Educational systems in the Sudan Historical studyThu, 28 Sep 2017
Then the study handles with changes of educational system in Sudan. Whereas it also discusses each system by its own the first educational system was (4.4.4) which was established during the colonization period for certain objectives and aims. Which then replaced by the second Educational system (6.3.3) in 1970.
The study then deals with the current educational system (8.4), aims, advantage and disadvantage. Finally the study conclude some observations
Changing of Educational system in Sudan
Educational system changing
References and resources
Like other society system, the educational system is always needs a permanent and continuous rehabilitation to be developed in a proper way the procession of education in Sudan had passed through three main attempts.
The first was during the British rule in Sudan, which was carried out by the first Sudanese minister at education pre-independence period the second was in 1969 which changed the educational system at that time.
Then a new all empts was introduced in 1990 which is followed by new plan for changing the educational system for certain programmers and aims.
Educational system includes all the stages in certain state, duration and the schooling age.
The education system in any country reflects education equality and effect where as stage multiplicity, means a few pupils are in the education system are progress resulting a lot of pupils will lose their education opportunities,(education lost)
Long or short term of any educational stage has its erect on the pupils (girls and boys) starting education in an early age is better than in a later age, as education should match the age (schooling age) from appoint of review, multiplicity at education (stage, influences the education system management, where as stages multiplicity means more teachers technical manager are needed at all regional and central levels. This means more additional cost.
The common international education systems as follows:
1. (6-33) system was common in 30 countries.
2. (8-4) system was common in 14 countries.
3. (6-4-2) system was common in 3 countries
It is noticed that there was no any educational system in the world similar to that which was applied in Sudan. (4-4-4), although, it was corresponded with previous mentioned systems in terms of duration
Changing of Educational system in Sudan
The minister of education didn't consider at the above mentioned choices although they are somehow more effective due to the high cost and expenditure, so in 1958 the minister had made a committee at 11 Sudanese educationalist including Khartoum university vice chancellor, education director general and other (9) educational experts, headed by Mr.Akrawit (UNESCO) expert.
The minister asked the committee to discuss the education in Sudan in terms of the following:-
-to change the current education system (4-4-4) as he didn’t satisfy that the four years primary stage is not sufficient enough for the pupils to gain knowledge, so he thinks that its necessary to change the educational system to (6.6) in which the education term in general education must compose of two stage.
First, studying the published and non published documents.
Second, collecting statistic and non statistic data
Third, personal inter views will these who work in education field, particularly responsible characters,
Fourth, collecting information of the rural and urban societies during school visits Akrawits committee has recommended what is called "the aims of education in sudan"
And it implied 13 principles:-
1) Transference of the humanitarian and national heritage to the new coming generation
2) Encouraging the national concept among citizens.
3) Encouraging student to developing their capacities and interests
4) Building well behaved Sudanese character.
5) Religious and spiritual value satisfaction
6) Helping the pupil in Arabic language and national character
7) Providing basic life skills and knowledge.
8) Developing handcrafts skills, and changing the down look for hand skills among the students.
9) Building strong healthy citizen with good spiritual and consolation behavior
10) Developing hobbies and interests among the pupils and help them to good use of their waste time.
11) Encouraging the students to participate in the family life.
12) Encouraging the creative expression among the children.
13) Developing the initiative skill among children.
Its noticeable the big differences between the targets and aims which was issued by Dr Akrawit and his committee and those which were issued by Mr. James carry. the formal minister of education during the British rule, which were designed to serve the targets of the colony and without regarding the public utility of the country in fact( ). All these aims have been touched by all committees and conference following Agra wits committee however the committees remanded as bases for other following reforming attempt shifting of educational system from (4-4-4) system to (6-6) system means doubling the duration of the student in the primary school cancelling the second stage (intermediate stage) which was replaced by secondary stage of 6 years.
Arguing that the primary stage of 4 years was not enough for the students to face life responsibilities at an early age.
Also Dr.Agrawit discuss the Badwins education and also aducation in the south and Arabic language and the national unity issue 6 years for primary stage and another 6 years to secondary stage) and the secondary stage shall be divided in to two stages, 3 years for each part( ).
There were four means a viable to Mr.Agrawit to study the condition of the education in Sudan, in order to reform it and to find out the weak points. Also the general aims, system, and the three stages of education in Sudan as well as the ongoing of the social development thereof Also Dr Akrawit and his committee discuss the issue of normades education and education in the south as well. Also generalization of Arabic language and to enhancing the national unity.
However the significance of Acrowits committee report the ministry didn't execute the suggestions of his committee
It's clear that the government was in trust in Akrawits proposal and plans although of the efforts exserted by Akrawit his committee, aiming at achieving more useful and efficient results, in spite of it has more disadvantage and shortages this shows that the government may afraid of the high cost of new educational philosophy.
In 1960 the ministry of education consulted another Iraqi educational expert he was working to (UNESCO) his name was Abdalhamid Kadhim
And he was requested to investigate Akrawits committee report. Mr.Kadhim
Considered mainly three points:-
1) Akrawits project cost.
2) Providing necessary advices about Akrawits projects and the procedures which will be achieved, According to the country financial conditions.
3) Commenting on Akrawt,s project, this means that, wither he agree or not, having other more concepts any reform as well after Mr.kadhim has made another report in which he commenced all of Akrawits proposal evaluating kadhim agrees on the following aims of Akrawits proposal:-
1) The aims of education.
2) Prepare specialist in education affairs.
3) Training secondary school teachers.
4) The suggested plan for curriculum development.
5) The suggested curriculum for primary school teacher.
6) Introducing some changes to administrative education.
7) Increasing the education fund.
8) Educate nomadic tribes.
9) Commencing date of the plan.
10) Limiting primary education generalization.
It is clear that the government was trust in Akrawits proposal although of the efforts exerted by Akrawits and his committee aiming at achieving more useful and efficient results, in spite of it has more disadvantages and shortages. This shows that the government may afraid of the high cost of the new educational philosophy in change.
Mr Kadhim commenced all of AKrawits proposal concepts. And prepared some basis of his proposal evaluation. Kadhim agrees on the following aims and proposals. Which was really the more significant change for it includes more decisive change in all educational stages( ).
Akrawit thinks that the issue of Educational system is an important matter, that requires deep thinking in accordance with country needs-financial resources, as well as the educational systems as he believes, there is no a unified educational system all over the world, the student academic output level does not influence by educational system pattern, rather than it depends on the text books quality, teacher's experiences as well as curriculum.
The longer the educational term per. University stage the higher the student's academic output level however the 12 the year educational terms division into either (4-4-4) or (6-6) doesn't affect the academic output level.
Mr.Kadhim thinks that Sudan was in a greater need to education generalization than any other else thing he frankly said that its necessary to stick to the applied (4-4-4) educational system at that time as shifting from one educational system to another makes sticky problems, he commented, that the applied educational system has no any deficiency as thinks is only due to teachers and the curriculum also it cannot changed into a main secondary stage. However, the reporter displays the advantage, of (4-4-4) educational system as following:-
1) The three stages are indecently established (no link between them).
2) The secondary stage was dominated academically it also reflect the failure of the followed government to change the system up to 1969.
This system is dusting wished by a matter of co-ordination where as its classification into 4 years (for each stage ) is a state of co-ordination itself regarding the students age group, availability of trained teachers curriculum setting, text books as well as administrative system.
The disadvantage of the system is reported as follows:-
1) Although the mist link of the (4-4-4) system stages has an advantage, has also a disadvantage.
2) Lack of choices which is also considers advantage of this system.
3) English language teaching link age to the colonization policy thereof.
4) Primary stage short term leads to educational loss and to illiteracy in the future.
Mr.Mahadi not only criticized the erected system, but also he criticized all the suggested educational system, introduced by former committees where as he denied Akrawits proposal (6-3-3) which prefers the seven years age as starting age for study.
The student a cadmic output level does not influence by educational system pattern, rather than it depends on the text books quality, teacher's experiences, as well as curriculum. The longer the educational term pre-university stage, the higher the students' academic output level improved. However the 12th years educational term division into either (4-4-4) or (6-3-3) doesn’t affect the academic output level.
Mr.kadhim thinks that compulsory education (primary) should form of eight years divided into two parts, he commented on the teacher training period at primary school which was of two years is more correspond if the educational system remains as was (4-4-4). But if the educational system changed according to Akrawits proposal, kadhim thinks that it is necessary to extent the training period to three years after the secondary general stage. Kadhim also pointed out in a report that English language teaching issue is not efficient at primary stage that means it is better to be introduced at the second stage of the general education stage because it's more expensive at the primary stage as it requires an intensive teachers training
Educational system changing
The educational system in Sudan was already discussed according to Akrawits report and the attempts curried out in 1969 by the ministry of education as well which were made for changing and reforming the educational system, a matter that worried all education committees in Sudan.
In fact that the (4-4-4) educational system which was composed of three separate stages (4 years for each stage) is unique system.(6-3-3) educational system is was common in most of the Arab states as it is recognized by the Sudan ministry of education, as its better than to follow other unknown system. Also this system was called by AddisAbaba educational conference (African countriesurty) in 1969 to apply the (6-3-3) system in African countries. Especially it cost low comparative other system (6-4-2) 14 years ago after independence the educational system planed by the colonization was changed although it is practiced for 50 years and different generations were study In accordance with this system.
In fact (may) revolution followers, their socialism believes, their attempt to root up to nationality, according to the philosophy of education, has encouraged the educational development in the Sudan.
Science (1968-1969) the numbers of primary schools was 511 schools. And the numbers of student was 118,812. And the numbers of teachers was 2, 986. Also the elementary schools number was 1450 in the same year it had 283,484 students and 5291 teacher as well the year (1970-1971) witnessed the applied of the new educational system and this required same arrangements as follows:-
1) Cancelling the primary schools exam to intermediate schools.
2) Cancelling the secondary school exam.
3) Cancelling the graduation exam for third year students in the technical school and to by graduate the coming year.
Preceding to this change the school calendar was changed to be national calendar in the whole country.
The school year starts in third week of September, and ended in (may) in the New Year.
Then a four week holiday starts in the third week of December and ended in the third week of January in the same year. Also the schools uniform was changed for each stage in the general education.
We can say that during the period from 1956 to 1970, that all the studies and researches was intended in the basic compulsory education and expanding in the primary education was an important objective for those who engaged in ministry of education .
The first stage of the second stage of the general education, and no doubt it was the most Important, and the system which was followed before 1969 conference composed of three stages each one was separated.
The importance of intermediate stage the important shift for the child from primary stage to secondary education the intermediate stage in the previous old system was absolutely separated from the primary stage and the secondary stage as well. And it was aimed to supply the secondary stage by best students able to response the studying in secondary-academy and technical and provide different subject and cultural subjects as well. After the independence and the primary education spreading, it is necessary to be followed by another spreading, in intermediate education.
Following up this spread during the period (1954-55-1962), we recognize that the number of intermediate schools streams was jumped from 49 in 1956 to 113 in 1958, then to 125 in 1960 and to 133 in 1962.and the number of student, was jumped from 52, 80 in 1955 to 20,150 students in 1962, with no doubt, the education spreading was associated with a number of problems such technical and financial high cost, as well as the lack of well trained teachers, in 1963 the number of public intermediated schools was increased by 37 school which was included in the intermediate and primary schools expanding program( ).(1963-1964) in which the intermediate schools distributed as follows:-
1) Northern province - 13 schools - 8schools for boys.
2) Blue Nile province – 5schools - 4schools –for boys.
3) Khartoum province -5schools – 3schools – for boys.
4) Kassal province. One schools for girls.
5) Kordfan province. 7 schools – 6 schools for boys.
6) Darfur province. 3 schools - all for boys.
Education in the southern province will be discussed in a separate section later. Also the other two parts of intermediate education, technical intermediate schools and religious intermediate institutes. Increasing in primary stage school required parallel expanding in intermediate education school( ), especially intermediate academic, the period from (1965- 1968) witnessed a great increasing in intermediate school streams. From 212 streams in 1965, to 339 stream in 1967, and the number of student, 39,291 against 2000 teacher.
According to the ministry of education statistical report in 1968. That among each 1000 boy in 11 years old. Who had competed their primary education only 227 who was able to joined the different intermediate schools %22, 7 of the whole.( technical =academic and religious) so other was attached to national schools or private school, for example the Egyptian educational missions and catholic mission school (comboni) .
When mahio aldin saber was appointed minister of education in 1969, he made quick plans to expanding in both secondary and intermediate stages. In 1969 -1970 he established and opened 171 new schools for both girls and boys, also he added new sections like agricultural and animal production so the student who gained 190 marks was accepted and the number of students jumps to 37546, against 24,292 in the previous year, with increasing rate 13,252 the important issue in intermediate education procession from (1956-1970) was changing the educational system in 1969 (during national education conference in 1969) and due to the new system arrangement that intermediate education represent the first part of the second education stage. And 16 was known (secondary general) and of 3 years duration term. The students attached after passing the exam at the end of primary stage.
The study in this stage was to continue progressing of the student academic levels
Before the final decision which divided the section pant in general education into two part, three years duration term fo each part there were suggestion to divide it as follows:-
1) five years to one year (5-1) 5 intermediate -1 secondary
2) one year to five (1-5) 1 year intermediate -5 secondary
3) four years to two years (4-2)
This proposal divines had a clear defect which was the length and shortness of each other so, I was not applied. In 1970 the important issue was the second ministers of education conference which was held in Khartoum (Tripoli convention); the conference discussed the general aims for the two stages. primary (secondary general) and the secondary (high secondary). And the primary stage was considered to be a natural extension for the elementary stage, and on their hand to be starting for the preceding stage. So it should designed to suit
the previous and preceding stage and the conference limited the aims as follows:-
1-supply the pupils by more general knowledge especially tong in languages mathematics and sciences for building participated cultural base to in force thought motions among the citizens.
2-commence the scientific standards and correct quality controls when Appling the plans and studying syllabuses making out to the pupils hobbies- interesting – skills and capacities to guide them to the correct destinations
3-preparing the pupils to continue the studying in the preceding stage either academic technical. Participate in general life activities When the new educational system (6-3-3) was applied in 1970-1971. The total number of intermediate (secondary general) in Sudan was 297 schools with including the southern provinces and had 42,999 pupils (public schools). And if we look at the educational planning and primary and intermediate, we recognized that great and rapid progress had occurred in the country during the national government more them in ending government, also the national government had consulate educational expert from (UNESCO), there were some defect and mistakes may referred back to the financial weakness and political unstable situation, changing the educational system (6-3-3) to system (8-3) education and guidance policy conference 1990. The conference put the main line to the education new policy which includes the new aims and philosophy so it intended in building the religious aspects- in forcing the spirit of national unity, encouraging the society depending upon him. And also building individual capacities and skills and environmental since education generalization matter ( ).
The conference recommended the follows:-
1) Generalization education in basic stage for the whole children of (school age) with including the special needs with accordance to specific time term plan term (1991-1994)
2) Apolitical declearance should be issued to insure generalization of basic stage in the century in the certain duration time.
3) Education in all stages should be free charge.
The new system matter:-
For graduating mature students and longing the productive life of the citizens, and reduce the total cost of general education the conference recommended the follow:-
1-the basic education stage extends to eight year, and the staring age is six years.
2-the secondary stage extends to three years, (multi-types) (academic- technical- religious) unified certificate exam.
-Sudan secondary certificate should be the standard measuring for any other certificate, per-education:-
The conference recommended to expanding in per-school instauration life kinder gratin and using new methods and to be spread out in the whole counter, and to be supervised by cord orating councils and the ministry of education is responsible of setting the suitable syllabus. And trading the teachers and the starting age should be four year .
Standing curriculum: =
The conference also recommended re-setting of all general education curriculum in accordance to certain objectives, and revise separate subjects curriculum, and building new curriculum composed of flexible curriculum response to integrated knowledge. Also the conference recommended to establishing a system for developing the curriculums and also recommended the follow:-
1) The curriculum should be national and viable to be applied in all over the Sudan
2) Arabic language should be the formal and teaching language, paying special care, especially in languages interfering areas
3) Paying special care to practical actives in studying program
Teacher training (primary- intermediate)
The conference recommended to uprising the efficiency of teachers- academic- vocational. Employ specialist who graduated from education collages in 1991 the general education law project was presented, and 16 handles the problems of education especially educational system which was became composed of three stages:-
(A) per-school stage which was of two years, starting age is from 4 years extended to six years old.
(B) Basic education stage, the studying duration tem is eight years starting age is six years old instead of 8 years old as was in the previous system
(C) The secondary education stage, the duration term is three years
It was noticed the duration term of the general education was reduced to eleven years instead of twelve years which was agreed upon universally, also there was a clear defect in this new system which was the length of basic stage eight years which was not safe psychologically and educational, when applying this system the following was required:-
1) Cancelling the elementary stage certificate
2) Joining the primary and intermediate stage in new basic stage.
3) Certifying the per-school (kinder gainers) as apart the general education.
The advantages of the new educational system: =
The basic aims of change the educational system in accordance with educational national conference in 1990 was that the general education should be compulsory and also extending the studying duration to eight years and generalization of education in the whole country also encouraging the family to participate in education operation joining the two stage, in one stage (basic) and cancelling the primary stage exam, extend stage to eight years may benefits the pupils who leave the school and would be in suitable level. The secondary stage stayed as its, three years, with same changes in syllabuses and aims, so multi subject was added to enable the students to attach many different collages.
The disadvantages of the new educational system:-
1-lack in planning
2-in reality of thoughts and theoretical objectives
3-the resolution was not put in good order and not flexible
4-not matching with modern and developed
Some problems come out which gathering pupils of fourteen years old and children of six years in one school yard is incorrect and morally not sate
This operation should be followed by correct and strong setting as follows:-
1) Preparing the school environment
2) Preparing and training the teachers
3) Good preparing the students classrooms
4) A true increasing in public school was not happened but the private school was greatly increased adding.
Financial burdens to the families.
So the new educational system was not achieved its aims and therefore it must be checked the education process missed studying years, so this missing year should be added to basic stage to be nine years and again divide it in two stage and this issue should be directed by education experts the great obstacle which faces the education is financial funding .
Finally we conclude that the issues of education system and education planning were more considered by both colonial government ant successive national governments, where as the educational; a system which was designed by colonize to sever a particulars aims
After the independence Sudanese patriots consider the education issue in general and education planning system in particular as they encourage experts study carefully the education issues in Sudan. The results of such attempts were changing the educational system and educational aims in Sudan in 1970 the year 1990 too witnessed a new educational system in Sudan (8-3), and although it has some positive aspects, it caused many problems. Related to study years and curriculum .the study recommended that the issue of education must be tickled by experts specialist people, however the major problems of education issue in counters like Sudan is lack of finance and financial expenditure to improve it quality
References and resources
1- Ayman kamal Sudan first nation government (1954-1956) political social and economical development-1996.
2- Education development in Sudan- international center Geneva 2008 "national report"
3- Ministry of education. Education arrangement project 1991.
4- Alsahafa news paper issue no 1975, Sudan national record.
5- Sudan national records (Education and Guidance) 1/21/82
6- Sudan national records public reports. 119/12/6-1958
7- Sudan national records Khartoum governmental reports, 6/14-174 the suggested Education system (3-3-6) reality and budget
8- mahadi Alamin national records public report 118/12/6 the suitable Educational system in Sudan 1969.
9- National records- 147/12/6 previous reference.
10= Astrct of Abdahamid khazim- Education planning in Sudan by ostaz musa Abdalgafar, national records 190-17-6.
11- Dr mohaldin saber Education expanding 1969-1970 Sudan national record
12- zida Arbab Eudaction in national period (D.T).
13- Fawzia toha Eudactional system in Sudan Education general conference Khartoum 2004
14- Education and guidance policy.1990 Khartoum
15-Nasir Alsced the history of policy and education in Sudan university of Khartoum press- second edition 1990
16- Ministry of education Education strategy in (May period)
17- Ministry of education statistical reposts (1968-1969).
18= previous record- 1970-1971
19- Ministry of education reports 1969.
20- Ministry of education. Ministers of education and Guidance Tripdi contention conference.khartoum. 1970.
21- ministry of Education strategy in (May regime) 1969
22- The first extract from the report of Akrawit planning committee the aims of Education in the Sudan.