Experience of gum Arabic associations

Tue, 17 Apr 2018



Experience of gum Arabic producing associations in the development and marketing of production management systems

Gum Arabic belt, State of North Kordufan

Dr.hasan Ahmad hasan Sheikh

Abstract:

The word gum Arabic beltdefines to the areas where the trees which produce gum Arabic arecentralized,it is considered as a plant belt that makes part of the savanna zone with less rainfall, it is stretching from12° to 14°north and includes all the Sudaneseregions that represent the semi-arid environment of the African coast.

The acacia Senegal is producing the best quality of gum Arabic and there are approximately 9million trees in the gum Arabic belt in North Kordufan, spearingtheredue to the annual rainfall rates and the nature of the soil and topography of earth and the natural use of earth(Siddig2005).

It’s a small tree, its height is 8meters and is known for its production of gum Arabic consisting of Spiral axles with a yellow color and the length of corns with seeds is about 8000-10000 kilograms, that should be enumerated by planting seeds or growing it as a nursery and the success of itsgrowing is about 80%,the seeds collected from gog trees, the growing will begin after three days and completed through the first week, so the trees grow in  an area about4*4 to 10*10 meter according to the location, soil and the terrain, its roots  stretch  inside the soil vertically five times to the leg length.

The acacia tree islinked with the sandy soil because of its capacity to stretch its roots vertically, but also it grows in the light clay soil in different sizes and needs a rain ranging from300-500 Millimetres inthe clay soil and about300-700 Millimetres on the sandy soil, it bears the hot temperature but it doesn’t bear frost

The young small acacia tree is very sensitive, it needs a high degree of care, it doesn’t bear any fluctuation in rainfalls, but after along time of growing it will be resistant to drought,and insects, grass hoppers and gluing gum will be very sieve. It bears reduction in rainfall.

The acacia tree starts to produce gluein the dry season after five years of growing and the glue continuefor15 years.

The acacia Senegal is a kind of gum Arabic tree producing gum which iswater soluble carbohydrate multi-sugar in water used in food, as an ingredient in   manufacturing drugs, soft drinks,sweets, paper, ink,cosmetics, perfumesetc. Because of its ability to effect on nourishment with its viscous, cells and size, besides distribution of its contents with various rates inside the mixing block,it is used to disposition of contents, and itsconglomeration, as well as other properties of analgesic and emulsification.

The stercuila urens is another kind of gum trees, whichis found in India producing stercuila gum which is used on the adhesives.

Astragaulussp is another kind of emulsification tree used for food products such as mioneze (alsaid1997) but these kinds of trees don’t compete with the other trees and have no manufacture, medical and food importance like acacia.

The ownership of land in the gum Arabic belt

The acacia production system and administration

Gum Arabic marketing

The working projects in the gum Arabic

Gum Arabic producers associations

Gum Arabic belt deterioration

Recommendations

References and resources

 

T he ownership of land in the gum Arabic belt

The system ofthe ownership of land is considered as a production factor if not one of itsdeterminants, and is considered as an important factor for using the land in Sudan.

It was known traditionally that at the begging of the Sudanese state, the land in Sudan was owned by tribes, every tribe has its own agricultural land, or that one which is used for grazing, agriculture and living, migration –roads to other tribes, The first attempt of using this system was during the Anglo-Sudan in1899 The land law was issued through a committee formed to look on the ownership of land in Khartoum, Berber and other Sudanese provinces.According to that law a comprehensive registering was put for land properties.The1899 law was intended to restrict areas controlled by the tribe and used for living, as pastotures and agriculture and gathering of forest products.Some of the tribe’s chiefs registered large areas with their names or their family name in a way that didn’t represent the real goal of the 1899 law(alîheikh1999).

According to that law the registration of land in the government offices was compulsory.

In1902 the land  tenure was issued and gave the government the right to possess agricultural lands for industrial irrigation  and in 1905 the law of land disputes and allocations of land possession was issued, and according to that law the deserted lands ,pastures and forests  which are free from residents and not used, are state lands unless somebody approve his possession of the land(the law of 1905 led to transfer of the ownership of land from tribes to tribe members by tribal  covering preservation through the dominance of the areas used by the tribe members(alîheikh1999).Moreover, in 1925  a law was issued that the transferring of land ownership is not legally valid unless by the government acceptance and the non-Sudanese were not allowed to have lands in Sudan except in special cases (the law of 1925 determined the sovereignty of the Sudanese state on all the lands including that which was owned by tribes members .

it refuses to non-Sudanese to own land but are allowed to use it(Alshikh1999).

In spite of these developments in the law, there are large lands in Sudan which were not registered but were used, thelands that were used by the countryside’s settler as part of their tribal lands, and they gained its ownership by using it for a longtime. That was not recognized by the law, in1970 another new concepts of property of land came, like approval of land ownership to the state and not the tribes

The non-registered land indicated all the used lands,the unused lands and non-registered lands are considered as owned by the state thy should be registered according to this legal basis (the law of 19970 came with new concepts in land ownership like approval of land ownership to the state andnot thetribes and the non-registered land was registered by people if they approve their ownership of the land and under this act registered to state but they are allowed to use it (Alshiekh1999).

However ,the ownership  of forests , the farmer owns the trees and collect its gum or fruits it is possible to use the land in pastures  or growing some crops in separated lands, but after the law of 1970 which gave the ownership of forests to the National Corporation of Forests and allowed farmers to collect the gum ,however the selling was monopolized by the selling operations in aholding company, (the Gum Arabic Company), but the other restricted free forests  were directed by the National Corporation for Forests.

The acacia production system and administration

The acacia gardens is a local name called for the areas where the acacia trees grow whether it was grown naturally or by people inside the gum Arabic belt in a shape of  a tenure.

The tenure of lands inside the belt are divided to various kinds linked with the production systems and administration

  1. The production systems in the small tenure:

Usually a small tenure in its area and the amount of production is different area according to the productivity of the area. it is between5-30 five times and called the acacia garden, owned by the junior producers (according to the law of1970)

The production operations  are done according to the experiences and possibilities of junior producers ,so the small family shares with the farmers in gluing gum and collecting it and its possible to engage the village people by NafÌr.There the family members will participate inside the village as a treatment will repaying  to the family during any calling up to a collective work related to other groups(alNafÌr is a stimulating motivation of all the village members   to cooperate  to achieve a collective work in a short time which need a lot of hands without money  to work as a guarantee to the participation of all members in any other work if called for it according to the traditions and customs inside the villages(alSheikh, 1999)

  1. The production system in the big tenure:

The big tenure is large and production is extended from the sandy plains or clay plains, its area is between 50-500 meters, The production processes are done such as gluing by the leased employees by day or by contract, while the collecting of gum was done by the daily wage or by sharing the crop and the conditions differ according to the circumstances and type of work.These tenures are owned by people (according to 1970 law) they produce the acacia gum by themselves or rent to other people to perform all the production processfor a limited ratio of production which returns directly to the major owner of the garden, however in the production of these kinds of tenure .was declining recently because of different circumstances likeless financial revenues to the owner of garden, he replaced the trees with cash crops like sesame.

  1.  Production system in the projects related to forests:

There are more free lands or restricted forests or the   agricultural projects which are taken by the National Corporation for Forests to rehabilitate it after losing its fertility or the agricultural projects that are abandoned or not cultivated for a long time because of the insecurity , The acacia trees WHICH grew  there, are related to the government and rented for farmers and the period of renting finished without  its cultivation or carrying on  its cultivation, These projects are often introduced in a general tender and the production operations will be according to the winner of the tender,

  1. The production systems in the contract companies projects:

The company’s contract projects were launched like the integrity project and Dar savanna project,Malysian Gandil Company which its name changed to the project of Acacia Company, establishing large areas of acacia in north kordufān.The cultivated area reached 50,000 Fadānsby acacia company project, these farming began its production through the partnership of crop with workers and the contractors of gluing and collecting gum Arabic.

1-4 the gum Arabic operations production

  1. Gluing  gum process

The gluing isconsideredas theseparation of the bark of the treewithout harmful consequences to the tree or the cell around it through away which make the tree producing the gum Arabic, The glue is considered as the most important of the production process, The control and time related to this process, (the glue process) done according to known steps as follows:

  1. Choosing the suitable tree (its age should notless than five years to the nursery tress and seven years to the seed tress and four years to the back trees (ramli2005).
  2. The use of    machineis a solid object made from iron, its length is20-25cm,it has a sharp mouth with4,5cm width. it looks like the bird beak and it’s very sharp from outside tapered from inside  it ends in cylindrical  with slots to fix the dagger to the wood and never expose it to insects infections and the farmer is able to reach the tall branches from all directions besides saving time and workers as well ,The tree  is able to produce a clean gum Arabic without remains.
  3. Timing and thickness of the glue. (the suitable time of gluing coinciding with the end   of the rainfall  when the leaves of the trees color change to a dark green yellowing ,furthermore the suitable timing of the gluing may be known   with the dark of the tree color to a reddish brown color and the dark of the tree is easy  to be removed.The suitable time for acacia tree gluing  is from1-15 October and the first of November to acacia which grow naturally in sandy soil and from15-29 October to the first of November  for the acacia which grows naturally in the mud soil)but (the glue density is three branches to trees from 5-10 years and 8branches to the old tree)
  1. Collecting gum Arabic process : The process of collecting gum Arabic is done after 40 days of gluing(the first collection)and it’s the first  suitable time period to complete the size and weight, after that the collection is carrying on every 15 days seventh collection (the collection after 40 days from gluing  is a guarantee for getting gum as a big amount in size and  round in shape which will never cracking and coincide with the foundling gum   and the warm weathers because the cold reduces the tree secretions of gum and the basket , cloth bags in foundling  gum to protect it and guarantee its quality and cleaning in shadow  to ensure no evaporation saturated water to gum and collecting in sacks and go away to marketing so as the color should not change or reduce weight (albdulrahim2006).

Gum Arabic marketing:

The year 1920 was the beginning  of the real enlargement in the gum Arabic trade, in 1933 to do the marketing mechanism and the colonizer entered the audition market ,inn 1962 the Ministry of Trade ,industry  and mining adopted a policy of concentration price for purchasing gum in production places and the policy ofminimum of the exports and the receiver in Port Sudan,the policy of concentration failed and the prices of gum fell as a result of the absence of a mechanism itguaranteed  the  purchase of surplus from the exported amounts and the lack of the  real products to a negotiating mechanism  and absence of its protection as well as Censorship and quality, as the farmer became alone in facing the meditators who represent national interfaces to foreign companies  which were verykeen to the deterioration of the gum prices to be less than the concentration price, the official agencies became evading from receive the gum because of its inability of marketing it, as  a solution to this problem the gum Arabic company was established in 1969 as ajoint stock company as  outputs of the socialist orientation to the government to achieve the following goals:

  1. Organization of gum Arabic trade internally and abroad.
  2.  Protecting the Comparativeadvantage to the country in producing gum Arabic and protect the producers with purchasing all the products and with the concentration declared price.
  3. To provide money necessary for purchase and export gum Arabic and reducepressure on the banking systems.
  4.  To maintain on international high prices which Commensurate with the comparative advantage through unification of supply channels for the commodity abroad.

in purchases  aspects and treatment with the product ,the company is bound with intervention to protect it in the coming situations:

  1. If the merchants refuse the purchase as non-commercial reasons.
  2.  If the merchants unable of the purchase because of the weak funding.
  3. If the merchants introduce prices less than the concentration price.

 About the issued products the company enjoys exporting of raw gum Arabic, in 1973 the government has changed ,a few group monopolized and the board of directors and some producers the company share,some  attempts to correcting the company trends occurred that the producers should have role in it(now30% of the company shares  to government and 70% owned by500 shareholders),the company provide ranching seller(monopoly) abroad and ales franchising  from the monopoly inside Sudan with  a limited freedom in the internal trade to the commodity and permitting to some companies to export the manufactured gum  Arabic only.

In a study done by Mahmoud2005 to know the impact of the Price Incentives of the sectors which benefited from the gum Arabic, production, marketing and manufacturing using policies analysis matrix to the years1999-2002 and resulted as follows:

  1. The gum Arabic hasremunerativehe financial returns and a high comparative advantages competitive comparing with the other crops.
  2. The producer’s get3% from these financial returns, meditators5% and the rest for the company.
  3. Manufacturedgum Arabic has competitive, internationalfinancial return that reach20% for the ton compared with the raw gum Arabic. Here the producer doesn’t get any benefits because the purchase is done with the raw prices.
  4. Most of the producers are young farmers spreading in rural areas and produce little amounts which make them able to enter local markets and deal with the companies, and become a fertile soil for brokers and mediators, so, their share will be lower than concentration prices, no more than40% while the mediators get 60%as acommission.
  5. The junior producers lack the knowledge of the real prices of concentration and selling with fewer prices to themediators.the mediator purchase the crop from them before its production with cheap prices not more than 15% of the concentration price.
  6. The above factors weakened the producers communities and lead to the decline of production and no participation in concentration price or convincing  them to inter the markets, The deterioration  of the production zones, schools,roads,hospitals,electricity and water led to impoverished producers who left the work.

Internationally various difficulties have appeared such as:

  1. Theworld production of gum Arabic declined in world market because ofthealternatives.
  2. Appearance of African countries exporting gum Arabic like Central African Republic and others.
  3. The lack of the strategic studies which encourage the production and exposeit to the world market fluctuations and encouraging alternatives.
  4. Loss of the main markets like United States of America because of the economic sanctions.

The working projects in the gum Arabic:

The gum Arabic gained the interestof various international andregional organizations which work in the reconstruction of belts because it’s one of the places which witnessed deterioration in its ecological systems as a result of droughts, desertification and misuseof lands which led to negative outputs onhuman life and environment.

The prominent programs that were done in gum Arabic belt in North kordufānwill result in large outcomes if data has scientific knowledge is adopted.

  1. concerning of stopping the desertification and rehabilitation, a document was prepared in this respect in 1976 under the supervision of expertise is considered as the first reference in the field of desertification and avoiding the negative effects  in Sudan(the document is built on the basis of the arid and semi-aridecology of Sudan which control mainly the rainfalls, distribution and the direct and indirect other factors which affects the plant relation with the soil ,topography ,surfaces, ,discharge ,expressing that the rainfalls are not predictable: ,also if the dry period is very long(Alshiekh2004) it means that the rainfalls are different from one year to another which  has it effect on the ecological balance between the climate circumstances plant and animals, Every misconduct in using land may cause big damages and carrying on misconduct in using land may cause  high damages that cannot performed.

Discard program adopted a package of applied programs aiming at stopping agriculture in the land that is vulnerable to washouts because of wind and following agricultural sessions including leguminouscrops.Adopting improved farming methods, calling for rational use of the pastoral lands ,besides Seed dispersal,and open fire lines as well as soil maintenance, developing protective fence belts ,help cultivating the acacia trees.

The most important projects that were adopted by discard in north kordufānstate areas follows:

  • Fixing sand dunes projects , re-implantation of acacia trees and sowing grass seeds as well as pastry direction and saving water, was done in supervision of development ,guidance and  planning unit in north kordufān state as follows:
  1. Al U¼iya project for rural integral development 1985-until now.
  2. Jirayjikh project for re-habilitation of the pastures and sowing seeds 1995-2000
  3. amrat al Wiz belt project1985-1986
  4. Re-habilitation of alkhirān area pastures project in North kordufān state 1985-1986
  5. Survey of pastures  in North kordufān State 1985-1986
  1. Re-habitation of Gum Arabic belt project inNorth kordufān from1983-1996,was implemented by food and agriculture organization(FAO) funding from the Netherlands government ,The goal is long-term project is Combating Desert Crawling,while the short terms goals are increasingindividual income as well as providing  job opportunities to people inside gum Arabic belt.They also provide the support to farmers in the framework of nursery of acacia trees freely with a view of increasing thefarmer’sincome from thegum Arabic sales.
  2.  North kordufān rural development program is one of the chosen areas  for developmental projects in Sudan which is funded and implemented by the united nations developmental programs ,The period of the project is six years 1990-1996 ,The period was extended  to the year2000,The project was located Shikān locality ,It aims in the short term to train the people in small industries and establishing nursery ,sowing seeds,spreading the culture of aforestation and limiting cutting trees ,with providing alternatives to energy as well as implementing all the works through participation of all people.
  3. The rural development project in North kordufānstate: This project was prepared by the government of Sudan in cooperation with the world fund for agricultural development –IFAD- to implement it in the gum Arabic area in the two localities of Aum Rawāba and Bāra during seven years from june2000 to may2007 ,it aims to improve the social situation of families, improving environment and achieving Self-Security, The methods of work were built through participation in financing by 60% to the downers and 40% to the people, The people were trained  in the simple technologies to work in the pastures, re-habitation and forest rehabilitated, with sowing seeds and planting trees,for various benefits thatpreserve local environment,  with concentration on the acacia trees cultivation in a shape of forest protectorates such as al SimiÊ forest,Dalgal Taub forest,Abu Sād,alJambriya, and Fanguga.
  4. Supporting the food security projects and poverty combating in the African countries. production of fish: it is a regional activity with funding from the Italian government and achieved by(FAO)The project included six African countries Sudan is one of them, It was applied in north kordufān state andSinnār state,The work was divided into terms extending from it ten years, it aims at improving and cultivating the forest belts to improve the environment, combating poverty like Abuabil forest project.
  5. Akashia project: In IFAD conference in 1981 there were claims to entering the private sector in the forest investment, Some private companies had accepted to work in the fields of forests like al Sheikh Muîðfa al AmÌn and the integrity project and Jandail project which its name changed into Malaysian company and to Akashia company for investment in the field of forests, during the year2004 the company cultivated three forest of acacia by an area of 19 thousand Fadāns to the one forest ,they are Nawaforest and Shikān forest and shag um sail and the cultivation also done in Gardñd hard land in an area 4×4 meter,this  short area  as well as the Gardñd hard soil effects and the dimension of trees from each other  effected on the growing of  acacia trees  which dwarfed by the tangle of roots ,the experiment of Akashia tree was recent and its vision was not clear ,it need more studies and following up.
  6. The green crawling project

It is  a recent project in the field of rehabilitation of the gum Arabic project, and is considered as an extension  of the projects work in this field ,The project was achieved in 2004 with funding from the Sudanese government and the support of voluntary national  organizations,the project ended in october2009,but according to the bigreturns  done by the national corporation for forests,  the project period extended until2015,The trees were  produced inside the nurseries related  to the national corporation for forest   and the popular  nurseries related to the gum Arabic producers associations with funding from the government of the republic of Sudan ,the seeds were distributed to the farmers to grow acacia trees),then seeds were collected and thrown on the belt , That work was accompanied by guidance programs including all the gum belt areas in north kordufān state.

In 2003 the project goals were developed The forest guidance was entered, the environmental guidance as well as maintaining the natural resources and calling up all the official efforts, it is clear that the efficient participation ofthe university of kordufān in these national projects, supplied a large amount of the natural resources thegraduates reflected their efforts positively especially, as they are from the surrounding villages.

8- The gum Arabic company limited:

The gum Arabic company limited was established in 1969 according to establishment instructions; the development of gum Arabic production is one of the important priorities.The basic goal as well as other secondary goals that led for increasing production, it’s the researches and marketing.

The company began its first efforts with arranging scientific conferences in all the producing provinces to gum Arabic, including allspecialists from producers, mediators, merchants,specialists and forest and economy scientist, so as to know the main reasons behind thedeterioration of gum Arabic production as well as making a charter to enhancedevelopment to increase production.Moreover,the company adopted short-term, work strategies.The short-term and long -term arethe acceleration of funding the production process and opening new channels for marketing. so The long-term strategy included all the aspects that may develop the production (the gum Arabic company, started with good beginning that made more people entered,It began with solving the water problem and improving the civilians environment for stability with planning to establish schools, health centers in the big villages, improving roads, encouraging producers to grow acacia as well as guidance and training (Alshikh1999)

In the year 1973 the basic goal of establishing the gum Arabic company was changed and the company became aholding company for marketing the gum Arabic neglecting the production process andresearch, withoutcatering for any other side.So,the production deteriorated and the producers became the weakest in this new system, The drought rates were very big, some efforts for solutions began with opening monopoly door to companies which decide to manufacture the gum Arabic inside the country and export it, because of this initiative ,the gum Arabic company intervened, establishing gum Arabic manufacturing company and exporting it, however ,the properties that have been found as increase for the companies income ,but was not reflected to the real products that never gain any benefits ,but still deepening the problem that made tit under pressure increasing for brokers and mediators.

Gum Arabic producers associations:

In 1992 the gum Arabic belt project adopted an idea of establishing a branch of social institution development to be responsible of moving the rural communities that participated in the different projectactivities, especiallythose who did the cultivation of acacia tree in their different villages.(hence, the concept of establishing agricultural communities and producers of the gum Arabic becoming one of the most important activities of this branch from the project, the main goal was Reinforcing the principle of self-reliance among the social communities spreading inside the gum Arabic belt area (Ramli2004) especially (the area became full of numbers of organization which work in this field of re-habitation of gum Arabic belt, which provide services

this changed the civilian from a productive civilian to receiving to subsides and supports(alshikh2004) the experiment sought to improve the gum Arabic production systems through fighting (alShail system)(it’s a crop sale process from the farmer directly by the  merchants  before its production with a cheap price which doesn’t suite  with the primary prices or the farmer efforts, the farmer resorts to this because of his p[poverty and the  lackof other alternatives (al Sheikh,1999) as well as  fighting mediators ,brokers and Beneficiaries and link the rural civilian with the land, besides increasing his income and reducing the migration to cities as well as creating the cooperation  between the members of societies through the collective work to participate in increasing the production and  raise the environmental awareness generally Interested in the  acacia tree and develop it especially.

The  national cooperation for forests in establishing  gum Arabic producers societies on the long the gum Arabic belt and training the societies leaders how to administrate it to the modern technologies  in the field  production  and marketing of the gum Arabic to increase the yield of the products directly  without mediator   and activate the modern harvest experiment as well as encouraging  the collective marketing of the crop besides the coordination with the companies, organization and the working authorities in this field to solve the water problems and education in the society villages.

How to establish and create a society to produce and market the gum Arabic 

The first steps that should be followed to establish a society to produce gum Arabic are:

  1. To make field survey by the branch of developing the social corporation to be managed withNational Corporation for forests is the targeted locations.  to estimate the social needs and assure the treesdensity in the area as well as its classifications and increase  the society knowledge of society goals and its interests and their needs  besides their readiness to accept it and write their applications to join it by the sheikh or mayor or the popular committees.
  2. To start analyzing the field information and taking care of listing names of farmers  and their total areas covered with acacia trees which produce gum Arabic and the areas of the other crops and the uncultivated land,and determine the neighboring villages and the possibility of merge it in one association according to location and geography.
  3. Three people should be chosen to every society (president, secretary accountant officer) by the farmers in a general meeting and they should be accredited by al Sheikh or the popular committee in the village.
  4. A general compulsory training was put about how the identity of administration included (meeting administration-holding books and opening files-arithmetic operations-fund calculation system) in addition to treatmentof the acacia tree included (its type,numbers, age, how to glue the embryo of acacia, how to glue, how to store –how to relocate the crop, marketing and dividing the benefits as well.
  5. Making awareness programs and guidance to all the members of the association  with the productive processes
  6. Taking care of getting services facilities and funding from thecompetentauthorities and working to develop the production areas and representing farmers in all the forums and events.

During the period 1992-1995 20 associations were established in north kordufān belt villages after making the first survey to the targeted villages and estimate its  social needs  and making sure that farmers own acacia forests not rented ,besides the beginning of registering members at least 75 member to each association, after the completion of the  basic information and meeting the requirements ,programs for the  guided visits and starting training process about how to hack acacia trees as well as collecting the crops and establishing popular nursery and get benefits from the wells water and how to collect seeds and cultivate them with the agricultural crops,

The production areas witnessed a big prosperity ,number of primary school were established in the big villages like Fanguga,Dalgal Taub,Abu SādAumGamairShabulaShagal WindiAbuamra,water wells also were established in Miraikha ,Shbula and Samandiya.

In 1995 the  first deliberative conference  of the gum Arabic producers association  was held  in cooperation with the gum Arabic development  limitedcorporation ,the conference outputs are a number of recommendations  as making an agreement contract with the associations , the national authority for forests ,the gum Arabic corporation that to fund the processes of financing the work of hacking and marketing the production ,the associations would produce and receive all the gum Arabic to the corporation which will be responsible of marketing and dividing the profits in equal shares .

The deterioration of the association’s role:

After the association dained playing an efficient role in presenting the services to farmers and getting services and improving the profits while reducing the dominance of mediators and brokers as well as educating citizens  and interning in a partnership with the  forest national corporation in establishing  the people nursery and participation in the projects efforts, worked in the rehabilitation of gum Arabic belt fields, nevertheless, the farmer has weak share from profits and thenon-achieving  of agreement that contracted between  the corporation in dividing the gum Arabic profits although it’s good  news was spread yet ,the corporation takes more than90% from profits this led to farmers frustration to the recession of association role and its importance, no addition witnessed in its full preparation as was planned ,its numbers reached 35farmers associations in2015.

The attempts to succeed the association experiment continued  through searching for alternatives to funding as(the model harvest experiment with a partnership with Khartoum company to manufacture the gum Arabic in 1997-1999 to a number of five associations and(karme 1999) in addition to the participation of organic products limited company which interested in the organic crops included the gum Arabic because of its free from chemicals in Issuing quality certificates  which helped in the international marketing  and its participation in training processes and controlling quality,also, the national corporation for forests lent association lented the associations to fund the production processes to a number of 25 associations from2007-2014 ,moreover ,it sought to find  alternatives bodies to marketing the gum Arabic with the Malaysian company and Dar Savanna Company,as well as entering in  partnership to manufacture the gum Arabic with the German company, a direction of grouping people into a professional union ,in alUbayi¼ city the first conference was held in February 2004 for the purpose of making a general union to the Sudanese color and the forestry products like farmers union and the pastors union ,including  the gum Arabic producers  association and the association of the gum Kakmut and sequins associations and the owners of coal and wood, preliminary committee was formed  to the suggested union to complete all procedures with the authorities.

Although of the done efforts (the association went on the way of recession and the idea of the experiment of  association was aborted for reasons related to gum Arabic marketing(mahmoud2004) now it’s found with a photo format, there were shy attempts to rehabilitate its role ,but the share of the farmer from marketing is the real test to the success of all the done efforts to preserve the gum Arabic belt because(the farmer doesn’t fell about the big effort benefits that he does in the production processes  and his share from profit is 5% while the mediators and the holding company take 90% from profits(ramli2005),this situation is the main reason of destroying other crops like sesame , be nuts and karkaday ,the farmer cultivate does with less efforts and getting an easy funding, and he does the marketing processes and get a big benefits contrary of what happened in gum Arabic marketing(abdulrahim2006)however the produced gum in the big tenure  and because of  contractors the smuggling doors are occurred  far away from company monopoly  to fulfill profits, neighboring countries marketing the gum Arabic occurred ,it doesn’t produce it or the size of its marketing is not like its production.

Gum Arabic belt deterioration

There is a big recession in the gum Arabic production as a result of various natural factors like droughts ,soildegradation and biological factors like overgrazing ,grasshoppers and a planning factors  like marketing policy ,transportation,thirsty,guidance and social factors like farmers income, migration ,population pressure and the land owners styles and the relation between production and absence of security in some production areas and deterioration of farmers corporations  like gum Arabic production associations.

Although of these factors with different rates led at the end to the decrease of production in the gum Arabic belt,however, the gum Arabic belt has its reasonsfrom the  beginning, because people used to treat gum Arabic as  a natural resources  taking it without any efforts to keep its continuation ,According to this all the projects work in this field of rehabilitation of the gum Arabic belt came with ideas and ready programs which achieved beforehand far away from the actual requirements to the natural and human constituents.

The years 1967-1968  were the most successful years of gum Arabic production they were the basic yearswhich productionof gum Arabic built on it, increased the gum Arabic participation in the national income ,in 1955 38 thousand ton were exported with6,5 million dollar and in the year1965 14 thousand ton was exported  with7,3millon dollar ,in the years 1967-1968 the basic year the production reached form acacia gum 61,9 thousand ton, the production began its deterioration  because of the banishment of the acacia trees resources and the migration phenomena that the youth have travelled  to work in Aljazeera project to collect cotton and included  the migration of all villages members to work and all the villages members settled in Aljazeera project because of the conflict circumstances which they lived  in the gum Arabic production areas,also, the state concentrated by all communication tools that the flow of workers helped in succeeding Aljazeera project table no(1) and increased the cultivated areas in Aljazeera  during the periods 1960-1970 that led to:

  1. There are large areas where the acacia tree grows and they were not used and there are no users.
  2.  The forests of acacia were neglected and left without protection or guard, so the acacia trees were cut for coal usage and the land is used for the overgrazing and the unfair agriculture as well as the fire outbreak without stop.
  3. 35% of the forest owners left it free and migrated to Aljazeera in the periods 1967-1972(awda1973)

The production areas of gum Arabic don’t get the technical and administrative required care or the scientific planning; the area was left with its natural factors which led to a continuing pressure from the producers with their primitive methods without supervision, arrangement or care.

Table no (1) the increasing of collecting workers in Aljazeera project

 

year

Number of collecting workers

The average in percentage

1060-1961

1964-1965

1968-1969

1972-1973

 

 

 

241048

431699

496375

542000

100%

180%

206%

226%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Resource: Awwada1974 the worker research department, work office

Recommendations:

  1. The necessity of complete the procedures of gum Arabic like the way of the farmers union.
  2. The necessity for deepening the experiment and the producers of gum Arabic associations.
  3. The importance of activating the role of associations in guidance and services field and make them a key partner in the gum Arabic rehabilitations projects.
  4. Investment on the people throughout the education, medical care, services to lead the development process without the need for mediators, and achieve settlement and limit the spreading migration phenomena.
  5. Giving the national corporation for forests powers and roles linked with the marketing the forest products generally and gum Arabic especially considered it as a forest products  and the people in belt are real experts on acacia and acacia producers, are the most concernedfor the continuation of the belt .
  6. The concentration price of the product should be accounted according to the international price to the commodity.
  7. Reviewing the monopoly of the gum Arabic company and going towards the freedom policy gradually taking care of the producer, so the few monopolists of private companies not the state that controlled.
  8.  Redistribution of the fees that imposed on the commodity in the different times of production, marketing according to the financial returns.
  9. Improving the storage capacity of gum Arabic and provide stores for the strategic stock to ensure a good marketing and to be avoid from the fluctuation of the market and speculation.
  10.  Following fees system and balanced taxes so as to cope with the international competition and the comparative advantage of the gum.
  11. Encouraging the local manufacture development linked with the gum Arabic and export it manufactured and gradually ofreach exportphase of preventing exporting of raw gum.
  12. Subject the projects of the gum Arabic belt with its different names and goals according to national measurement.

References and resources:

The Arabic references:

  1. The gum Arabic company(2002).the trade of gum Arabic the present problems and challenges of the future ,a workpaper   presented in a workshop in friendship hall,khartoum10/5/2002.
  2. Alshikh,HasssanAhmed Hassan.1999.the reasons behind deterioration of the vegetation and soil in the semi-arid invironments,Master Degree unpublished university of Khartoum.
  3. Alshikh,Hasssan Ahmed Hassan2004 the droughts and its impact in vegetation in the semi-arid environment  from the African coast.
  4. Mahmoud,Tarig Alshikh 2005,the ways of developing production and gum marketing, presented paper in the national workshop to developing production  of gum Arabic systems and maintaining  the capacity of the producers association ,Alobeid.
  5. Sidding Mahmed Mukhatar belal2005,the production system and gardens administration produced the colors, paper presented in  the national a workshop of the developing gum Arabic production systems and, developing colors production and  maintaining the capacity  of  the producers associations .Alobeid
  6. Ramli.Fatima Muhamed Ahmed2005 the experiment of the producers of gum Arabic association in north kordofan state. Presented paper on the national workshop to developing  the gum Arabic production of colors systems and maintaining the capacity of producers association .Alobeiod
  7. Ramli.Fatima Muhamed Ahmed2005 how to create and make an association of production and marketing gum Arabic .presented paper on the national workshop of the developing the production of colors systems and maintain the capacity of producers association Alobeid.
  8. Abdul Rahim ,Bahia Fathallah2006,systems of administrate and develop the acacia gardens, study of Umrawaba locality status ,a published research paper .Alnylin magazine ,no 4.
  9. Awwda ,Amin Maki 1974 the gum Arabic its present and future ,gum Arabic research Alobeid
  10. Saif aldin ,Abualgasim 1973.the phenomena of desert crawling  and protection from it, making into account the topic of protection of the gum Arabic zone in Sudan ,gum Arabic research alobeid.
  11. Hamadok,Abdallah adam1985 the drought and desertification in the gum Arabic belt ,research paper presented to the national workshop to prevent the drought effects, national corporation for forests Shikan printing press ,Alobeid.

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