-Saharan Africa is very high. The suitable way to solve this problem is to provide opportunities and micro financing to the impoverished and unemployed. They can apply their talent and skills producing unique, world-class, original art and crafts. In partnership, we can offer the product to the local market by establishing ongoing exhibition and to the world market with an online store providing customers access to the current era’s greatest living wood artists and many other unique items.
Pottery and Sculpture are activities known in Sudan since ancient time and such products are marketable in Khartoum where there are many craftsmen who are excellent producers of such crafts. By encouraging Pottery and Sculpture cultural industry, we are aiming to give hope to ideal people in a country witness’s lack of job opportunities and some social and political conflicts.
In this respect, many associations can contribute in making this activity successful: the college of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Sudan which can train and upgrade the technical level of the targeted craftsmen; the Trade Union for Small Industries and Handicrafts which has a wide experience in advocacy and marketing.
There is strong correlation between the availability of food and security, according to the God’s words in Holly Qurān: “Guraysh: verse 4”. At the same time, food is also part of culture in any community. God creates different atmospheres and different environments where different tribes and nations of diverted languages and cultures are living. The relationship between man and the surrounding environment is dialectical, and sometimes it has negative impacts both on man and the environment too.
Accordingly, man eats and tests the kind of food that he used to, regards of its smell, nice or not, or whether it is healthy or not. At the same time, a human being may get ill if he eats food that he is not familiar to, regardless of its healthy components. People who are used to eat fermented food, for example, can feel sick (cofār) if they eat other kinds of food which is not fermented, and vice versa. This is usually happening in Sudan, a country of diverse culture and different kinds of food stuff.
People living in hot regions are depending on gluten – free diet, where different kinds of Durra are cultivated. But, they may be affected with celiac disease if they eat food containing gluten. “Celiac disease is the inflammation of the small intestine due to the body attacking itself.” Besides that, people are prohibited from eating certain kinds of food according to their belief system or religious orders.
Due to globalization, people who are living in different environments are now familiar with different kinds of food. This familiarity does not happen randomly, it is planned for. A lot of efforts and strategise of cultural industry are implemented by different nations in order to advertise their culture generally and their food in particular. Many restaurants of different food kinds have been established in big towns all over the world; Chinese, Indian, Italian, French.....etc. The strategy of filling the empty stomachs leads to cultural and political domination.
The American imperialism and the wealthy Americans have mainly built on film making, sports, food industries and music. Hollywood mass production of films, MacDonald food production and the American famous sport heroes are successful examples of American cultural industry.
In Sudan, we have to start from where other nations ended. First, we have to identify the components of our cultural diet to select the healthiest, the testiest and the most distinct in flavour and way of cooking in order to introduce it to other nations. In this respect, we have to appreciate the efforts of the Sudanese scholars who conducted several researches on part of our traditional food products and published the results they obtained.
On the other hand, we also appreciate the efforts of few Sudanese companies and individuals working on food industry who are trying to convert some certain Sudanese traditional food stuff into powder in order to make it packable and consumable inside and outside Sudan . This is a very important stage and it is on the right direction as cultural industry is concerned; but it is not enough.
The celiac disease that we mentioned before requires avoiding food containing gluten. Such kind of food is very rare in local markets and what is available in Sudan and other Arab countries costs a lot and it is not affordable for many people. A piece of gluten – free bread in Saudi Arabia, for example, costs between five to eight Riyals.
If we succeed to produce commercially gluten – free diet making use of our local food material (durra) and experience, then we can establish a very successful cultural industry, and at the same time, we solve the problem of our patients who are affected with celiac disease.
Sudanese food companies are invited to conduct research on local food staff in order to supply the local market with gluten – free stuff, to be used in producing gluten – free diet. Such a product can be used locally and it can also be exported to other countries. These efforts will make Sudan a pioneer in its region and it also increases its national income.
There are millions of Sudanese leaving all over the world and some of them established Sudanese Restaurants. As far as I know, almost all their customers are Sudanese too. That means such activity does not succeed in a cultural break though, and the reason is the lack of strategic plans as far as such matter is concerned.
Food as cultural industry needs research efforts and experiments lead to a high quality and distinct product that reflects the cultural images of its origin. Techniques of packing, display and precise publicity are very important factors to convince others to buy your food stuff and appreciate its test.
Here, we are not focussing on the well known kinds of sport which are now practised all over the world. We are rather looking for unknown traditional sport practices that can be developed and adopted by other nations. All kinds of sports started as local practices. But, due to the efforts of organization and development achieved, many sports became known and practised worldwide. The heroes of such international sports became famous, gained a lot of money that gave them fame, and consequently contributed in developing their countries culturally, economically and politically.
All over the world, there are so many kinds of sports practised by different communities need to be developed and recognized by other nations. The yoga, for example, is an Indian local spiritual sport. The Indian government did a lot of efforts to transfer this sport from its local domain to the whole world; it became a successful cultural industry.
The Government of India registered the sport at the UNESCO to be covered by copy right, developed its methods of instruction, paving the way for its publicity and disseminating knowledge about it. Accordingly, it is now practised worldwide. By doing so, India is by now gaining billions of dollars without expending a big amount of money and employing millions of idle people.
The build of a cultural industry needs a lot of efforts and good planning. We have to look to our sport cultural heritage, especially children games , develop it in kind and shape to suit the international criteria of sport. Then, we have to encourage and instruct our children at school and streets how to practice such kinds of sport. After that, we have to establish local professional teams, train them and organize competition matches between them to publicize these sports local.
Finally, we have to protect our sport national heritage by registering it at the UNESCO to be covered by the copy right laws. The last stage is the international publicity of these sports which may lead in future to an international recognition and the addition of our sports to the Olympic Games.
Cultural industries are activities that can be established by all nations in the world, especially under developed countries. All The United Nation cultural Sectors encourage all courtiers to take care of such activities. The requirements for building a cultural industry are locally available, and cultural industries are knowledge-based and labour-intensive, creating employment and wealth. So, by nurturing creativity and fostering innovation societies will maintain cultural diversity and enhance economic performance.
In the examples mentioned in this article, no detailed and concrete solutions are given. Only general indications are explained in order to pave the way that we can be hit; if we want, in Sudan, to let culture guides us towards solving our economical, social and political problems.