The Most Important Towns Of The North Darfur State

Thu, 19 Oct 2017



 

North Darfur State includes a number of towns, out of which are the following:

El Fasher, Umm Kaddada, Millit, Al Li’ayit, Al Tiwaisha, Dar Al Salam, Taweela, Al Tina, Kabkabiya, Al Malha, Kutum, Saraf ‘Umra and Al Siraif as shown in map 1.     

 Map 1: Location of the Towns- North Darfur State

              Source: Sudanese Public Survey Authority, 2017- Researcher's work        

Town of El Fasher

Location:

Town of El Fasher lies in North Darfur State, western Sudan, with 802 km away from the capital, Khartoum. The town is located at the intersection of the latitude 25° 20´ North with the longitude 13˚ 38´ East, with 745 meter high above sea level. The area of the town equals about 220 square km (Ministry of Urban Planning, Surveying Directorate, El Fasher, 2012). The town is located at a crossroad connecting Darfur with the different States of the Sudan and neighbouring nations, particularly with Arab Republic of Egypt, Libya and Chad. El Fasher is wholly surrounded by sandy hills.

Etymology:

Town of El Fasher is the historical capital of Darfur founded by Sultan Abdel Rahman Al Rasheed in 1792 at the beach of wadi Tendelti to which he transferred his council. When the Sultan settled in it, he made it a capital for his Sultanate and ever since it became to be known as Fasher of the Sultan at Tendelti, also its alias is El Fasher Abu Zakariya. However, etymology of the word is unknown but it definitely meant the “open area” as the word had also been used in kingdoms of Kanim, Waddai and Sennar where every Sultan had had a fasher or more than one fasher showing his military and political status. Yet, the word fasher had been used in Darfur for the Sultan council or go-betweens’ council whereas it implicitly meant seat of justice and fairness. More often than not, people in Darfur repeat the phrase “Fasher Abu Zakariya” meaning the doomsday or day of fairness whereby they refer to the Sultan council. Some think that the word “El Fasher”, in the era of the Fur Sultanate, meant military castle including the Sultan army, entourage, servants and small people where the castle was built of stones, brick and maize stalks (Salim, 2013).

Emergence and development of El Fasher:

The town emerged as a capital of Darfur Islamic Sultanate where it had occupied the central part of the western hill which slopes eastwards towards the wadi while extending westwards towards the course of wadi Halluf which had hindered any attempt for taking over the town and, for this reason, sultans built their houses in this part and, thus, buildings had been concentrated around it and so the town had been easily defended.

When Darfur was joined to Turco-Egyptian administration, the Egyptian ruler, Ismail Pasha Ayub, built a fortress containing the army offices, the palace, soldiers’ barracks and the Province House with a modern engineering style. In the process, the ruler prohibited building of huts and he draw up a design for the town roads under which he ordered the natives to build their own houses (Mohammed, 2011).

In general, nucleus of El Fasher was a small village containing small quarters. During the ‘seventies of the 20th century, number of population and houses of the village had remarkably increased owing to development of transport, communications and prosperity of economic relationships between El Fasher and Libya. Consequently, the town became a passageway for trade caravans while services diversified and the town sprawled to the extent that number of neighbourhoods reached 27 quarters in early ‘eighties. Practically, the town began to be planned and organized in 1956 when a land settlement committee was set up to design roads and housing areas and, thus, appearance of the town was changed. As time passed, the town has physically developed to include an international airport, multi-storied buildings, specialized souks, some hotels and parks and stadiums like El Fasher stadium, Nagaa stadium and volleyball playfields of the Martyr Zubeir Mohammed Salih, besides asphalted land roads (field work, 2017).

Economic activity:

Inhabitants of El Fasher practice trade, agriculture, pasturing as well as other urban occupations where the town includes a livestock souk known as cattle souk, a crop souk at Hajar Gaddu, vegetables and fruit souk called Umm Dafasu which displays onion, potato, radish, pepper, carrots, eggplant, most of which are brought from Kutum, Ub Sakkin and other vegetables producing areas. As to fruit, it comes from Jebel Marra, particularly mango, citruses and apple which is cultivated in large quantities. There is also El Fasher grand souk which has particular flavour where there are sections for retail and wholesale. Also, of the important souks are the Camps souks which have soon developed and attracted big numbers of population where there is a souk for forest timber products and another one for agricultural products and livestock. The Camps souks are famous for roasting restaurants which provide roasted meats along with popular drinks. In addition to trade, agriculture is practiced during rainy season where millet, maize, groundnuts, sesame, melon seeds, cowpea, hibiscus and vegetables and fruit are cultivated by pump irrigation around Rahad Tendelti and Wadi Gulu and in some lately planned farms. As to pasturing, it is one of secondary occupations practiced by some inhabitants (field study, 2017).

Social Structure:

In view of its geographical site at land crossroads which link Darfur to Egypt and to east and central Sudan on a hand, and Libya and Chad on another hand, the town of El Fasher had received Arab and Negro breeds which immigrated to Darfur during the period of Islamic kingdoms. Noticeably, those breeds with their different ethnical elements in El Fasher made the town more distinguished than all other towns as the demographic components had been ethnically and culturally melted with each other. So, thanks to this ethnical interaction, town of El Fasher has become a mini-Sudan including different Arab and Negro tribes such as the Fur, Zaghawa, Maidoub, Ziadiya, Barti, Bargu, Barnu and other tribes interacting with each other (field study, 2017).

Prominent geographical and historical shrines:

The town includes numerous geographical landmarks, some of which are natural and others are man-made ones. Of these landmarks are the Sultan Ali Dinar Palace, Lake of El Fasher and Mosque of Al Qubba.

  • the Sultan Ali Dinar Palace:

The current Sultan Ali Dinar Palace had been the Home of Sultan Ibrahim, the last Fur sultan. At that time, the home was built at the northern beach of khor Tendelti and it was a wide house with a red bricked fence, a circumference of about three miles and it was twenty feet high. The fence of the house had two big gates, one of which at the northern side for men and the other at the southern side for women. In the middle of the building, there was the sultan house built of red brick and had flat surfaced rooms as shown in photo 1. Also, walls and ceilings of the sultan’s bedrooms and sitting rooms were draped with loosely colored jukh. One of these rooms, called tairamah, was prepared for receiving dignitaries and a room, called kala, prepared for receiving the public (Shugeir, 1981).

In 1977, the abode of sultan Ali Dinar was transformed into a memorial museum containing a number of private museum collections of sultan Ali Dinar besides a show of some antiques and ethnographic collections (Gisaima, 2008). Notably, the museum is one of the prominent shrines frequented by tourists and those who are concerned with culture and Darfur heritage.

Photo 1: sultan Ali Dinar Palace Museum

Source: Salim, 2013

  • lake of El Fasher:

Lake of El Fasher is located in the middle of the town. It is a touristic lake frequented by people for recreation and enjoying leisure time since there are numerous available natural and human components of waters, green trees, cafeterias and parks with restaurants and amusement centers. Lake of El Fasher is fed by Khor Tendelti and wadi Gulu, both of which are more important water sources that supply the town with water.

  • Mosque of Al Qubba:

This mosque was built by sultan Abdel Rahman when he founded the town of El Fasher whereas the sultan successors ornamented this mosque which lies in the northern part of the town (Shugeir, 1981). The neighbourhood of Al Qubba, where the mosque is located, was named after the mosque dome which is relatively bigger than the dome of sultan Ali Dinar mosque which lies close to his palace. The Qubba mosque, built of red brick, is one of the prominent mosques in the town where worshipping is practiced and sessions of religious learning are organized.

Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:

The worth mentioning dignitaries of El Fasher are ustaz Ibrahim Mohammed Salim, ustaz Ahmed Abdel Kabir Kakum, ustaz Mohamed Suleiman Ahmed, ustaz Ahmed Suleiman Ahmed, the late ustaz Ibrahim Abdallah Ishag, the late ustaz Adam Abdallah Ahmed (Millit’s judge), the late ustaz sheikh Ishag Ibrahim, the late al Malik Rahamtallah Mahmoud, sheikh Ahmed Bashir Ibrahim (imam of El Fasher grand mosque), sheikh Al Fadil Awadallah, the late faki Surur Omer Musallam, the late faki Esa Mohammed, the late faki Ibrahim Haroun (Ahmed, 2017).

Neighborhoods of the town:

The town of El Fasher was planned and divided into numerous housing neighbourhoods since the era of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium rule. The following are the old housing neighbourhoods in the town: Officials Neighbourhood (Al Karanik), Al Giyada, Al Qubba, Al Sharafa, Tayba, Al Nasr, Al Zayadia, Daim Silik, Al Thura Shimal, El Fasher Thanawiya, Al Tiganiya, Shuba, Al ‘Usra, Al Tarifiya, Takareer, Al Nakheel, ‘Ibad Al Rahman, Al Takamul, Al Maahad Kafud, Al Wakala, Al Masani’a, Al Gawamaa, Al Gil, Al ‘Athama, Awlad AL Rif, Ishlaq Al Jaish, Ishlaq Al Shurta, Al Gadi, Makraka, Al Safa, AL Taimanat, Al Amal, Biringiya, Al Kifah, Al Wuhda, Tambasi, Al Wadi, Al Dawha, Dadinqa, Al Qadisiya, Al Salam, Al Radif, Al Riyadh, Al ‘Inqaz, Al Marwa, Al Firdus, Al Thura Januba and Al Madraj. And the following are the new housing neighbourhoods: Abu Shuk, Al Naiem, Al Safya, Al Nakheel, Al Gabal, Ishlaq Shala, Al Barari, Turba and Al Ban Jadeed in addition to camps of the displaced persons like Naivasha, Abuja and Zamzam, etc (field work, 2017).

Famous roads in El Fasher:

Al Zayadia, Al Tadamun, Al Thowra Shimal, Al Mawashi, Al Salam, Al Thowra Janub, Al Matar road (Al Gamaa)—Field work, 2017.

Famous names:

Famous names in the town are the Islamic ones, particularly names of the Prophet “Peace be upon him” which are:

  • Mohammed, Mustafa, Ahmed and Taha).
  • Names of other prophets (Adam, Ishaq, Yaagub, Musa and Ibrahim).
  • Names of Prophet Mohammed’s companions may Allah be pleased with them (Abu Bakr, Omer, Othman and Ali).
  • Names of imams.
  • Most of women are named after the Prophet Mohammed’s wives.

However, after technological development and opening on the world, names like Muhannad, Malaz, etc have appeared (field work, 2017).

Town of Umm Kaddada:

Location:

Town of Umm Kaddada is located at the intersection of latitude 13˚ 21´ N with longitude 27˚ 15´ E. Geographically, it lies in the middle of Umm Kaddada locality which is bordered by Al Kuma locality to the north, by Al Tuwaisha locality to the south, by West Kordofan State to the east and Kalamandu locality to the west (Umm Kaddada locality, 2017).

Etymology:

The area was named after the salty kadad trees which had covered the area and animals used to feed on. When the area was occupied by people, it came to be called Umm Kadadah or Umm Kaddada, i.e. mother of kadad tree.

Emergence and development of Umm Kaddada:

Town of Umm Kaddada emerged as a small village in the middle of a high area, in the bottom of which the Umm Kaddada underground basin is located. The abundant water in the town increased the number of newcomers to Umm Kaddada and, through time, the village developed and became a big town and a capital for Umm Kaddada locality. Physically, the town has also developed as public institutions such as hospital, Umm Kaddada administrative unit which includes the commissioner office and other managements besides a residence for regular forces were all established (field work, 2017).

Economic activity:

Umm Kaddada is located in the middle of a vast area of natural pastures which are a product of the guz soil in which palatable grasses for animals intensely spread. This location contributed to concentration of livestock around the town where most of the inhabitants, depending on rented herders, practice this activity in addition to trade and handicrafts as secondary activities and rain-fed agriculture as a main activity practiced during rainy season when crops of millet, maize, melon and other cash crops are cultivated (field work, 2017).

Social Structure:

Town of Umm Kaddada includes a number of Sudanese Arab and African tribes like Al Barti, Al Asirra, Al Sharariya, Al Maidoub, the Fur, Al Gawamaa, Al Bazaa, Dar Hamid and Al Zaghawa (field work, 2017).

Important geographical landmarks:

Firstly: Jebel Middleton:

This Jebel was named after the English inspector, Middleton, where he was buried in. the Jebel lies in the northern direction of the town and it mostly consists of sediments of the Nubian sandstone. From the Jebel the whole town can be watched and, so, it represents a prominent geographical landmark as shown in photo 2. Other important landmarks of the town are Umm Kaddada mosque and Kukruk well from which soft clay is derived and used as a building material (Al Fadil, 2017).

Photo 2: Jebel Middleton

Source: Fieldwork, 2017

Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:

Of the town dignitaries, we can mention General Abbas Arabi, Malik Al Zaki, Ahmed Ismail, Zakariya, Salih Abu Bakr, Ahmed Gumaa and the late (sayyed Abu Shouk), (Anwar, 2017).

Neighborhoods of the town:

There are four big neighbourhoods in the town which are Al Safa, Al Salam, Al Taqwa and Al Muzdalifa. Also, there are neighbouring villages which are Umm Shalkha, hillat Musa Jirab, Shuqara, Umm Sirja and Al Damayir which are pertained to the town (Umm Kaddada locality, 2017).

Famous names:

Famous names of men are Mohammed, Mustafa, Taha, Abu Bakr, Omer, Othman, Ali, and Abdel Rahman. As to famous names of women, they are Khadiga, Zainab, Aisha, Fatima, etc (Anwar, 2017).

Town of Al Malha:

Location:

Town of Al Malha lies at a mountainous area known as Jebel Maidoub, 140 miles away from wadi Al Milk which flows in the Nile at Al Dabba, south to Dongola. The town is located in North Darfur State at the intersection of latitude 15˚ 08´ N with longitude 26˚ 21´ E.

Emergence and development of Al Malha:

Al Malha is a small town lying in the middle of a high area known as Jebel Maidoub in the desert region in North Darfur State. It is a volcanic basaltic Jebel containing volcanic craters and fresh and salty springs whose creation dated back to the late Pleistocene and the new Holocene Age. Al Malha crater, out of which the town derived its name, is the biggest one of these nozzles. The town was built on that high area in the middle of Jebel Maidoub and close to Al Malha well, knowing that it had once been a small village known as Al ‘Igaila, i.e. an area where camels are leg-shackled. The town is the capital of Maidoub and named after Al Malha depression which was formed by volcanic explosion 8290 years ago (Shaikhu, 2016).

Economic activity:

Inhabitants of the town depend on trade, particularly trade of camels, sheep, and goats besides cultivation of millet and hunting gazelles, bustards, guinea hens and water rams (Adam, 1980). The nature of the surrounding area helps rearing and herding camels due to advantageous climate and desert conditions (field work, 2017).

Social Structure:

Most of the town inhabitants are of the Maidoub who are ascribed to the Nile Nubians. It is said that they immigrated along the Nile to Jebel Maidoub during the Nubian Christian Kingdom and it is thought that, after the collapse of the Christian Kingdom in Dongola, they immigrated westwards in small groups. Additionally, there are other tribes in the area like Barti, Zaghawa and Fur (Bahar, 2017).

Prominent geographical landmarks:

  • Al Malha Oasis (Al Malha Depression):

Al Malha depression is the prominent geographical landmark in the town as shown in photo 3. This depression is a huge depository of salt with a circumference of 1130 meters while its height ranges between 105—130 meters and its area equals 1.003 square km. this depression was created by volcanic explosion about 8290 years ago. Also, there are springs of fresh waters originating from the lake surface besides other fresh springs about 20 meters away from the lake, all of which flow in the lake waters. Moreover, there are other fresh springs at edges of the lake circumference, among which there is the famous King Garden and other gardens.  This lake of small area contains fresh waters in the springs and medium saline water in wells. The thickly saline waters of the lake implicitly mean what Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala meant in surah Al Furqan: (one is sweetly palatable and the other is bitterly salt), (Shaikhu. 2016).

Phot 3: Al Malha Depression

  • Al Malha mosque:

This mosque was built by the late Zubair Nasr in the ‘seventies of last century. Ever since, no constructional or repair additives have been supplemented to the mosque except for small two sunshades at both sides of the mosque and a prayer place for women. When the mosque was built, number of inhabitants of the town and neighbouring villages and hamlets had then been smaller than it is in today. In fact, number of inhabitants of the town has increased due to immigration and normal population increase, particularly on the part of school students, members of armed forces and the UNAMID, traders, car drivers, herders and sellers and buyers of villagers, etc. To date, inhabitants of the town have not thought of building another mosque to assimilate a part of prayers (field work, 2017).

  • Al Malha souk:

It is a permanent small souk for exchanging goods. The souk was established by the inhabitants along with establishment of the town when the souk had then been periodically organized even without shops or permanent commercial places. Thanks to increased population and constructional development the town has lately experienced, Al Malha souk has expanded and number of shops increased. Thus, the souk began supplying the following neighbouring weekly souks with goods and commodities:

  • Dar Dhaifa souk on Monday
  • Gambaqli souk on Tuesday
  • ‘Ushar souk on Wednesday
  • Marsus souk on Thursday
  • Maraiqa souk on Friday

Noticeably, Al Malha souk is a sort of specialized marketplace where there is a section especially for cattle, thatch and woods, another one for workshops, flour mills and ovens besides a section for foodstuffs (Work, 2016).

Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:

Of Al Malha notables, the following can be mentioned: ustaz Adam Abdallah Hassan (an administrative officer during English administration and thenceforth), the late Tom Mohammed Al Sayyah (general king of the Maidoub), D. Fadlallah Abdallah Bahar (Minister of Presidential Affairs) and Al Haj Ali Adam Ibrahim, a native administration figure in Jebel Maidoub and a contributor to development of the town (Bahar, 2016).

Neighbourhoods of the town:

Like other Sudanese towns, Al Malha was divided into many housing neighbourhoods, some of which are: Dabbat al-Nayra, Hush Al Malikk, Hillat Dhaifa, Hillat Gami’a, the northern Quarter, the southern Quarter, the western Quarter and Al Matar Quarter. The more prominent housing quarter in the town is Dabbat al-Nayra which includes the graveyard of king Mohammed Al Sayyah Gami’a Khair (field work, 2017).

Famous names:

The famous names of men in the town are Fadl, Shukkab, Haraz, Gami’a, Sultan, Jiddu, Marzouq, Ahmed, Abdallah, Bahar, Mahmoud, Mohammed, Ali, Omer, and Othman. As to names of women, they are Hawa’, Fatima, Khadiga and Sayda (field work, 2017).

Town of Siraif:

Location:

The town of Siraif is located at the intersection of latitude 13° 45´ N with the longitude 23° 11´ E, west to and 262 km away from El Fasher, capital of North Darfur State (Siraif locality, 2017).

Emergence and development of Siraif:

The town is known as Siraif Bani Hussein and, literally, the saraf is the narrow water course while Bani Hussein is one of old tribes which inhabited the area. The current Siraif had been a small village called Utash, i.e. named after Jebel Utash which is located close to it (Ahmed, 2017). In early ‘eighties of last century, the Siraif area has administratively developed from a village council to a rural area council till it became a presidency of a locality that stands on its own among localities of North Darfur State in 2007. The Siraif locality includes four administrative units which are Siraif unit, Ghurrat azzawya unit, Umm Jirwa unit and Midaisis unit (Ministry of Local Government, North Darfur State, El Fasher, 2017).

Social structure:

The town includes a number of Arab and African tribes like Bani Hussein, Al Rizeigat (Mahameed and Mahriya), Al Miseiriya, Bani Halba, Al Qimir, Al Duruk, Awlad Mana, Al Su’da, Al Tarjam, Al Kurubat, Al Zaghawa, Al Fur, Al Tunjur, Al Tama, Al Barti, AL Barqu and other tribes spreading in central and west Darfur (Mohammed, 2017).

Important geographical landmarks:

Siraif embankment is one of the prominent geographical landmarks in the town. This embankment was built in the eastern side of the town for reserving rain waters which are used in watering humans and animals and irrigating agricultural crops. The Siraif Lake became a prominent touristic area frequented by inhabitants for recreation and enjoying leisure time because of greenness and throngs of birds perching around the dyke lake and the five hafirs (Umm Sinaina, Gussa, Kinu, Hajar Marfa’in and Terter). Also, another geographical landmark is Jebel Amir, its alias Jebel al-Kanz because it contains great quantities of gold. This Jebel lies east to Siraif with 30 km away from the town (Siraif locality, 2017).

Examples of the town dignitaries:

Out of the notable personalities of the town are nazir Hamid Tarjuk, nazir Mohammed Adam Hamid, umda Mohammed Abbakar Seejer, umda Abdallah Hamid Musabbal Daruk, umda Abdallah Shattah, ustaz Haroun Hussein Gami’a, the poet Abdel Rahman Adam al-Sai, his alias Al Huseini (Abdallah, 2017).

Economc activity:

Pastoral profession is one of more important activities practiced in the area by big number of the inhabitants thanks to the district environment which helps diversify pastoral palatable plants for animals. This advantageous environment created huge and diverse livestock of cows, camels, sheep, goats in addition to good horses reared in the area. Furthermore, rain-fed shifting agriculture is practiced in addition to pump irrigated agriculture in small areas around the wadis and water sources. The important agricultural crops in the area are millet, groundnuts, sesame, melon seeds, cowpea, onion and hibiscus. Also, the inhabitants of the town practice specialized trade as the town includes attractive souks such as souks of Al Siraif, Ghurrat Azzawya and Midaisis which are specialized in trade of agricultural crops and livestock. In addition, native mining is one of relatively new economic activities and practiced by considerable number of population in the status quo, particularly on discovery of large quantities of gold in Jebel Amir (Agricultural Planning Management, North Darfur State, Siraif gallery, 2017).

Famous neighborhoods of the town:

Of the important neighbourhoods and vicinities of Siraif Bani Hussein are Ghurrat Azzawya, Umm Jiru, Midaisis and other hamlets (Abdallah, 2017).

Famous names:

Famous names of men are Mohammed, Ali, Ahmed, Hamid, Omer, Yusuf, and Abu Bakr. As to names of women, they are Fatima, Hawa’, Zainab, Halima, Awatif, Sumaya and other names.

Town of Al Tina:

Location:

Town of Al Tina lies in North Darfur State, 410 km north west to El Fasher. It is the capital of Al Tina locality which is bordered by Libya to the north, by Chad to the west (separated by wadi Al Tina), by West Darfur State to the west, by States of Kabkabiya, Saraf Umra and Siraif to the south, by Kutum locality to south east and by Ambaru to the east (presidency of Al Tina locality, North Darfur State, 2017).

 Emergence and development:

Like other Sudanese towns, Al Tina has emerged and developed from a small village of settled farmers and herders to a small town with constructional elements of town where inhabitants built permanent houses, facilities and infrastructure. The distinguished site of the town helped develop it given that Al Tina has been, and still is, representing the western gate of the Sudan, an important custom station in western Sudan and a transit point to Libya, Chad, Nigeria, Cameron and Benin. On another hand, the strategic location of the town and its various human and natural resources qualified it to be a locality capital in North Darfur State in 2006 (Abdallah Ali Esa, 2017).

Socialstructure:

Most population of the town is of Zaghawa tribe with its branches, clans and small kinfolks like Al Angu, Jiraa, Mica, Tabwaira and other groups besides other tribes of North Darfur State and some border Chadian tribes (Abdallah Ali Esa, 2017). 

Important geographical landmarks:

Wadi Al Tina is one of Wadi Hawar tributaries and it slopes down from the Chadian Abnidi Hills. Wadi Al Tina meets Wadi Hawar near the Sudanese-Chadian borders and, therefore, it is a natural borderline separating Sudan and Chad. It is one of seasonal wadis the inhabitants depend on for agriculture and watering animals, especially goats, sheep and camels (see photo 1 which illustrates camels close to the Sudanese wadi Al Tina). Furthermore, there are mosques, schools and health centers as geographical landmarks.

Photo 4: camels close to town of Al Tina

                Source: Abdallah Ali Esa, 2017

Examples of the town dignitaries:

Sultan Dusa Abdel Rahman, Omer Mansour Dusa, Jaafer Bishara Ibrahim, D. Sharif Shawaibu Barqu, General of Police Al Fadl Abdel Karim and umda of Al Tina, Abdel Shafi’ Riziq Marajan (Abdallah Ali Esa, 2017).

Famous activities of the town:

In the past, most inhabitants of the district were traveling nomads who spend the dry season near wells and wadis and, in the beginning of autumn, they traveled southwards to herd their animals which used to go northwards by winter to graze the jizu plant. This had been their economic activity till late ‘eighties of last century but, due to drought and tribal conflicts, most inhabitants have left nomadic life while some of them immigrated and others remained in the town. Accordingly, means of living became multiple such as settled pasturing, agriculture and trade. This latter activity is considered as the main economic profession and only prioritized by pasturing in Al Tina area (Mohammed Al Tahir Bashir, 2015).

Famous neighbourhoods and neighbouring villages of the town:

They are villages of Girgeera, Tuntubaya, Siqaiba, Traiba, Nana, Basau, Mayba, Shaik, Kaira hillat Abu Bakr, Kaira Hillat Abu Idris, Nurbeh, Gaiyeh Maraa, Juba Hillat Khalifa Marajan, Bamna, Bahai, Hiri Kunaa, Gadir, Krainik, Kairaba, Shidaib, Huwqa, Ursinq and Gitaira (Suleiman and Al Tinawi, 1988).

Famous names:

Mohammed, Ali, Hassan, Ismail, Suleiman, Abdel Rahman, Abdallah, Bagal, Taqabu, Ganguri, Dusa and names of women are Kaltum, Aisha, Makka, Fatima and Tambus (Mohammed Al Tahir Bashir, 2015).

Town of Taweela:

Location:

Town of Taweela lies in North Darfur State, 30 km south west to El Fasher. It is the capital of Taweela locality which is bordered by El Fasher locality to the north and east, by South Darfur State to the west and by Central Darfur State and Kabkabiya to the west (Taweela locality, 2017).

Emergence and development of Taweela:

Location:

Town of Taweela lies in North Darfur State, 30 km south west to El Fasher. It is the capital of Taweela locality which is bordered by El Fasher locality to the north and east, by South Darfur State to the west, Central Darfur State and Kabkabiya locality to the west (Taweela locality, 2017).

Emergence and development of Taweela:

In the Fur dialect, Taweela means the distant area while in the tongue of Arab nomads it means an area far away from the tracks of wandering nomads. These wandering nomads come to Taweela for shopping as the town has a souk of agricultural products and for livestock. Taweela had been a small village whose inhabitants used to practice cultivation and pasturing and collection of bee honey. Also, cultivation of tumbak, i.e. snuff, has prospered due to the fertile lands and sufficient amount of rainfall and, as a result, the individual income has increased and the village has experienced constructional expansion by using red brick for building and that it became a capital of Taweela locality in 2007 (Taweela locality, 2017).

Social structure:

The town includes a number of Darfur’s African Arab and Negro tribes which have for so long inhabited north, central, south and west Darfur. These tribes are Fur, Zaghawa, Barti, Tunjur, Hawara, Shuba, Kanin, etc (Ahmed, 2017).

Important geographical landmarks:

The more prominent geographical landmarks are represented by Wadi Taweela which slopes down from Jebel Marra, Jebel Kawra and Si Jebels where waters fall and flow towards the town carrying clay which forms silty plains and fertile soil suitable for cultivation of different agricultural crops. So, most inhabitants depend on this wadi in practicing their economic activities, particularly agriculture, pasturing, tourism and recreation (Hassan, 2017).

Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:

There is a number of dignitaries and personalities in the town, some of whom are D. Haroun Abdel Hameed, Omer Abdel Hameed, Khaleel Adam Abdel Karim, moulana Mohamed Ahmed, umda Ishaq Abaker Ishaq, umda Mohammed Othman, Yusuf Abdel Majeed, Haj Nour Ismail, Awlad Sigilli, Awlad Tibin Boush, Al Nour al-Haj Ahmed, ustaz Adam Zakariya, Adam Bidair and engineer Othman Mohammed Othman Sam ( Mustafa Al Tigani and Hassan Abdel Rahman, 2017).

Economic activity:

Area of Taweela is a habitat for cultivation of tumbak in North Darfur State. This tumbak is the main crop on which most population depends for their living where more than 80% of arable land is cultivated with tumbak which is desiccated and carried to tumbak bourse in El Fasher in order to be sold and marketed in different areas of Sudan (Al Rasheed Makki, 2017).

In addition to production of tumbak, the town suburbs are also famous for cultivation of onion around wadis where the town produces large quantities of onion which cover the needs of the town while the surplus of the crop is marketed in neighbouring towns, particularly in El Fasher where there is increased demand for onion owing to the great number of its inhabitants. Also, collection of honey is one of important economic activities for the inhabitants of the town because there are big colonies of bees in Kawra Jebels which are located close to Taweela and they have for so long frequented by the inhabitants for acquiring wax and honey for end of trade. In this regard, trading in honey is one of the profitable economic activities and, therefore, a big number of inhabitants had depended upon in the past. Yet, nowadays, cultivation of tumbak and herding animal have become the more prominent economic activities for inhabitants of the town (Al Tigani, 2017).

Famous neighbourhoods of the town:

The famous quarters are Al Souk, Taweela AL Umda, Furinqa, Ni’ma, Dali, Dabba Nyra, Naqaat Buru, Shmal Al Wadi, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Al Tadamun, Al Gami’ Shariq, Suba, Mu’askarat Dali and Rwanda (Mustafa Al Tigani, 2017).

Famous names:

Of the famous male names in the town are Mohammed, Ahmed, Abdallah, Al Tigani, Al Nour, Hafiz, Al Sheikh, Musa, Sajali, Yassin and Silik. As to names of women, they are Mahasin, Hadya, Zainab, Fatima, Khadiga and other names.

Town of Al Li’ayitt:

Location:

Town of Al Li’ayitt lies in North Darfur State, 280 km south east to presidency of the State. It is the capital of Al Li’ayitt locality which is bordered to the south by both localities of Abkarinka and Adeela in East Darfur State, to the east by Ghibaish and Al ‘idayya in West Kordofan State, by Tuwaisha locality to the north and by Kalamindu locality to the west (North Darfur State, presidency of Al Li’ayyit locality, 2017).

Emergence and development of Al Li’ayyit:

Al Li’ayyit had been a small village whose name is related to “Jar Al Nabi”, because Jar Al Nabi’s family, a small family of Hamar tribe which came from Kordofan to settle in the area, founded the village. By time, the village which had administratively been joined to Umm Kaddada locality, has developed and its inhabitants have multiplied and, thus, it became the capital of Al Li’ayyit locality in 2006 (North Darfur State, presidency of Al Li’ayyit locality, 2017).

Social structure:

The town is inhabited by most tribes of North Darfur State, both Arab such as Al Hamar and Bani Umranan non-arabic origion tribes like Al Barti, Al Zaghawa, the Fur and Al Tunjur (Ibrahim, 2017).

Important geographical landmarks:

Firstly: Al Li’ayyit Mosque: 

Al Li’ayyit mosque was built by sons of Al Li’ayyit who are both at home and in the Diaspora. The building works of the mosque were finished in 2009 and that the mosque became a prominent landmark in the town as it was located in the middle of the town and close to Al Li’ayyit grand souk where a big number of congregation meet to do their prayer in the mosque which makes room for more than two thousand worshippers (Mustafa Al Tigani, 2017).

Secondly: Al Li’ayyit Stadium:

 Al Li’ayyit Stadium is located a kilometer away from presidency of Al Li’ayyit locality in the eastern half of the town. The stadium was built through a co-financing supplied by the State government of North Darfur and Al Li’ayyit locality. At last, the stadium was opened in 2010 (North Darfur State, presidency of Al Li’ayyit locality, 2017).

Examples of the town dignitaries:

Of worth mentioning dignitaries of Al Li’ayyit Jar Al Nabi are D. Abdu Da’ud Suleiman, Al Sadiq Ismail Ali Hassan, Nour al-Din Mohammed Abdallah, Othman Uqi, Badawi Abdallah Al Haj, ustaz Hassan Othman Ismail (Abu Bakr Suleiman Al Haj, 2017).

Economic activity:

Most inhabitants of the town practice the primary economic activities like agriculture, pasturing and collection of wood while industrial activity is represented by light manufacturing industries, particularly soap industry where Al Li’ayyit Jar Al Nabi oil squeezers for ground nut refined oils produce large quantities of oils, the most of which is marketed in North Darfur towns and different States of Sudan. Oil industry and trade of agricultural crops, particularly groundnuts, are of the important economic activities besides traditional rain-fed agriculture. Moreover, gum Arabic is also produced and transported to Khartoum through Adela railway station for the benefit of gum Arabic Company and other companies dealing with trade of agricultural crops. Beneficially, abundant agricultural crops and livestock help the town of Al Li’ayyit Jar Al Nabi to have been a prominent industrial center in which labour opportunities are accessible for a big number of populations. Accordingly, one can say that economic activities for which the town is famous are confined to agricultural, commercial and industrial activities, all of which are related to crop of groundnuts (North Darfur State, presidency of Al Li’ayyit locality, 2017).

Important neighbourhoods of the town:

Town of Al Li’ayyit includes four housing neighbourhoods arranged from quarter 1 to quarter 4 besides a number of neighbouring villages related to the town, for instance Al Khamsat, Shaq AL Jamous and others. As to administrative units joined to presidency of the locality, they are administrative unit of Fattaha (locally known as Wad Ganja), administrative unit of Haskanita and administrative unit of Al Li’ayyit Jar Al Nabi which represents the presidency of the locality (Mustafa Al Tigani, 2017).

Famous names:

Names of men are Mohammed, Musa, Da’ud, Esa, Ismail, Hassan, Hussein, Ali and Abdallah. As to names of women, they are Mariam, Khadiga, Aisha, Fatima, Rugaya and Maiymuna (Ibrahim, 2017).

Town of Kabkabiya:

Location:

Town of Kabkabiya lies in North Darfur State at the intersection of the latitude 13° 38´ North with the longitude 24˚ 5´ East, in a relatively high area. Geographically, the town is an extension to Jebel Marra (Kabkabiya locality, 2017).

Etymology:

In the Fur dialect, the word “Kabkabiya” means (No War and Arms Down!) which suggest peaceful coexistence, call to security and stability and leaving enmity and contention (field work, 2017).

Emergence and development of Kabkabiya:

Town of Kabkabiya is one of towns which are rich with natural resources such as waters, forest wealth and livestock. The town could assimilate ethnical multitude and cultural diversity which used to commemorate old history of the area including the heritage of the Fur Sultanate in its more splendid ages (era of the Sultan Mohammed Tairab) and heritages of Turkish, Mahdist, British and the national governments. Kabkabiya had been a capital of Darfur Sultanate and then, during Turco-Egyptian rule, a capital of Kabkabiya Province. Later, it had been the last Daim, i.e. camp, of Mahdist diyum in the Sudan. In the era of the British administration, it almost lost its administrative status and became a part of Kutum merkez in North Darfur. Today, it is a capital of Kabkabiya locality and administered by a commissioner where there are all governmental and military directorates and social, services like basic and secondary schools and health centers (field work, 2017).

Economic activity:

Town of Kabkabiya lies in a fertile agricultural area and therefore most of its inhabitants practice traditional rain-fed agriculture in small areas during rainy season while they practice irrigated agriculture all through the year by depending on wells and hafirs. Besides, they rear animals and practice trade of crops and livestock as main activities (field work, 2017).

Social structure:

The town is inhabited by numerous ethnical groups, for example the Fur, Tama, Zaghawa, Qimir, Tunjur, Barti, Mahriya, Krubat, Bani Hussein and other Sudanese tribes (Adam, 2017).

Important geographical landmarks:

Kabkabiya souk:

Kabkabiya souk is located in the middle of the town and it is a permanent souk for exchanging supply goods and agricultural crops, particularly vegetables (ajour, tomato, okra, bambai and onion) and fruits (mango, apple, lemon, orange and grape fruit). Also, there is a cattle souk where goats, sheep and cows are sold. Increased population by displacement contributed to demand and trade and thus rendered the souk developed and prospered (field work, 2017).

Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:

Worth mentioning dignitaries of Kabkabiya are shartai Al Tayeb Abu Kura, shartai Abdallah Musa, sheikh Adam Dudu Khamis, sheikh Fadl Adam Shatta, ustaz Salih Yahia, ustaz Abdel Rahman Othman (Adam, 2017).

Neighborhoods of the town:

Housing neighbourhoods in Kabkabiya are the Souk quarter, Rawyan, Shartai (A), shartai (B), Ameeriya wasat, Ameeriya shimal, Ameeriya gharb, Al Safaa, Al Salam and Al Wadi gharb (field work, 2017).

Famous names:

Famous names of men in the town are Mohammed, Salih, Abdallah, Mahmoud, Ishaq, Abu Bakr, Abdel Ghani, Abboud and other name. as to names of women, they are Khadiga, Fatima, Aisha, Saliha, Rawda, Mastoura and other known names.

Town of Kutum:

Location:

It is the capital of Kutum locality. It lies 120 km away from El Fasher to the north west at the intersection of the latitude 14° 2´ north with the longitude 24˚ 65´ East and the town is located at a mountainous area dotted with wadis and Khors (Kutum locality, 2017).

Etymology:

According to the inherited verbal tradition, origin of the word “kutum” is derived from a mountain called “Firyud Kutum”, 10 km east to the area. This mountain is isolated and has for so long been resistible to erosion while it is located in the middle of the guz. Habitually, inhabitants of that guz had practiced cultivation at the sides of the mountain and kept expanding their farming tracts westwards to the current site of Kutum where the area began to be known as Kutum (field work, 2017).

Emergence and development of Kutum:

Kutum is a historical town since it had stood as a capital of all north western part of the Grand Darfur (formerly known as North Darfur Province) which had then included Millit, Al Malha and Dar Zaghawa (Al Tina, Karnoi and Umm Baru), Kabkabiya, Saraf Umra, Siraif and Jebel Si.

Kutum emerged as a small village and developed to a town and through time it became one of the more famous towns of North Darfur, next only to El Fasher. Perhaps, this advantage encouraged the English governor of North Darfur Province, Mr. Moore, to make it a capital and seat of his government.

Economic activity:

Town of Kutum became famous for trade of agricultural crops since it is one of first class agricultural towns due to suitable soil of agriculture, underground waters and surface waters of Wadi Kutum. In this regard, cultivation of jurufs around wadis is one of prominent economic activities the town is famous for where vegetables, fruits, palm trees and food grains are cultivated. So, abundant diverse agricultural products have contributed to prosperity of the trade of agricultural crops, the most of which is marketed in El Fasher (field work, 2017).

Social structure:

The town contains different tribes of North Darfur like Tunjur, Fur, Zaghawa, Mahriya, Kanin, Barti, Ireiqat, Bidayyat, Maidoub, Rushdan, Jaloul and other tribes which are distributed in its different neighbourhoods.

Important geographical landmarks:

  • Kutum Arboretum:

It is one of the biggest and oldest governmental arboretums in North Darfur. This arboretum is one of prominent geographical landmarks which support economy of the town. Since this economy depends on farming, the arboretum helps provide seedlings of fruit like citruses, mango, palm trees, pomegranate and kinds of vegetables along with agricultural guidance. The town arboretum is a touristic area frequented by some people for recreation or enjoying leisure time or for buying the arboretum products like fruit seedlings and forest trees which are used as fences of farms. Along the arboretum, there are gardens of palm trees and fruits (Hassan, 2017) as shown in photo 5.

Photo 5: Kutum Arboretum

Source: Abdulgafar Adam Ali, 2017

Kutum Souk:

Kutum souk is a marketplace for agricultural crops in the first place where supply commodities and agricultural products like potatoes, carrots and onion are exchanged as main products besides radish, watercress, okra and yam plant as secondary products. Additionally, there are horticultural products like mango, guava, lemon, orange, grape fruit, tangerine, pomegranate and dates. Also, there is a section for exchanging products of livestock. The souk itself is located at the edge of the wadi which passes through the town and that it is accessible from any side of the town (field work, 2017). 

Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:

The worth mentioning dignitaries of the town, we can mention the late king Abdel Rahman Hasab Al Nabi (king of Dar Hamra and Kutum), the maqdum Tigani Maqdum, Abdel Salam Adam (one of the town notables), king Adam Mohammed Nour (king of Dar Biri, north and east of Kutum), D. Hassan Mohammed (faculty of sciences, University of Khartoum) and faki Ibrahim (the last sheikh for khalwas of Zariba neighbourhood, where memorized the Holy Quran and helped a big number of memorizers of Allah’s Holy Book (field work, 2017).

Neighborhoods of the town:

Kutum had been a small village including a number of housing quarters in the ‘seventies of last century. These neighbourhoods are Mugmain, Al Buluk, Al Qasr, Al Zariba, Al Dabbabin, AL Istiglal and Salama Abu Duma. Like other towns, Kutum has developed due to normal increased population and immigrations caused by environmental hazards and political disputes and conflicts. Therefore, the town sprawled and number of housing quarters increased as extension of the old neighbourhoods like Al Qasr Sharq and Al Qasr Gharb, Al Dabbabin Gharb and AL Dabbabin Sharq besides the supplemented quarters like Karama, Sangir, Kambut, Kassab Al Sanawiya and Karkawi in addition to Kassab Displaced Camp. Of all neighbourhoods of the town, Al Qasr is the important one because it includes Kutum secondary school for girls, Kutum stadium, basic (A) school, Zat Al Nitaqain which is the oldest school in the town besides the Qasr Al-Deyafah which was built in English style during Anglo-Egyptian Condominium. Also, one of the important quarters of the town is Zariba neighbourhood because it includes sheik Musa khalwa for memorization of Quran and the town mosque as it had formerly included the town souk (Abbasher and Hassan, 2017).

Famous names:

Of the famous names in the town are Adam, Mohammed, Mustafa, Omer, Abdel Rahman, Ishaq, Abu Bakr while famous names of women are Aisha, Kaltum, Khadiga, Mariam, Hawa’, Zainab and other known names (field work, 2017).

Town of Millit:

Location:

Millit lies at the intersection of the latitude 14° 31´ north with the longitude 25˚ 55´ East, 56 km away from and north to El Fasher. It is capital of Millit locality which is bordered by Al Malha locality to the north, by El Fasher locality to the south, by Al Kuma locality to the east and by Kutum locality to the west (Millit locality, 2017).

Emergence and development of the town:

The town was named after a woman called “Millit” whom is believed to be the first person settled in the area. The town had been an old lively village mentioned in many verbal anecdotes told about Darfur where the town had contributed with about 500 riyals to caravan loading and clothing of the Holy Kaaba besides loads of supplies, all of which people of Millit had yearly paid to Holy Mecca. Administratively, Millit was joined to El Fasher locality till 2006 but, after the new administrative division, it became a capital for the nascent locality of Millit (Ministry of Urban Planning, North Darfur State, 2017).

Social structure:

The tribes which inhabit the town are Barti, Maidoub, Ziyadiya, Fur, Tunjur, Fallata, Barqu, Tama and other tribes of Darfur.

Important geographical landmarks:

Millit Dam is one of the prominent landmarks in the town. This dam is a huge earth basin built in 1947 at Wadi Bayadha with a design capacity of 198 million gallons (photo 6), (Rural Waters Management, 2017). However, Millit Dam has been expanded thanks to waters harvest program in North Darfur State (photo 2), (Khalid Salih, 2017).

Phot 6: Millit Dam

Source: Rural Water Management, North Dar Fur State, 2017

Examples of the town dignitaries:

Millit produced many dignitaries and public personalities who are specialized in different fields, for example Professor Siddig Umbadda, Dr. Mohammed Ahmed Khalid, Dr. Abdel Nabi Ali Ahmed, General Ibrahim Suleiman, army General Zakariya Adam Ali, police General Siddig Mohammed Ahmed Abu Diqin, king Yasir Hussein Ahmadai, king Ahmadai Adam Tamim, Adam Shummu, umda Adam Hassan Abdel Malik, umda Mamoun Adam Mamoun, umda Salih Mahmoud Al Haj Yusuf wad Tirgil, umda Ali Jadain, umda Abbaker Amara, Al Haj Ahmed Abu Zaid, Al Haj Adam Abdel Karim and Mohammed Othman Abu Sakina (Khalid Salih Al Haj Adam, 2017).

Economic activity:

Vocational structure of the town population is characterized by multiple professions like agriculture, pasturing, trade, industry and eservices. Yet, cultivation is the more important economic activity in the town where more than 65% of the inhabitants practice it. In this regard, maize, millet, melon seeds, hibiscus and cowpea are of the important crops of the rain-fed agriculture. As to radish, onion, tomatoes, pumpkins, watercress, okra, mulukhiya, al-Ajour are of winter crops for which the town is famous and irrigated with the shaduf (Agricultural Planning Management, Millit locality, 2017). Pasturing is practiced in mountainous areas and around the wadis in order to realize self-sufficiency and socio-economic ends. The more important animals reared in the town are goats, camels, cows, sheep, donkeys and horses (livestock management, Millit locality, 2017).

In view of its geographical location, the town is related to border trade with Libya (formerly the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) since the ‘seventies of last century when Millit Customs Point was then opened and thus trade of consumer stuffs, electronic apparatuses, clothes and other goods and commodities prospered. Most industries are manufacturing ones where the town is famous for industry of carpets and red bricks which are depended on the local raw materials, manual skills and some simple machinery. So, Millit markets all its products to towns of North Darfur and other States of the Sudan (Millit locality, 2017).

Photo 7: Millet Crop

Photo 8: Milet production at harvesting season

Source: Fieldwork, 2017

Famous neighbourhoods of the town:

Town of Millit was divided into 33 housing quarters which are Al Malik quarter, western quarter, Al Haj Yusuf, Al Qubba, Bahri, Al Wadi, Al Abbasi sharq, Al Abbasi gharb, Al Safa, Jabaruna, Kitab Shukren, Amar Jadeed, Murwi, AL Sanawiya, Satti, Dar EL Naiem, Gharruna sharq, Gharruna gharb, Gharruna shimal, Gharruna janoub, Abu Zaid, Al ‘Imtidad, Al Rahma and Dulanga (Ministry of Urban Planning, North Darfur State, Millit locality, 2017).

More famous names:

Ahmed, Mohammed, Mahmoud, Mustafa, Abdallah, Abdel Karim, Abdel Latif, Abu Bakr, Omer, Ismail, Abbaker, Othman, Ali, Ishaq, Musa. As to names of women, they are Su’ad, Zainab, Fatima, Mariam, Umm Kalthum, Aisha and other names.

Sources and references:

Books:

-   Abu Al Bashar, Sir Al Khatim Ahmed Al Mu’min (2007): Book, ‘Alam min al-Sudan, shakhsiyyat Barawiyya, i.e. Dignitaries from Sudan, Bara Personalities, Khartoum.

-   Abu Hajar, Amna Ibrahim (2002): Encyclopedia of Arab Towns, Usama House for publication and distribution.

-   Ahmed Ilyas Hussein and others: Saukin of History, Civilization and Global Interactions, Merkez al-Tanweer al-Maarifi, Khartoum.

-   Ahmed, Abbas Al Tahir (2004): Book, Features from Town of Al Ubayyid, ed. (321—2004).

-    Burckhardt, on his visit to Shendi, 1814.

-    Burckhardt, Visit to Nubia, London, 1987.

-    Khojali, Abdel Gadir Khalifa (2003): Book, Town of Al Ubayyid and History, Kordofan House for printing and publishing.

-     Al Sammani, Mohammed Othman (2007): Book, Umm Ruwaba, Rajaa ‘Assada wa Da’watan, i.e.  Umm Ruwaba, Re-echoing and two Invitations, ed. (558/2007). 

-   Choucair, Naoum (2007): Book, Gughrafiyat wa Tarikh al-Sudan, i.e. Geography and History of Sudan, dar al-Thagafa, Beirut, Lebanon.

-    Choucair, Naoum (1972): Book, Gughrafiyat wa Tarikh al-Sudan, i.e. Geography and History of Sudan, Dar al-Thagafa, Beirut, Lebanon.

-    Choucair, Naoum (1981): Tarikh al-Sudan, i.e. History of Sudan, verified an introduced by D. Mohammed Ibrahim Abu Salim, Dar Al Jeel for publication, Beirut.

-     Shaikhu, Ali Yusuf Adam Ibrahim (2016): Malamih min Tarikh wa Turath Al Maidub, i.e. Features from History and Heritage of Al Maidub, Khartoum University Press, Sudan.

-     Al Sadiq, Salah Omer (2008): Dirasat Sudaniyya fi al-Siyaha, i.e. Sudanese Studies on Tourism, Al Sharif Academic Library for publishing and distribution, Khartoum.

-     Al Tayeb Mohammed Al Tayeb (1991): Book, al Maseed, ed. 1, Khartoum University Press.

-     Abdallah Al Tayeb, Asdaa al-Nil, i.e. Echoes of the Nile (poetry diwan), 5th edition, Khartoum University Press.

-     Farah, Khalid Mohammed (2009): al-Dilalat al-Thagafiya wa ‘al-Igtima’iya li ‘Asmaa al-Sudaniyin, i.e. Cultural and Social Significances for Names of the Sudanese.

-     Al Gaddal, Mohammed Saied (1992): Book, Tarikh al-Sudan al-Hadith (1820—1955), i.e. Modern History of Sudan, Al Amal Printing and Publishing Press Co., Khartoum.

-    Gisaima, Kabbashi Hussein, 2008, al-Tajruba al-Sudaniya fi Idarat al-Turath al-Thagafi, i.e. Sudanese Experiment in Cultural Heritage management, Al Marwa for printing and publishing, Khartoum. 

-    Madibbu, Saied Siddig Hamid (2014): Book, Tarikh Madinat al-Ubayyid (1821—1956), i.e. History of Al Ubayyid Town.

-    Mohammed Abbaker Suleiman and Ali Abbaker Suleiman (1988): Al Zaghawa, Madhi wa Hadhir, i.e. Al Zaghawa, Past and Present, Kuwait Press.

-    Mohammed Al Tahir Bashir (2015): Gabasat min Turath Al Zaghawa, i.e.  Gleams from Zaghawa Heritage, al Maktaba al-Wataniya, Sudan. 

-    Misbah, Tariq (2016): adhwa ala al-Hamish, lamha tarikhiya ‘an Madinat Bara, i.e. Shedding Lights on the Margin, a Historical Glance from Town of Bara (Ireland).

-    Henry Cecil Jackson (1926), Abu Hamad District and its inhabitants of Rubatab and Manasir.

-    Yahia Mohammed Ibrahim, Book, Tarikh al-Ta’alim al-Dini fi al-Sudan, i.e. History of Religious Education in the Sudan, 1st ed. Lebanon.

University theses:

-              Abbaker, Ayub Mukhtar Mohammed (2013), Urban Expansion and its impact on Services in Town of Singa, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.

-              Ahmed, Ghada Al Jaili Haseeb (2000): Spatial Relationships of Town of Shendi, an unpublished Ms Thesis.

-              Adam, Hassan Abbaker Abdel Gayum, a personal interview (2017): Town of Kabkabiya, North Darfur State.

-              Adam, Ali Yusuf (1980): Some Features of Maidub History—a research presented for Honours Degree in History, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.

-              Bashir Kuku Hummaida (1971): Profiles of the Magazeeb History, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.

-              Bashir, Amani Yusuf (2011): a Study about Initial Studies for Documentation and Histories of Sudanese Towns-- University of Khartoum.

-              Al Haj, Mohammed Yahia Ahmed (2005): Functional changes and their Impacts on Urban Structure.

-              Al Hassan, Al Siddig Al Imam Mohammed: a Study on Geography of Towns (Town of Rufaa), unpublished PhD thesis, Al-Neelain University.

-              Hussein, Hammad Ahmed Al Dhawi (2008): Rural Immigration to Town of Bara, Ms Thesis, University of Khartoum.

-              Salim, ahmed Ibrahim mohammed (2013): Obstacles of Urban Growth in Town of El Fasher, 1980—2012, unpublished Ms Thesis, Al Zaiem Al Azhari University.

-              Saaduk, Amal Al Tayeb Abdallah (2008): Impact of Socio-economic Factors on Mortality of Mothers and Babies—Town of kassala in the period (2000—2005), unpublished Ms Thesis, University of Khartoum.

-              Salma Al Tayeb, Intisar Sighayrun (2007): Ms Thesis, History of Al Damar, of Significances of Urban Settlement, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology, University of Khartoum.

-              Abdel Bagi, Amani Ahmed (1991): Socio-economic Impacts of Labour Redundancy Project in Atbara Railway Corporation, Ms Thesis, University of Khartoum.

-              Abdel Hameed, Ismail Ibrahim (2014): Land Uses in Town of Shendi.

-              Abdel Karim, Riyadh Adam Abdel Karim (2012): Impact of Socio-economic Factors on Fertility, South Gezira Locality, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum, Complementary Research, Bachelor of Geography.

-              Abdel Muniem Ahmed, Ahmed Hamid (2012): Importance of Galaat Shannan Site for Studies of Neolithic in Shendi District, 18 September, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology, University of Shendi.

-              Abeer Ramadan Hussein (2004): Archaeological Sources Management in Dongola Region.

-              Ali, Hajir Khalid Abdel Rahman Mohammed (2006): Urban Development and Utilization of Land in Town of Al Hasaheesa, unpublished Ms Thesis, Education College, University of Khartoum.

-              Fathallah, Muhannad Ahmed (2011): Urban Development for Town of Atbara during the period 1980—2010, Ms Thesis, University of Khartoum.

-              Mohammed, Al Tigani Ibrahim Al Dhaw, 2002: Complementary Research for Bachelor Degree, Faculty of Arts, Department of Geography, University of Khartoum.

-              Mohammed, Al Mahi Al Sheikh (2011): Geography of Towns Applied on Town of El Fasher, unpublished Ms Thesis, University of El Fasher.

-              Haju Abdallah Mohammed (2009): Socio-economic Importance of Al Haj Abdallah Souk, a Complementary Research, Bachelor of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.

 

Essays and Reports:

-              Taj al sir Othman (2014): an article titled Memories from Atbara Railwaymen Club.

-              Al Turathi, Jaafer Bamkar.

-              Umm Kaddada Locality, North Darfur State, 2017.

-              An Article published in the ninth issue of Sudan Notes and Records, translated by Badr al-Din Hamid Al Hashimi.

-              Agricultural Planning Office (2017): Town of Kutum, North Darfur State.

-              Arab Authority for Agricultural Investment and Development, Kenana Sugar Company (2017).

-              Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Planning Management—Kabkabiya Office (2017): Town of Kabkabiya, North Darfur State.

-              North Darfur State, Al Tina Locality Headquarters, 2017. 

-              North Darfur State, Taweela Locality, 2017.  

-              North Darfur State, Millit Locality, 2017.  

-              North Darfur State, Millit Locality, Livestock Management, 2017.  

-              North Darfur State, Millit Locality, Rural Waters Management, 2017.  

-              North Darfur State, Millit Locality, Agricultural Planning Office, 2017.  

-              North Darfur State, Ministry of Urban Planning, 2017.

 

Interviews:

-              Abbasher, Ahmed Suleiman (2017: Field Work, Kutum, North Darfur State.

-              Ahmed, Al Tigani Al Nour (2017): an Interview, 2017.

-              Ahmed, Othman Jalal Mohammed (2017): a Journalist Politician, an Interview.

-              Ahmed, Mohammed Suleiman (2017): an Interview about Dignitaries of El Fasher Town.

-              Ustaz Khalid Salih Al Haj Adam, town of Millit, an Interview, 2017.

-              Nazir Mohammed Al Mansour Al Ajab’s Family, Abu Hasheem, an Interview, February, 2017.

-              Nazir Mohammed Al Mansour Al Ajab’s Family, an Interview, March, 2017.

-              Anwer Adam Mohammed Imam, Personal Interview (2017), Umm Kaddada, North Darfur State.

-              Al Jak, Salah, 2017 (Interview).

-              Al Jaili Khidir Mohammed Saghir (2017), one of the town notables and former manager of Bank of Khartoum.

-              Hamid Hamad Ibrahim Al Faig (2017): Field Work.

-              Hassan Gibreel Esa Mohammed, an Interview on 13/2/2017.

-              Hassan Ibrahim Al Haj (2017): Field Work, Kutum, North Darfur State.

-              Al Rasheed Makki, Head of Snuff Traders Union, North Darfur State, El Fasher.

-              Al Shahir, Mustafa Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, 2017: an Interview.

-              Al Shinnawi (2017): Al Rayyah Jaafer, entrepreneurship.

-              Al ‘Agib Jubara, a former member of the locality police, an Interview, February, 2017, Town of Al Dindir.

-              Al Fadil Adam Ali Mansour, a personal interview (2017), Umm Kaddada, North Darfur State.

-              Al Fadil Yusuf, Al Dindir Locality Headquarters, an Interview, February, 2017.

-              Al Fadil Yusuf, March, 2017, clerk in Al Dindir Locality Headquarters.

-              Al Nour, Al Tuhami Ali (Al TYuhami Babanusa), (2017): correspondent, photographer and documenter of the Miseiriya Heritage, Babanusa Information (Interview).

-              Adil Ubaidi (2017), private interview.

-              Abdel Azim Al Sa’uri (2017), Interview.

-              Abdel Ghaffar Adam Ali Mansour (2017): El Fasher, North Darfur State.

-              Abdallah Ali Esa, Direct Interview, 2017.

-              Abdallah Mohammed Kabbashi (2017), Par timer in University of Khartoum, a Private Interview.

-              Omer Al Nour Nour al-Din, 17/2/2017, an Agricultural Engineer and a Farmer in Town of Al Dali, Al Dali Locality, Sennar State.

-              Omer Adlan Al Mak Hassan Adlan, February, 2017, Town of Singa, Singa Locality, Sennar State.

-              Omer, Tariq Al Tayeb Harun Ahmed Omer (2017): Assistant Nazir Umum Al Gawamaa (Al Rahad/ Umm Ruwaba/ Umm Dam), Private Interview.

-              Mohammed Ahmed Al Kanun (2017), Al Dindir Locality Information, Town of Al Dindir, Al Dindir Locality, Sennar State.

-              Mohammed Al Sayyed Al Ni’ma, a notable of the Town, entrepreneurship.

-              Mahmoud Hussein Bahr (2017), a Teller of the Maidub Tribe sons.

-              Mustafa Al Tigani, an Administrative Officer, North Darfur State, Taweela Locality, 2017.

-              Mohammed Hamid, one of Wad Al Haddad Notables, on 10/2/2017.

Articles and reports published in the Internet:

-              Data on Climate, Berber, Sudan, in English.

-              Development Map of West Kordofan State, 2015, Vol. 2.

-              Sudaress, Electronic Searching Machine.

-              Wad Al Haddad Souk, an Article published on Al Sahafa Daily on 30/3/2012.

-              Ubaid Mohammed Suleiman Al Faki, 2012, an article in al-Tawthiq al-Shamil Journal. 

-              Mohammed Al Amin Hamid (2016): Articles about Al Sharif Al Haj Abdallah, Al Haj Abdallah website.

-              Mohammed Khair Mansour, 2010, an article in al-Tawthiq al-Shamil Journal.

-              Towns and Landmarks of Sudan, writings by ‘Ashiq al-Tirhal, Sudan Elite Forums (2012).

-              Mansour, Hamid Muniem (2013): Town of Al Nuhud website.

-              The Legislative Council—Gezira State (2017).

-              Al Maarifa website http://www.marefa.org

-              Nour Al Islam (2010): Mustafa, Encyclopedia of al-Tawthiq al-Shamil, Amkina Forum/ September, 2010.

-              ^ Berber – Encyclopedia.

-              ^ http:\\www.theodora.com/encyclopedia/b/berber.html

-              gazeeracouncil.wordpress.com

-              http : // alfula .sudanforums.net/

-              http:// www.sudaress.com/city/

-              http://www.redseastate.gov.sd

-              http://www.sudaress.com/city/

-              https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/

-              https://www.aaaid.org/ar/

-              www.sustech.edu/staff_publications

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