Performance and Artistic Dimensions of Remembrance in the Sudan Sheikh Hamad al-Nil's Shrine as an eSun, 15 Apr 2018
Dr. 'Adil Harbi
Remembrance is considered, to the Qadiriya Way in the Sudan, particularly the court of Sheikh Hamad al-Nil's shrine in Omdurman, a spiritual, religious and social up-bringing, as well as a psychological peregrination that create the values of communication and participation in the love of Allah and His Messenger.
The research has relied on observation and study in the performance court as well as studying the performance and artistic aspects thereof, such as impersonation, attraction, spontaneous movement that rely on belief, musical rhythm, figuration arts and effects.
The researcher has divided the study into several themes through which he discussed the role of remembrance as well as reaching attraction through such.
The researcher has reached findings and recommendations. The research also includes a video tape, photographs and configurations of the performance court (al-Noaba) in Sheikh Hamad al-Nil's Shrine.
• Immutability and metamorphosis
• The Qadiriya Way in the Sudan
• Performance elements of remembrance
• Rhythm and figuration dimensions in remembrance
• Sources and references
The sun of Sufism rose in the era of the Funj Kingdom in the Sudan. The pioneers of sufists started their activity and advancement until they reached the Sudan. They found a viable environment in a Muslim society, which has not yet rid itself of ancient traditions, beliefs and rites. We find that remembrance included dancing to drums, rhythmic music and hymns; hence people attained a primordial aptitude to accept the notion of Sufism and Islam, as long as the notion expressed the same social and spiritual dimensions of the Sudanese human-being.
The thought of Sufism in the Funj state, and up to now, is manifested in the intertwining of myth, paganism and Islamic religion in its spiritual and doctrinal thought. Myth brought forward the extent of the existing linkage between the natural forces, the universe forms and the human source. Thus, "the Arab tribes, which entered the Sudan, were influenced by that pagan spirit based on myth and magic" (1).
Therefore, we find that such a historical epoch of the Sudanese history has its peculiar color and spirit, producing formulae and results of unique and distinguished characteristics. Such has been formed by the local nature of the Funj kingdom, whereby it ingested its popular originality, arts and rites practices. All such local cultures have been fused with aspects of in-coming cultures from several inclinations, among which were the Pharaoh, Christian, Muslim and Arab.
Such diversity of the in-coming cultures warranted the creation of formulae and results, which were capable of creating a sort of cultural unity. There was no cause for such, save the strength of the sourcing spirit and belief, siding with the social values prevailing in that period.
In its course through history, such cultural unity kept abreast with all the in-coming cultures without dissociation from, or dying out of, local values.
This permanent presence of the forms of such in-coming cultures did not, as was anticipated, create a conflict for the receiving society, but it actually created what we can call a balance that, in its turn, led to stability in the cultural status quo, coupled with adding the metamorphosis peculiarity in its virtual conception, which did not pass by the reality and essence of things.
The Immutable and the Metamorphic:
Immutability is a stable feature in the psychological nature of any society. It is the essence of the popular rites and practices, which gives the ability to survive across time, history and civilizations. It, as well, devolves from one generation to another without termination or dying out. It, rather, remains to express the expertise of generations, as well as their social and doctrinal faith across time. It is a characteristic of the continuous survival of cultural units, despite vanishing of the cause of their existence at first. Hence, the popular practices and rites do not lose their value by passage of time, though values contrast and tastes vary from one age to another. "However, they sometimes acquire a greater value with the long duration thereof. Therefore man seeks, with various means, to preserve his cultural heritage." (2).
The immutable in practices and rites has made the Sudanese human-being in all regions holding fast and stringent in the preservation thereof. That was due to his belief in such, as well as their survival across time and history, which rendered such as a creed unsusceptible to argumentation and discussion. Thus, they became immutable in his consciousness, perception and faith, which confirm the concept of immutability.
However, the metamorphic is associated with the accumulation characteristic as one of the significant features distinguishing the culture and accumulation, hence entering the space of cultural change, "for
accumulation means sequence and succession in the constitution of cultural elements across various time phases. Cultural change is a complex phenomenon, accumulation being one of its aspects. It also reflects change, as well as the moving dimensions, or those susceptible to metamorphic (3).
The metamorphic in the Sudanese practices and rites is represented in the elements which responded and interacted with the in-coming cultures, such as Pharaoh, Christian and Islamic Arabic. Such have the ability to shape at the expense of the influencing culture. Consequently, it had to create balance. Hence, the metamorphic became the form that contained the immutable, which made it adapt to all times and in-coming cultures.
We observe, for example, that there are a number of practices dating back to the African pagan origins, such as dancing, use of drums and hymns in religious ceremonies. Perhaps this was what Jack Mandelson meant by his saying, "The Northern Sudanese demonstrated sharp intelligence in deliberately adapting religion to their whims, interests and, at the same time, to appease their Sheikhs. They have sung and danced and gave it a touch of other gods, but they kept the express and live reality: the reality of unity under One God (4).
Islam in the Sudan has progressed on the steps of the local heritage, and did not endeavor to abolish such. It, rather, covered and contained such, due to its knowing that it was an essential value immutable across time. It deliberately adapted some elements, which it formulated as a religious performance for approximation to Allah. Hence, the remembrance rite emerged, for remembrance is pagan in its essence, but is an Islamic religious rite in its form.
The Sudanese popular practices and rites were the first container of traditions and customs, and are, as well, the first landmark of the conduct and ideas of the Sudanese human-being, as well as the stepping board in constituting the structure of the community and society. The rites phenomena has available the flexibility and strength in full balance.
This, finally, led to crown the social interaction process, giving such the ability to assimilate, blend, adapt and give, until it became steadfast against the winds of change and dying out. The gradations of the progress thereof witnessed a nominal metamorphosis, without prejudice to the essence.
The popular practices and rites played a cultural role that endeavored to blend the local and in-coming cultural diversity and contrast. Thus, the vast majority in the map of the Sudan fused together, performing such rites and practices collectively, heedless of the obvious and cultural variables, but rather, heeding the language and creed. Here, the philosophy of the immutable and the metamorphic to appear, once more, in the process of creating conciliation between the essence and form.
The Qadiriya Way in the Sudan:
Sufism in the Sudan encountered a viable environment to extend its adaptation, after it acquired a local feature with a peculiarity that helped it to access the depths of people.
Sheikh Wad Deifalla tells us in his Tabagat* about many friends of Allah who wore silk, slept on feather mattresses and had many wives. Here is one of the jurists describing his sheikh to us, "At the start of his fit, he walks in his court yard, brings girls, brides and bride-grooms to dance and plays the tambourine. Each tune thereof makes the insane recover, affects the minds drastically and enraptures the objects and animals (5).
We find that the Qadiriya Way, which is the largest spreading sufist ways in the Sudan, was established by A/Gadir Al-Jailani in the twelfth
Gregorian century. It entered Western Africa in the fifteenth century. In about 1545, it entered the Sudan through Tajuddin Al-Bahari (6).
The most important rules and tenets of the Qadirya Way are as follows:
1. Adherence to the Book and the Prophetic Tradition.
2. Studiousness and exerting oneself. That is, earnestness in comporting the way to Allah, i.e. exerting effort, limbs, soul and spirit in comporting to Allah forthwith.
3. Meeting with, and listening to, the righteous scholars and guides so as to benefit from them.
4. Call for Allah and remember in abundance.
The Qadiriya Way spread in the Sudan. The most distinguishing aspect thereof is to remember in abundance, and they are not embarrassed by dancing and becoming enraptured. The researcher has watched and followed up the Way's sessions of remembrance in Omdurman, before the shrine of Sheikh Hamad al-Nil ibn Al-Rayah, who was one of the poles of the Way. The remembrance session is conducted weekly, every Friday of the week days, where sheep are slaughtered and gifts are given.
The performance elements of remembrance:
1. Impersonation in remembrance:
The origin of remembrance of Allah is to bring to the mind His Magnificence, as well as the heart being replete of His Majesty and Beauty, as a prelude to considering and contemplating the perfect thorough creation, the effects of the astounding Ability, extreme Wisdom and effective power. It is, in this sense, the impact of true Faith and the foundation of honest vigilance (7).
'Remembrance' emanates from the sufist way groups such as the Qadiriya, Shazaliya, Burhaniya, Khlutiya, Ismaeliya and others. Remembrance in the Sudan expresses the sufist's remembrance in his own style, own demonstration and own performance, for its being as a
Pollination of the African magic and myth, and Islam with its thought and civilization, which filled the existing religious life. Magic is deep-rooted in the Sudanese life as from ancient times. Hence, the Arab tribes which entered the Sudan have been influenced with this pagan spirit, based on myth and magic, and was manifested in this or that form in the Sudanese people's Islam. In the Fonj era, totem and fanaticism had their impact on them*. The pagan impact, in its different forms, appeared in the Muslim tribes according to the Afro (negro-Nubian)-Arab interaction (8).
According to the Qadiriya Way, remembrance is the Ascent in comporting to Allah. The disciple's most important task is the abundance of remembrance, as well as perseverance on such and blessing the Messenger, during the day and at night. With all such, the disciple advances in the stations of love of Allah and His Messenger. Remembrance is the greatest means of purifying the soul as well as decorating and beautifying such with the Mohammedan morals.
The shrine of Sheikh Hamad al-Nil is deemed the best place for the intact spiritual up-bringing. Therein is a court that extends in all directions. It is considered one of the extremely significant stages in the history of the Sufist movement and remembrance in the Sudan.
Remembrance is not restricted to men only, but extends to the women and children, who line up close to the major circle comprised of men, but they repeat the same litanies with them. We also find that tens of Westerners are keen on weekly attending the remembrance session, among the hearty welcome of the followers and Sheikhs of the Qadirya Way.
In the remembrance sessions in the Qadirya Way in Omdurman, as well as in the shrine of Sheikh Hamad al-Nil, the values and criteria of the rite concept in its religious dimension, where it is called 'al-Noaba' or 'al-Hadhra', when impersonation is clearly depicted in its meanings and inferences. With completing the circle of the impersonation act within the remembrance circle (al-Noaba), rhythms and music interact, as assisting elements, to create the state of spiritual attraction.
Attraction, in the philosophical dictionary, is one of the servant's states, wherein the heart becomes unaware of surrounding states, for being preoccupied with the True Majesty, is enveloped in an all-inclusive delight and is closer to the sublime higher world and the summit of philosophy. Some Sufists call it 'ecstasy.' The 'attracted' is a comporting disciple. The disciple is the attracted: a man who willingly seeks Allah. The person who is totally dedicated to worshipping is called a dervish. The dervishes are considered the icons of remembrance (al-Noaba), where the dervishes undertake all responsibilities within the shrine and court, as from cleaning the place, burning incense, organizing and directing the crowds, providing water for ablution and resolving all contingent problems during remembrance (al-Noaba).
With reciting the remembrances, you will find the dervishes rock to the right and to the left, without pivoting themselves, as a prelude to entering the attraction state, which increases with the rhythm of hitting the tambour, up to the point in which they fall. The sufists consider this as the point of spiritual contact with the Creator. One of the ethics of remembrance (al-Noaba) is that whoever falls unconscious is not assisted by his mates, so as not to spoil, for him, such a spiritual moment for which the attendees crave.
With respect to the performance figuration of the remembrance circle, in the court of Sheikh Hamad al-Nil's shrine, it is considered a rite organized with the accuracy of Faith as well as the strength of the deep religious belief. The remembrance circles usually start after the
Afternoon prayer of each Friday. It is a round circle that expands and narrows, and the persons thereof are in complete integration, for they all perform this figuration in one similar, unchanging manner.
The circle starts with collective praise-singing* in a homogeneous audio and movement figuration while the rhythms of the Noaba drums and cymbals gradually escalate, whereas the performers' excitement and movement enhance, and reach its peak with the increased strength of the rhythms accompanying the praise-singing.
The invocators enter attired in patched, brightly colored clothes, with the red and green colors prevailing. They organize in movements that gradually increase in speed while pivoting themselves. Here, it starts the moment of attraction, where vision becomes devoid to the attracted; all things vanish and doors are opened to new worlds unfrequented, save by the sufists, through that warm rite. When attraction is attained, expression becomes consistent with the concept thereof, where it takes a material dimension that reveals the truth of such materialism. The Sufist lashes himself with the whip, uttering groans of pleasure, not pain. Then, the Sufist picks up a live coal believing, in utter certitude, that it is the Prophet's date.
The researcher has witnessed several remembrance circles of the Qadiriya Way. He has observed that the stage of attraction varies from one person to the other, according to his rank, depth, practice and experience in practicing this rite. Some of them froth, others speedily pivot on one leg rendering the eyes unable to follow such. There are many conceptions to this state as well as several interpretations about how to reach such a state.
The researcher Mohammed Fat'hi Mutwalli believes that reaching the state of attraction is associated with the body movement, which is timed with the rhythm in a continuous synchronization, and escalates with such up to reaching the attraction moment, or ecstasy, as the researcher named it (9).
Ali 'Ogla has interpreted such in his discussion of Roem's opinion, who was asked about the ecstasy, or attraction, of the Sufists and said, "They witness the purports which express others, and point to them, to me, to me, wherewith they are blessed with joy. Then the veil falls, and such joy becomes weeping, where some of them tear his clothes, some of them shout and some of them weep, as befits each person." Here are mentioned the heat of passion, as well as full co-existence, which we can call 'ecstasy,' wherein there are joy, weeping clothes tearing and shouting (10).
The author agrees with this opinion and deems that the Sufist invocator impersonates, at first, the personality of his Sheikh to whom he became a disciple, in his sufist rank, his ability and wonders. Then, he gradually escalates with the rhythm and movement, until the mind, conscience and body are unified in one synchronized and consistent movement, that helps him to transfer to the state of attraction, which is considered the highest stage of participation, expression and interaction between man and the components of his soul and mind, and between reality, nature, universe, norms of existence and Allah on the other part.
In remembrance, the disciple seeks guidance from his sheikh; and becomes his guide in all his steps. He is the one who pushes him to the ladder of the Way to reach the states of attraction. The curriculum and up-bringing of the disciple are gradually conducted by the sheikh, who leads him to attraction, and to meet his Lord. The sheikh is an exemplar to be emulated, and it is impermissible for the disciple to disobey him, or argue with him. He is believed to the utmost limits of believing. He imposes the tasks, and determines the techniques of development. Ali 'Ogla 'Arsan indicated the significance of the disciple's receiving training, follow-up and guidance, specifying the Sheikh's responsibility and standing. He relied on the opinion of Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali on "the disciple's holding fast of his Sheikh as the blind man holds fast to his leader on the river bank, where he totally resigns his affairs to him and does not disobey him (11).
Al-Ghazali determined the technique with which the disciple is directly trained by the sheikh, which he named "The disciple's gradation in soul hardening." He depicted, at the beginning, this technique by the Sheik imposing on the disciple to stay solely in a corner, where he imparts to him one of the remembrance wherewith he preoccupies his tongue and heart. He perseveres on such until the tongue movement drops, rendering the word uttered by the tongue without moving. Then, he persists on perseverance thereof until the mark drops from the tongue, and the word's image remains in the heart. Then, he perseveres on such until the word's letters and image are erased from the heart, and its purport reality remains attending to the heart, present with it and overwhelming it, and is depleted from any other" (12). He also pointed out that the terms of testing this disciple must be based on the disciple's aptitude as well as his motives of receiving and training, and said, "The sheikh must scrutinize the disciple. If he is not intelligent, smart and mastering the exterior belief, he should not engage him in remembrance and thought, but returns him to the exterior functions and the frequent roles, or engage him in the service of those dedicated to thought, in order to be included in their blessing (13).
The sheikh in the Qadiriya Way in the Sudan leads, guides and trains the disciple through this doctrinal relationship, which is considered a crossing and a road to the disciple's love of God, and his habit of using his body, subduing his soul and mind is fusing and vanishing; and there is no leader or guide thereof, save the Sheikh.
In the field interviews conducted by the researcher with the invocators of the Qadiriya Way, in the shrine of Sheikh Hamad al-Nil, each of
Bannaga Al-Dhaw, Mohammed Al-Nour Musa and Fadhl Omer Ali confirmed that the sheikh is their leader and guide, where the first said, "Whoever has no sheikh, and Satan will be his sheikh." The second said, "Every man has a guide, and the sheikh is your guide." The third confirms, "At the moment of remembrance, they imagine the sheikh in front of them, their god-father" (14).
Thus, the Sheikh represents the god-father and the trainer who leads the disciple towards the highest degrees of remembrance and Sufism. This is conducted gradually, by means of long periods of teaching, practice and remembrance repetition, as well as the means of worship to reach the sheikh's stations and abilities. This is considered one of the forms of performance direct training.
The spontaneous movement in remembrance:
Movement is the most adherent form of expression to spontaneity and primordial nature of man. It is a direct interpretation of whatever crosses man's mind, as well as his depths and intellect, and disclosure of his emotions and reactions to phenomena and events. In remembrance, we find a spontaneous movement resulting from the depth of consolidation and attraction. It is in the opinion of several people that the spontaneous movement in remembrance is but dancing. However, movement in the remembrance is associated with the philosophy of Sufism, in which the invocator reaches his utmost limit, and his spirit, body and mind are consolidated. Dr. Ali Zi'or confirms that "the philosophizing sufist reaches a degree wherein his body becomes a spirit, or wherein his spirit and body consolidate as well as his will, desire, intellect and practice. The Sufist, in his philosophy and conception of the existence, man, body and God, by-passes the duality of the body and soul, and says: I am my body. I am my consciousness and my body are one, or an organic combined unity." (15).
The invocator in the remembrance circle performs spontaneous movements that naturally lead to semi-dancing movements. We find detailed theatrical phenomena with the Arabs on Al-Hijwairi, "Know that
Dancing has no origin in Shari'a and the Way. Because the movements of ecstasy and the dealings of the people of inordinate love, are similar to dancing, a group of comedy people imitated them in such. To sum it all, dancing is ugly according to Shari'a and intellect. It causes throbbing in the head that increases with time, hence the case becomes confused, and the order and drawings rise. The apparent confusion is neither dancing, nor feet-creeping, or up-bringing the nature. It is, rather, fusion. The person who calls such "dancing" is far from being right, and farther from such is the person whom, unwillingly, comes to him a state from the True" (16). Al-Hijwairi indicates the existence of a significant state in the soul and mind that leads to movement reflections appearing on the body, having an impact on the person. This explains the value of attraction, or consolidation, or ecstasy from the fusion of the spirit with the body, or the vanishing of the spirit, body and mind, which leads to spontaneous movements without restrictions, or order or choosing, as in dancing.
Attraction, or ecstasy, occurs through the performer's growth of movement and internal emotion, as from the start of remembrance up to the moment of attraction, which occurs as a result of the conformance of the psychological state and body movement. The spontaneous movement becomes free, and expresses an innermost graceful and emotional feeling in movements and postures of the body and face, especially the expressions and acts which seem exceptional.
In remembrance, some spontaneous movements seem circular, which reflect the spiritual communication between the disciple and his sheikh. The researcher also observed that the movements of face and limbs of many invocators are violent and convulsing, expressing the meaning of catching something that seems difficult to attain, but determination, persistence and endeavor are expressly manifested on the disciples' faces.
The researcher observed that despite the existence of recurring spontaneous movements in the remembrance, the spontaneous
Movement’s expression is not governed, save by the law of creed, for the performer is in a state of total submission to the concept of impersonation, attraction and fusion. This, in turn, constitutes patterns of involuntary movements, which are normally characterized with spontaneity that is represented in the following characteristics:
1. Continuous change of rapid rhythm.
2. Momentary spontaneous emotion, which constitutes unfixed violent movement, i.e., converting.
3. The face has clearly defined movements and gestures.
4. Exceptional bodily movement despite the body's movement limitations.
Such movements seem, in their essence, consistent with a homogeneous rhythm despite spontaneity, as if the subconscious here has a role in producing the rite movement. Many attracted to remembrance conducts acts that seem to us exceptional in their form and concept.
All such interprets that conscientious internal spirit, which prevails over the course of movement as well as the figuration of performance. Such spirit, rather, becomes the movement and its essence at the same time.
Rhythm and figuration dimensions of remembrance:
In the beginning, remembrance relied on the poem material, which was the praise, as an introduction. It is, regarding the form, a complete song with its own tunes, tones, music and rhythms (17). The word has, in this pitch, its effective and influencing role, which takes a deep spiritual way in the shape of its formulation and content. The matter being as such, we found that the tune, which is represented in the word, acts, in remembrance, as a deep-rooted detonator thereof, particularly the
Rhythmic aspect of such, which derives its rhythmic patterns from the purports of the tuned words. Such words make the singer in a state of spiritual attraction. He expresses this state with his voice, which makes from the tuning technique a communicative tool to the invocator, or disciple, who attains the beginning of spiritual attraction state. The invocator or disciple gradually expresses, with regular movements of his body, his various emotions. No doubt, such address the mind and move the religious conscience. Then, it starts the rhythmic strike on the tambourine (**) and the Noaba (***). With this, the invocator reaches the state of attraction, and the performance picture is completed, in conformity and synchronization, from the heat of rhythm with the body.
This is because the disciples and dervishes concentrate in the rhythmic strikes, which transform them to the attraction state. Ali 'Ogla "Arsan considers concentration an important thing in transforming the disciple to do exceptional deeds, such as carrying extremely hot sheet-iron; and said, "The sheikh advised his disciple, when he wanted to carry the sheet-iron, to concentrate his attention in the sheet-iron, going near, and away from it three times and he should not carry it unless he sees that its color became green to his eyes. That is, concentrating the attention, and approximating the state of the disciple's innermost Depths and spirit, to the state of the external object, i.e., the sheet-iron. He reaches the degree of approximation and uniqueness by means of the peculiar vision (18).
It is indicated here that the concentration of attention abolishes the distance between the disciple and the extremely hot sheet-iron, where he ingrains confidence and ability in all his senses, which motivate him to touch the sheet-iron. All such confidence is a form of Sufist training and up-bringing from the sheikh to his disciple, to carry the extremely hot sheet-iron.
Concentration is considered an integral part of such up-bringing, due to its importance in enticing the disciples to acts, which will help them to reach the divine road as well as catch up with those who preceded them of the people of remembrance. Sheikh Mohammed Al-Nour Musa, a disciple of Sheikh Hamad al-Nil's, who was one of the poles of the Qadiriya Way, confirms such by saying, "Allah is One, with no prior, or subsequent. Every man has a guide; the sheikh will become your guide to the Way. Each one of us eats fire, and that is a stage." (19).
Concentration in the escalating rhythm and music, as well as the figuration effects and mastering them, in addition to the incense and the accessories decorated with the rite's beauty, all such have created a solo and collective, integrated and consistent performance art. Such leaves a state of illusion, which moves their beliefs and internal desires. Practicing the performance, with its attraction and strength of intimation, lead all those in the court and circle of remembrance (Al-Noaba) to create communication between the performer and his religious, social and rite world, and enter a world that creates conformity between whatever is material and the doctrinal, or spiritual.
The conformity creates in the disciples, dervishes and participants a spirit that makes them enraptured, whereby they cry, applaud, exceed their limits, and their spirits and souls are cleansed in Faith and love of Allah and His Messenger.
The researcher has conducted a 'live' watching in the remembrance court. He recorded personal interviews and television recordings. He also relied on some documents and studies. He reached the following findings:
1. Rhythm, as well as the enhanced rhythmic music, such as music and chanting, play a significant role in creating the illusion, and entering the state of attraction.
2. The spontaneous movement performance creates conformity between whatever is material, and whatever is doctrinal and spiritual, which leads to exceptional acts and movements.
3. The shrine of Sheikh Hamad al-Nil is considered a 'court' for communication and love among the disciples and participants, as well as the love of Allah and His Messenger.
1. We recommend conducting more studies and research in the remembrance performance courts.
2. Benefiting from the performance elements, which are rhythm, music and figuration in the fields of arts, music and drama.
3. Creating a bridge between arts and culture and the religious Sufist performance.
4. Production of documentaries for propagation through mass media.
Sources and references:
(1)Haleem al-Yaziji, Sudan and the Literary Movement, Patr One, Beirut, Oriental Library, p.56.
(2)Mohammed A/Al-Ma'boud Mursi, Social Interpretation of Culture, Alexandria, University Knowledge House, 1990, p. 34.
(3) Ibid, p.43.
(4) Mohammed Hussein Al-Faki, Significance of Cultural Planning in Preserving the Sudanese Entity, pp. 58-59.
(5) Haleem Al-Yazigi, ibid, p. 68.
(6) Hamadnalla Mustafa Hassan, The Economic and Social Development in the Sudan, 1841-1881, Cairo, Dar Al-Ma'arif, 1985, pp. 428-429.
(7) Mohammed Shaltout, The Fatwas,Beirut, Dar Ashorouq, 1991, 16th edition, p. 156.
(8) Haleem Al-Yazigi, Sudan and the Literary Movement, Part One, Beirut, Oriental Library, 1985, p. 56.
(9) Mohammed Fat'hi Mutwali, Inspiration of Folklore in the Sudanese Theatre, unpublished master thesis, Cairo, Higher Institute of Theatrical Arts, Arts Academy, 1989, pp. 18-19.
(10) Ali 'Ogla 'Arsan, Theatrical Phenomena of the Arabs, Part One, Tripoli, Public Installation for publication, distribution and Advertisement, 1983, 2nd edition, p. 256.
(11) Ibid, pp. 319-320.
(12) Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, Revival of Religion Sciences, Cairo, Revival of Arabic Books House, Vol. 3, without date, p. 75.
(13) Ibid, p.75.
(14) Video recorded interviews, Sheikh Hamad al-Nil's Shrine, The Qadiriya Way in Omdurman, Friday 2/8/1991.
(15) Dr. Ali Zai'oor, Cultural Subconscious, Body Language and Unspoken Communication in the Arabic Entity, Beirut, Dar Atali'a, November 1991, p. 126.
(16) Ali 'Ogla 'Arsan, ibid, pp. 257-158.
(17) Qurashi Mohammed Hassan, Introduction to the Poetry of Prophetic Praise, Ministry of Culture and Information.
(18) Ali 'Ogla 'Arsan, ibid, p. 223.
(19) Mohammed Al-Nour Musa, recorded interview, Sheikh Hamad al-Nil's Shrine, The Qadiriya Way, video tape No. (1), 2/8/1991.
*The book of 'Tabagat Wad Deifalla' by Mohammed Al-Nour Deifalla (1727-1810). This book is considered of the first reliable sources in the history of Arab Islamic culture in the Sudan, Mohammed A/Al-Hay, Sheikh Ismael of the Tambourine, the History and Example of the Poet's Concept in the Tabagat book, Horouf Magazine, Khartoum, University of Khartoum Publishing House, First issue, first year, September 1990.
(**) It is a circular wooden frame on which is pulled a goat's skin, and is fixed on its edge with gum, or any other adhesive material. The tambourine is of three different sizes. As long as it is small in size, the intensity of its sound increases. The skin is pulled over it by exposing it to flames, or rubbing with the hand. It is used to accompany the Prophetic praises, and in the remembrance circles of the Sufist ways' men. Usually, more than one tambourine are used, at the same time, to create cross-rhythms, Abdulla Mohammed and Ali Al-Dhaw, ibid, p. 39.
(***) Al-Noaba is made out of half an iron barrel, or a wooden cylinder, where the skin is pulled over it edge with a number of ropes, or intertwined cloth. The Noaba is used in accompanying the Prophetic praises and conducting the remembrance. The Noaba is usually struck with a stick, using the right hand, ibid, p. 35.