A Brief on Red Sea State

Tue, 17 Apr 2018



Red Sea State extends along the Red Sea coast and it has economic, archaeological and touristic status. The State is one of tourist attracting areas of the Sudan because it is enjoyed with beaches, Sea Islands, coral reefs and natural protectorates where there are all kinds of sea life in the State. Also, there are mangrove forests (as shown in form 1) and Sea Ports Corporation with different specialties, the important of which are Port Sudan, Sawakin and Basha’ir.

 

Location

Surface and Topography

Soil

Climate

Population

Economic activities

Administrative division of the Red Sea State

Important towns

Sources and references

 

 

Natural characteristics:

 Natural characteristics of the State include the following:

 

Location:

Firstly: Astronomical location:

Red Sea State lies between longitudes 330 3´, 380 5´ E and latitudes 170 -320 2´ N. the area of the State is about 216170.423 square km (Sudanese Public Survey Authority, 2015) as shown in map 1.

Secondly: Geographical location:

Red Sea State is bordered by Arab Republic of Egypt to the north, by Kassala State and Eritrea to the south, by the Red Sea to the east and by River Nile State to the west.

 

Surface and Topography:

The eastern part of the State is covered by the coastal plain of sedimentary rocks which consist of coral lime stone in addition to sandy and clay rocks and sediments of the crude gypsum (Saudi, 1985). Also, Red Sea Hills, consisting of basement complex, extend and remarkably rise along the Red Sea coast. In the western side of the State, there are some hills and plateaus from which a number of watercourses slope down as wadis and khors such as khor Baraka, khor Arbaat, khor Arab and wadi Ra’ieb (Sied Ahmed, 1991).

 

Soil:

Soil of the Red Sea State is classified as follows:

  1. Soil of dry lands which was formed of water and wind sediments. This land abounds with sandy hills in northern areas and in western desert areas.
  2. Soil of coastal region in the narrow plain area where this soil is made of silty substances and rock fragmentations.
  3. Soil of mountainous areas on foothills. It is a soil of sandy structure.
  4. Soil of corroded plains which spreads in areas of floodplains at delta of Toker. This soil is of good drainage, rich with silt and devoid of salinity except at coastal areas. (Al Imam, 2010).

 

Map 1: Location of Red Sea State

Source: Sudanese Public Survey Authority, 2017- Researcher's work

 

Climate:

According to classification of Coben and Thornthwaite, the Red Sea climate is classified among the dry climatic group of regions. Similarly, the State climate is affected by the Red Sea, as a water body, the same way it is affected by the Red Sea Hills and, as a result, some parts of the State lying west to the Red Sea Hills witness summer rainfalls associated with blowing of the south western seasonal humid winds. Also, these areas witness winter rains associated with humid winds blowing over the Red Sea waters, either blowing from north east in most days of the year or from south east during winter, particularly in eastern areas in the coastal plain of the Red Sea (Al Tom and Abdel Rahman, 2010). Under this climate, an annual average of rains reaches about 226mm while average temperature is between 23.2°-- 34.2° C (General Meteorological Authority, Red Sea State, 2016).

As to generally annual rates of temperature, they range at minimum from 32° C. over south western parts and less than 30° C. over the coastal plain and northern parts of the area. Regarding the mountainous area, particularly over mountainous summits, annual rates of temperature are not much more than 20° C. and this makes it a coldest area of the Red Sea and even the coldest one all over the Sudan (Al Tom and Abdel Rahman, 2010).

 

Human characteristics:

 

Population:

According to population census, 2008, the number of population of the Red Sea State is about 1.396.110 persons but now, according to population projections for 2015, the State population is estimated to be about 1.414.417 persons (Sudanese Survey Authority, 2015) where about 62.5% of them live in urban centers while 38% of them live in the countryside. Concerning age and qualitative structure of the population, the percentage of males is 57.4% while percentage of females is 42.6% as shown in table 1.

 

Table 1: population of the the Red Sea State according to the fifth population census, 2008

Locality

0—15 years old

Above 16 years old

All ages

Female

male

Total

Female

male

Total

Female (%)

Male (%)

Total

Halayeb

18048

26286

44334

26556

38227

64783

40.9

64513

109117

Al Ginnab

19393

27869

47262

27588

36963

64551

42

64832

111813

Port Sudan

61420

72423

133843

117347

147950

265297

44.8

220373

399140

Sawakin

12098

16191

28289

23710

30151

53861

43.6

46342

82150

Sinkat

24368

34517

58885

44288

55912

100200

43.2

90429

159085

Haya

54422

79595

134017

61844

89679

151523

40.7

169274

285540

Toker

30611

49986

80597

38741

50935

89676

40.7

100921

170273

Aqeeq

13687

17310

30997

21301

26694

47995

44.3

44004

78992

Total population of the State

234047

324177

558224

361375

476511

837886

42.6

800688

1396110

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 2008.

Dominant tribes:

The main tribes of the State are Beja tribes which are Hadandawa, Amar’ar, Bishariyin, Bani ‘Amir and Artiqa besides Rashayda, Danagla and Shaigiya. Compared to Beja tribes, these latter tribes had of late immigrated to the State.

 

Economic activities:

In general, inhabitants of the State practice agriculture, pasturing, fishing and trade while a considerable group of inhabitants work as loading and unloading workers at the Sea ports. In relation to cultivation, most agricultural activities are concentrated at Toker delta which produces best types of long staple cotton. 

 

Administrative division of the Red Sea State:

The State is divided into eight localities which are Port Sudan, Sawakin, Toker, Sinkat, Halayeb, Al Ginnab, Haya and Aqeeq as shown in map 2 and table 2.

 

Table 2: localities of the Red Sea State

Area of the locality compared with area of the State (%)

Area of locality in square km

Name of locality

32.6

70488.5

Al Ginnab

37.5

81099

Halayeb

3.7

8060.74

Sinkat

0.9

1982.94

Sawakin

5.3

11398.1

Toker

3.6

7748.04

Aqeeq

16.1

34837.4

Haya

0.3

555.703

Port Sudan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: researchers’ duty, 2017

Important towns: (see encyclopedia of Sudanese towns)

There a number of towns in the Red Sea State, some of which are the following:

Town of Port Sudan: it is a coastal town lying at the western coast of the Red Sea with two meters high above sea level. Port Sudan is nearly 800 km away from Khartoum. It is the capital of the State, the main seaport of Sudan, transit point for international trade with neighbouring states and representing an important trade and touristic center.

Town of Sawakin: it is a historical and antiquarian town in which there is the Port of Othman Digna via which pilgrims to Mecca are shipped and livestock is exported.

 

Table 3: data about the Red Sea State

Red Sea State

Name of the State

Port Sudan

Capital of the State

8

Number of localities

1,396,110 persons

Number of population in 2008

1,414,417  persons

Number of population according to population projections for 2015

it lies between longitudes 3303´, 380 5´ E and latitudes 170, 320 2´ N.

Astronomical location

Red Sea State is bordered by Arab Republic of Egypt to the north, by Kassala State and Eritrea to the south, by the Red Sea to the east and by River Nile State to the west.

Geographical location

The surface is covered by the coastal plain of sedimentary rocks while the Red Sea Hills extend along the coast, besides some hills and plateaus from which some wadis slope down like both khor Arab and khor Arbaat.

Surface and Topography

Soil of the red sea state was classified into soil of dry lands, soil of the coast region in the narrow plain area, soil of mountainous areas on foothills and soil of eroded plains at Toker delta.

soil

The Red Sea climate is classified among the dry climatic group of regions. Similarly, the State climate is affected by the Red Sea, as a water body, the same way it is affected by the Red Sea Hills which obstructs blowing winds in summer and winter.

climate

average temperature ranges between 23.2°-- 34.20 C.

temperature

Fishing, trade, porterage, pasturing and agriculture.

Important  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources and references:

  • Al imam, Omer Al Imam, 2010: Climate and its Impact on how humans Feel Convenient in the Red Sea area, unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Khartoum, Faculty of Arts.
  • Al Tom, Mahdi Amin and Abdel Rahman Babikir Abdallah, 2010: Natural and Human Geography of the Sudan, publications of the Open University of Sudan.
  • Saudi, Mohammed Abdel Ghani (1985): Geography of Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian Library, Cairo.
  • Sied Ahmed, Omer Abdel Magid, 1991: Geomorphology of Waters at Area of Adait (Red Sea), Usage and Environmental Impacts, unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Khartoum.

 

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