History of the logo in Sudan

Wed, 11 Apr 2018

Dr. Abu-Bakr Elhadi Ahmed

Dr. Mohamed AbdElruhmanHussen


  This paper deals with the initial starting of the logos in Sudan, so it put forth the visual signs which were used in the Sudanese communities during the 19th century which in turn paved the way for the appearance of private and governmental commercial and industrial corporations during the British colonization.

                  The paper considered the types of logos in Sudan from the point of the significance of the shape and the content.  It divided the logos to symbolic logos, letter logos, constructive logo and structural logos. The paper then concluded by referring to some problems which confront designing of logos nowadays. It came out with many results; the most important of which is that the concentration of the governmental and economic institutions in the cities of central Sudan lessens the usage and spread of the concept in other parts of Sudan. The paper ended by suggesting some recommendations:


                 The logo is a basic sign which makes known the institutional entity whatever its type.  It is the main symbol among other symbols which is tied with the corporation in the minds of those who deal with it.  There are many conditions the logo must satisfy. At its head comes the simplicity of the shape and its expression of the nature of the work of the entity. Also, the ability of the logo to seize the attention of the receptor and it does remain in the memory. Among the conditions are also the satisfactions of the conditions of aestheticism of visual formation. These conditions, however, are not available in all logos. Only some of them are available, but the designer tries to collect them together by using his ability of innovation, and exploiting his culture, his ability of imagination, his talent and experience in creating an artistically serious piece of work which will serve the purpose and the function for which it was designed.

                Functionally,the logos in Sudan are like anywhere else divided into three types. These are service logos, which refer to the services received by individuals from the institutions of the State and the community, and commercial logos. These refer to activities and products which aim to make profits. There are also logos of occasion.  These refer to an activity which continues to a definite period and ends with the end of the occasion e.g. conferences, national occasions, sport competitions ..., etc.. The logo serves many functions. It shows the public the natural of the service or product it provides. It also discriminates the field of the service from other fields in the particular community.  The logo aims at a selected group of people referred to as the object group – though the majorly of the society members will also see the logo. This group consists of a group of people who benefit from the services of the institution. The logo works as a guide to the kind of services rendered to the group and also shows the clients the sites in which the services are supplied.

 Among the functions of the logo is distinguishing the character of the corporation among other similar ones, and to attain the highest degree of visual beauty to its products. It is the major element in the prints of the corporation .It is manifested in the advertisement and it distinguishes the packages of the products of the corporation. As the logo draws the attention to the service which the corporation renders, it plays an important role in recognition and propagation of the corporation and in raising its ability to hold firmly in the field.  Therefore, the perfection of the products enhances the staying of the logo in the memories of the onlookers. The success and visual attractiveness of the logo are in vain if the product of the corporation does not satisfy those who deal with it.

Bases of the Study

The importance of this paper originates from its attempts to authenticate the information concerned with the history of one of the spheres of practicing applied plastic arts in Sudan, i.e. designing logo which is considered one of the most important spheres   of explanatory designing. The importance of the paper also originates from the scarcity of information needed by those interested in the development of plastic arts in general and explanatory design in particular. It also adds to the knowledge of development of visual experience for the receptors of plastic arts in Sudan. Logos are one of the most outstanding signs which spread and covered a wide range of circulation of plastic arts.   

                       This consequently had its impact on the beauty taste and the visual culture of the common people. The basic issue of this paper is to recognize the phases of logo designing in Sudan and its contribution in developing the experience of circulating and reception of the visual signs. The paper wishes to get answers to three questions: what are the main phases of the development of the logo in Sudan? What are the ways of designing under which the different logos can be classified? What are the problems which hinder the development of logos in Sudan?

                        The paper aims at furnishing those interested in explanatory designing with a methodic knowledge of the historical course which the designing of logo in Sudan had gone through and to enlighten them with the methods the Sudanese designers adopted. On the other hand, the paper aims at confining the problems that hindered the development of logo designing. To realize these goals, the paper follows a historical method to observe phases of the development of the logo. To Identify the methods of designing, the paper follows an analytic method. The time limit of the study is the period from the independence of Sudan to the end of the 20th century.  The place of the study is Sudan with its present border. 

   The paper contains four axes. The first axis provides a historical background of the development of the logo during the period before independence. The second axis provides a historical narration of the stages of development of logo designing during the second half of the 20th century which coincides with the period pro-independence. The third axis concentrates on the various types of designing in an attempt to find objective criteria to classify them. The fourth axis attempts to draw the difficulties which confronted the designers or at least limited the opportunities of producing various logos of more innovation and Excellency.

                        The paper also includes results and recommendations one to the week authentication of plastic arts practice, in its two divisions, aesthetical and applied – the archives of the institutions concerned with explanatory logo are empty of any reference to the history of the development of logo design – this paper is considered along with other papers written by Sudanese researchers as an attempt to make a local scientific referential in this field.

The logo: Definition and Function:

Because of the recentness of the field of designing logo in Sudan, the paper begins by tracing the development of a general type of visual signs of which logos are a part. This is the field of visual identities in the old Sudanese communities.  Visual identity, in spite of its recentness, can be used as an indicator of an old practice. It is the shape by which the corporation introduces itself to the community in such a way that the sign will be tied to the minds of those who see it with a particular mental image related to the corporation. Corporation here does not refer to a commercial entity nor a service or economic institutions such as those seen in the so-called modern communities. It may rather refer to a social or economic institution, and consequently it might exist in any community, no matter how modern it was. The institution of the family, education, or religion, or defense of a specific group, often adopts an identity for itself. This identity is realized perceptively, and it can be realized via the auditory or visual senses. The religious institution often adopts several auditory signs, which acquire certain significance via the rhythms. The Azan is considered an auditory sign, indicating an activity practiced by a religious group of an Islamic identity, which is often the mosque. The sound of drums, which is widely known in Sudan is considered as part of the auditory identity, indicating preparedness for war in some Sudanese groups. Likewise, some signs indicate in visual field, the identity of many social institutions. Body signs, such as tattoos, or signs on the face, indicate the identity of the tribe or a certain ethnic group. When certain decorations are put on the material cultural products, they perform the function of the sign in the modern communities. Although these products are not of a reciprocal nature, with no   financial gain expected, the decorations that distinguished the production of ceramics, in red and black colors, indicate to archeologists, the identity of a definite art related to a definite period of a definite region in Sudan, which is the art of the culture of Karma.

(Figure – 1)

Based on this , when a scholar starts to trace the beginnings of designing logos in any region of the world, he will find beginnings that are related to the construction and addition of significance to visual signs in certain community institutions, in a certain manner that has developed in the history of the culture of that community . These methods act as a source of experience, which modern designers of that community use as an inspiration when they design logos. They then take methods of symbolism, creation of sign, and    production of the indication, from their inheritance. In Sudan, the beginnings of logo design are not related to the development of commercial institutional entities such as companies and factories, or governmental institutions such as ministries and service institutions. But, they find origins in every sign, playing the role of a “visual sign”. So, they invoke in the mind of who sees it, indications that are related to a certain institution, based on a plastic arts knowledge, that go deep into an ancient and origin material and visual culture. Besides indicating an entity or institution of a sort, visual signs have been associated with a psychological function that serves the belonging of an individual to a group, which is enforcing feelings of belonging to that particular culture, from which a certain sign comes out. These make possible the communication of the individual with his social and historical ambience. Thus, visual signs have several functions that go beyond their association with a particular institution to go as far as deepen the belonging of an individual to the community as a whole via the culture and history.

The logo designing in the world has developed parallel to two other elements, one is social and the other is technical. The former is the accumulation of visual experience in the culture of the community, in which visual signs are circulated. And the latter is the extent of development in the media of transferring and circulation of visual signs. On one hand, the visual culture constitutes in the particular community, the base and foundation upon which production and emission, and reception of plastic works, in both their purely aesthetic and applied types among its members. On the other hand, it is observed that the more the production technology and reproduction of visual signs advance, the more capabilities are made available in the field of production of shapes, and the more the designer has greater capabilities and freedoms when it comes to expression of his mental experience with the visual perceptions. The twentieth century period is the period when there has been great advances in technology of production and emission of image, starting with the spreading of photography and colored printing in the midst of the twentieth century, and its public consumption, spreading of animation, cinema, video, as well as the transformation of the computer to motion picture, and video presentation screen at the end of the twentieth century, and the spreading of the social circulation applications of the images via smartphones in the third millennium. In all of these stages, the image has gone through various changes that made visual signs a simple nature, which is represented ideally by the logo, one of the most important ways of transmission of information.

Historically, designing of logos started with the use of national symbolic in ancient world   to identify the armies. It was first manifested on the icons and banners, associated with various trade unions such as merchants, labors and artisans.

Every profession coined a logo to be used in granting license to practice the profession. Later every   group of labors working in the same field adopted its own logo and thus logos of the big companies came into being with the beginning of the modern age. Designing was, at that time which witnessed appearance of printers, extremely complicated because designers were keen to make the logo of a complicated shape to avoid faking of documents and commercial licenses as the logo played the role of the seal.

During the middle ages, a similar kind of visual signs spread in the Muslim World to refer to the institutions of the government such as the symbol of the eagle on Salah Edeen fortress which symbolizes power and courage in a simple but strong and expressive shape. In the era of Mamalik, a kind of visual signs referred to as Errenok   emerged.  Those signs were characterized by simplicity of lines, clearness of the shape and clearness of the indication, in spite of their high degree of abstractionism (2).  Errenok was used on badges   of kings and Sultans, engraved on their buildings, and minted on their coins. It was also used as symbols of military divisions (3). Actually,Errenokhad emerged from the word Renj. It is Persian and it means color. An indication that the identity which  Sultans and military leaders adopted was at the beginning a color identity associated with ensigns of military leaders, then developed to logos.   

The role of the visual signs was not confined to identifying the social and political institutions. The industry which developed with the development of machines at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th played an important role in increasing production of commodities. This raised the competition between the industrial institutions. So, enhancement of the beauty sides of the products acquired importance in order to gain acceptance of the consumer.  At this stage, the role of designing in shaping the commodity and making ways of advertisement, and propagation appeared. Then the role of the logos and visual signs became important in the arena of the big economic institutions and the symbolic value of the visual signs changed into a materialistic value. It became a must to protect it as per law in order to prevent other institutions of using it. Thus, the sign turned into an exclusive ownership of the producer distinguishing it from others. This is the stage in which appeared the conception of the logo which associates visual sign with the identity of the producer.

In the 20th century, trademarks procured an international concern via the law and the agreements which protect intercontinental companies. Designing of logo was influenced by the international competition and so the resemblance of logos had become one of the ways as to overcome the global monopolies of some products. Very often, logos are designed similar to others to make confusion to the consumers of the products of the original firm. The progress in the programs of computers made it easy to copy and change designs.

By the emergence of the computer and the development of its role in the field of treating images, and explanatory designing, the specialized programs contributed a lot in raising the capabilities of designers to innovate in the field of designing logos. In addition to the technical sides related to accuracy of measures and adjustment of geometry of shapes, and the easiness of treating colors, and the possibility of obtaining many probabilities for the same design, the computer made it easy to check the natural conditions in which it will be used by recognizing its shape when printed in various sizes, or when put in signs, or in ready- made accumulated elements of designing by putting into operation again through using the technics of copying, cutting ,pasting, and changing colors…,etc. In brief , the computer has provided the designer with many merits such as displaying many designs on the screen simultaneously and getting rid of work under time pressure, avoiding mistakes that might spoil the work in the final touches. It also helped in preparing the design to the final phases of execution. As the computer had saved the efforts exerted in the technical treatments, it had assisted the designer to allocate his efforts for the basic job i.e. creation of new designing thoughts.

On the other hand, the association of the computer with printers played an important role in uniting the two technics of designing and printing.  Before that printing was a separate stage done by specialists in the art of printing, and the difficulties of executing designing necessitated a joint work between the designer and the printing specialist. With the introduction of computers, it has become possible for the designer to obtain a hard copy of the design with many probabilities as concerns the color and the size. Thus, the designer can see the final product, confirm its efficiency, and check it on the object group, and then make necessary changes in a short time to get to the final product. All that is done without waiting for the printing specialist to complete the job.                       

The Development of Visual Signs in Sudan

In the 19th century, just after Mehdist State, the significance of color went beyond its traditional signification i.e. indication of a specific social entity, to refer to the official entities of the State. The historians, for example, began to refer to the military squads which participated in the battle of Shaikan by titles such as “flag of the ambush” or “flank flags” to mean the group of soldiers which occupied the ambush and the flanks, not to mean the flags themselves with their particular colors, which were assigned to those groups (5) i.e. the signification of color coincided with the groups, and the color took the place of the soldiers. This, however, shows the steadfastness of the symbolism of visual signs and its ability to enact and practice influence on the minds of the Sudanese communities and its unity with the institution which takes it as a logo. 

The currency minted in Mehdist State in February 1885 carried the first logo of the independent Sudan. Some Sudanese goldsmiths designed three denominations of a gold pound, and a riyal, and half a riyal. The design was a letter design. On it was written “coined in El hijraby commandment of Elmahdi”. As a matter of fact, Elmehdi, it seems, wanted to inaugurate the political and financial independence of Sudan from Turkey(6). And because dealing with foreign currency was still going on,  Abdullahi  the successor of Elmahdi engraved on the currency minted during his era the words “Acceptable” and “valid” to encourage the citizens to use the national currency. It is noticed that the designs of the currency were not only a logo to indicate the independence of the country, but were used also as a means of national education.

During Mehdist State,another field of designing developed: That isthe field of official and personal seals which were put on papers to refer to the authority which issued it to give the  quality of a muniment or a legal document and were used in making authorization or in legal dealings. The personal seals were issued by highly qualified craftsmen under official protection. They were confined to particular letter designs of circular or egg-shape and were used by the responsible figures in the State and later by “the men of local administration”. The seals gave the papers an official capacity similar to the headed papers of the modern institutions now. It is noticed that those designs adopted neskhi Arabic script which was prevailing in Central Sudan.In Dar For,a writing close to kufic writing was used. Actually that dualism in designs writing is old in Sudan and was referred to by a traveler who visited Sudan in the beginning of the 19th century. This might be explained by the development spreading of Arabic culture in the kingdoms of Funj and DarFor.

In the first half of the 20th century, the logo with its modern understanding became visible in Sudan, especially in central Sudan.The official governmental circulars issued , printing appeared, industrial products displayed in all markets. The people saw for the first time the logo of the trains and the military badges. The logos of the foreign companies and commodities seen while carried on board ships to south Sudan. Then, foreign commodities which were imported by agents appeared for foreigners then for Sudanese such as cloths house utensils, furniture, furnishings…, etc. And at that time, the attempts of modernizing the Sudanese households started. All commodities consumed in this process carried the logos of the producing companies, and from abroad were imported beside cloths, dry food stuff, candies, and biscuit.All carrying logos of producing companies.

The appearance of all these logos and trademarks occupied the visual space of Sudanese and added to their experience and knowledge to combine between the logos and the excellency of the product, and so developed the culture of concern about logo of some Sudanese producers. Some flourishing traditional Sudanese products such as cotton textile and traditional furnishings developed to cloths industry. Oil industry was the first to use logos and advertisement and that was in the thirties of the past millennium (9).

With the independence of Sudan in 1956, some of the imported products started to be produced within the country. In the beginning of the sixties of the past millennium, some industries which were based on raw materials locally available such as candies, biscuits, oil and sauce had well developed as well as the industries of textiles, shoes, and ready-made cloths. And in all these industries, the logo played an important role in attracting the consumers to purchase the national products, through designing simple and attractive symbol for those products in such a way that combines the symbol with the visual experience and the natural environment.

And so the designers used symbols of animals and plants familiar to the Sudanese.

This method proved to be successful to the degree that the product was known to the consumer by the trade sign. For example, ‘The Tiger Oil’ referred in central Sudan to all cocking oils because the first product which spread in the market carried a sign of a tiger with yellow and black colors. The same applies to a number of other industrial products. For instance, cloth shoes were called “Bata”, though they were produced by different companies just because it was tied in the minds of the consumers by the name and the logo of the producer (Figuare2). In that period, some food industries were known by the type of letter design only, such as “Reya Candies” and “Kirikab” and”Saad Candies” which dominated the market till the seventies and the eighties of the past millennium. These were read by the consumers as visual signs more than a script though the logo was the name itself.

And it was written in simple divan writing; in an egg-like shape.This kind of logo fulfilled a high degree of success and acceptance by the object group.

After the seventies, Sudan witnessed a political stability due to the end of the civil war.  Some international investments beside a flux of capital from the Gulf came into the country. Due to these economicchanges, logo designing passed through a new phase. Emergence of institutions with new nature of work required expressing about three new types of economic activities. This had imposed on designers a kind of visual thinking that had overstepped the phase of using written or realistic signs of direct indications. The signs took a more abstract nature.

First of these changes was the expansion of the activities of nonproductive institutions such as commercial transportation, exporting and importing companies, storing and distributing companies. These deal with specific products, but their role comes after production through transporting and distributing. It was essential for those institutions to make logos based on different method of visual thinking able to express about “The Operations” not “The Productions.” This kind of logos required improving new ideas and most of the designs inclined towards using signs of conventional indications, i.e. signs whose indications are agreed upon by the majority of people such as the arrow which indicates to the direction of movement.

The second change is the appearance and spread of multi- activities institutions. In this kind of institutions which practice more than an activity and operates in more than a sphere, it is not possible for a designer to combine all activities of the institution in one logo,and so he takes a middle way between various traits, or he tends to unite between them in an abstract shape which does not refer to an existing specific thing. However, designing a sign which has a visual value only, without any specific mental indication, is a suitable way out for the designer. For example, including in the logo an element of formalistic movement, or contradiction attractive to sight. Sometimes, the logo might be of a general symbolist nature such as using overlapping round circles to refer to multiplicity and overlapping of the activities of the institution.

The third element is the appearance of small commercial units for the logo has become required by everyone who practices a commercial activity. Using of computers in explanatory designing has contributed in spreading culture of using logos among owners of these small commercial units. It has become easy to make designs according to the will of the owner of the unit.  Just print it near the title of the unit, or on the sign which declares the type of the service the unit offers, without any official registration of the logo. Though,this element has its positive role of spreading the culture of using logo, yet, it has its negative side too, for it has caused a convergence almost similar to direct copying because of lack  of following official procedure in registering the logo. This makes supervision of these logos and restriction of their resemblance difficult. Resemblance of logos plays a negative role in the economy because it deprives the consumer from ability to differentiate between different products.

Methods of Designing Logos in Sudan

As mentioned above, there are factors which effect on the job of the designer and on the demand  of designing  in  general  in  Sudan  and  elsewhere , the most dominant of which is the nature of work of big institutions whose logos are seen more than those of others. This influences the general taste and the level of the visual experience of aesthetics of the community. Yet, there is another important factor, which is considered more influential in Sudan because it participates in deciding the shape and the content of the logo and in guiding the thought of the designer. This is the degree of shaping awareness of the demander of the service.

In most cases, the choices of the demander of the service intervene in directing work of the designer because he has particular purposes to fulfill or reveal it to the onlooker. Due to these two factors, some certain designs dominated the work of designers in Sudan. However, methods of designing can be divided into four kinds : “Letter method”, “Symbolic Method”, ”Constructive Method”, and “Combined Method” which unites between two or three 0f these  kinds.   Here is a brief introduction of each.

In the first type, the designer uses a limited number of letters. In most cases, they are the initial letters of the entity, whether Arabic or Latin. The designer combines them in a way that creates a visual unity and an attractive distinguished shape. Sometimes a whole word is used, because the owner prefers to show and distinguish it as a key word in the title. Though this type of designs is based on read elements, the duty of the designer is to change it to a visual element with aesthetic characteristics (Figuare4).

The second type is the design of symbolic nature. It is based on a simple shape which stimulates on the mind of the onlooker a meaning or a definite indication connected to the service supplied by the entity, or the values it wants to establish. This type of designs must be distinguished by clearness of the indication and its definiteness so as to avoid conveying a massage incompatible to the content of the design. Generally, the shape of the main element is simplified to indicate the required meaning. This type of logos,generally, share some elements which distinguishes a group of institutions that use symbolic logos. A clear example of this is the “liquid drop” which represents the common element between companies of engine oils, petrol stations, and industry of petrol derivatives. Most of the designers depend on the symbolism of the drop alone, or associate it with the sign of the flame which refers to power of energy or other signs that indicate association of petrol with energy(Figuire5).

In the third type which is based on constructive method,  pure formative elements are used such as lines, spaces and figures to create a well formed shape that does not include any mental indication, but is characterized by the strength of the visual expression and attractiveness of the picture .This type of designs , though  not connected to any indication , is more fixed in the mind if the designer was successful  in constructing the formation because the receptor will be searching always for the connection between the logo and the service it offers. Designer HisainJeman thinks that the logo nowadays does not represent the functions of the owner of the logo. It rather tends towards entire abstractionism and pure visual values(Figure 6).   

The fourth  is the combined type . It is the one which combines between two or more methods .In most cases, combination takes place between “letter method “and “symbolic method”.  A letter is then subdued to serve a specific symbolic function. The design might be a combination of pure constructive shape and another symbolic. Designer Ahmed Hamid Elarabi thinks that the idea starts from an imaginary “fictitious view” ,then subjected to visual treatment and then the general shape is adjusted when designing is began(Figure7).                                Varying of methods of designing in Sudan lead to fulfillment of the requirements of successful designing. The content of the logo, or the system of the signs which constitute the logo must not confuse the onlooker nor there should be numerous explanations in such a way that will  lead to results contradicting with the meaning for which the logo is designed. The content should be stable in all conditions, and the logo must be self-explanatory, executable by various technics, and genuine.

Problems of Designing Logos

The problems of designing logos in Sudan are twofold. The first one is the culture of designing and using logo, and the other is concerned with the way of producing the design. The communities concerned with designing and using logos concentrated in central Sudan in the big towns of Khartoum and Medeni where governmental institutions and the various sectors of industry, services, andProduction existed. This concentration limited the choices of the visual signs, confined their cariousness and affluence. The knowledge of the designers was limited within the visual culture and preferred contents of those communities of central Sudan. This has lessened the variety and abundance of thoughts of designers.

          Another problem is the way the demanders request the service of designing. This lessens the multiplicity of the choices of the logo. The way adopted is either a direct selection of a designer or relying on designs of a group of designers, not on houses of expertise. The selection of a specific designer limits the variety of choices of designs but insures understanding between the designer and the demander. The acquisition of logos through collective work is done by announcing an open competition with certain directives. Though competition affords a wide participation and many various choices, classification of the participants and selection of the winning logo depends on the work of those who chose the logos in a way that maintains the secrecy of the choice and neutralization in choosing the winner. But, this prevents the demander from associating with the designers to know their opinions about the presented logo, and consequently lessens the possibility of tackling any problem or developing the design through contribution of the two parties concerned.    

The preferred method which takes a middle way between the individual and the collective ways avoiding at the same time their negativism is that which can combine the traits of both, as when two or three designers knowledgeable in sciences of printing , communication , and psychology of social science play the role of consultants and choose a group of well-seasoned designers to present initial plans of many designs(sketches) for collective discussion and open criticism. This kind of work will, perhaps, effect on the understanding of the demander the essence of the logo. It perhaps would lead to participation of more than one designer in doing the required logo, by adding together the positive elements in one or more logo. This method which follows “Method of Collective Development of Designing” is the most appropriate to acquire many probabilities of designing ideas. At the same time, it enables the demander and the designers to communicate together. It makes possible to accept views of specialist in other fields related to explanatory designing, without being confined to designing with its narrow concept of shape only.

One of the problems of logo designing which are associated with the work of the designer is lack of observance of the pre-test to verify the efficiency of the logo. The logo, like any other product of explanatory designing requires measuring ability of the shape to convey the message and the content to receptor. Therefore, it is preferred to check on a sample of object group. The information which feeds back draws the attention of the designer to unexpected defects. The culture and visual experience of receptor, and consequently his aesthetic judgments vary from that of the designer who must consider those differences and stand beside the needs and expectations of the receptor only.

Results of the Study

1-Designing of logos is associated with the experience of the Sudanese communities in expressing about the identities and contents and functions of their institutions since a long time before entrance of the institutions of the colonization.

2-Designing of logos in Sudan took an approach associated with political and economic institutions during colonization and after it.

  3-Methods of designing in Sudan varied due to varying of sources of experience of the Sudanese designers and due to varying of their visual cultures.

4- The development of designing is bound to the development in technics of printing, communications and computers.


1-Developing research in the history of logo in Sudan and associating it with the concept of visual identities as well as studying the role of signs in different cultures.

2-Associating academic studies in the sphere of designing logos with the studies of culture and history and society to acquire knowledge of the elements which impose influence on the work of the designer.

3-Developing ways of communication between designers and demanders of the service to base designing on collective participation in producing and developing designing.


1-Abu-bakir El-hadiAhmed:The Impact of Using Computers in the Process of Designing and Producing Logos. A master paper. Faculty of Fine and Applied Art.University of Sudan. Page27.

2-Same ref.83

3-Same ref.p.82.

4-Same ref. p33

5-Esmut HesenZelfo 1984: Shekan.p195

6-Mohmed Sa-eed Elgeddal1992: The Economic Policy of Mehdist State p.85

7- Same ref.88-89.

8-Neseem Mggar1995:Foreign Travelers in Sudan.p.73

9- El-fejr Magazine-August 1937 issue No.11 volume 3 p349.

10-Abu –bakir El-hadi Ahmed: Referred to above. P.135

11-Above ref. p139.s 

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