Towns Of Al Gezira StateThu, 19 Oct 2017
Gezira State includes towns of Wad Medani, Al Kamlin, Al Gineid, Rufaa, Al Hasaheesa, Al Managil, Barakat, Al Hush, Al Haj Abdallah and Wad Al Haddad as shown in Map 6.
Map 6: Location of the Towns- Gezira State
Source: Sudanese Public Survey Authority, 2017- Researcher's work
Town of Wad Medani is located in the middle of Sudan at the intersection of the latitude 14° 5´ North with the longitude 33˚ 5´ East, with 320 feet high above sea level, on the left bank of the Blue Nile River. The town is bordered by the Blue Nile River to the east and north east, by University of Gezira (Nishaishiba) to the north, by Gezira Scheme and Agricultural Research Corporation to the west and by Gezira Scheme and Barakat to the south. The town is located south of and about 187 km away from Khartoum while it is linked with the rest of Sudan towns and Port Sudan by a network of national asphalted land roads (Al Fatih, 2017).
All historians agree that the designation of Wad Medani is attributed to the founder of the town, the fageeh Mohammed Al Amin ibn Medani (al-Sunni). During the Turkish rule, the word had been written and pronounced in the Egyptian slang articulation as (Wad Medani) with the vowel letter “a” which is synonymous to the Sudanese slang articulation (Wad) with the consonant letter “a” which is written but not pronounced. However, both articulations are a corruption of the standard Arabic word (walad, i.e. ibn) which means (son) and, thus, the proper nouns can be reproduced as follows (Mohammed walad Medani or Mohammed ibn Medani). For the sake of English sense, one can dare put it like this (MacMedani) as a typical prefix of English proper nouns. Also, the town got appellations of “Medani al-Sunni” and “Medani al-Gezira” while locally Wad Medani is known as “Gezirat ‘al-Sheikh Malik Abu Ruf” and this latter is Malik Abu Ruf al-Rifa’ie, the senior sheikh of Juhaynah tribe in the Sudan (AL Fatih, 2017).
Emergence and development of Wad Medani:
The recent history of the town of Wad Medani dates back to the year 1689 when the fageeh Mohammed Al Amin ibn fageeh Medani settled in the place where the town today is (the fageeh lineage is said to be related to ‘Uqail ibn Abi Talib ibn Abdel Muttalib al-Hashimi) and where the dome of his sepulcher now carries his name. Since housing quarters began spreading in the neighbourhood and the site posed a rest place for travelers, the sheikh Mohammed Medani was encouraged to settle at it and the town began expanding and flourishing due to incoming of many individuals and groups to it. In the interim, the town kept expanding and progressing till Mohammed Ali Pasha army invaded Sudan in 1821 and made of Wad Medani a base for his forces which had been on its way to Sennar which had then had sovereignty over most kingdoms of the Sudan. On assassination of Ismail Pasha, Wad Medani military base of Turkish armies was terminated and, thus, Ismail’s successors chose Khartoum as a new capital. When Mahdist State, which succeeded the Turkish rule, was defeated in 1898 and Anglo-Egyptian Condominium took over, Sudan was administratively re-divided and town of Al Kamleen chosen as a capital of the Blue Nile Province. But, in 1902, capital of the Province was transferred to Wad Medani where, during the first ten years, a railway station and military hospital and headquarters buildings of the Province were all established. Regrettably, in the year 1919, importance of Wad Medani, as a trade center, had retreated, yet no sooner had the Gezira Scheme been inaugurated in 1925 than Wad Medani restored its prominence and, consequently, government activity was amplified in the town owing to socio-economic development which had encompassed the Blue Nile Province until it was transformed into Gezira Province in 1973 and thereafter to Gezira State while Wad Medani has remained a capital for the State (Ibid).
- Agriculture: the Gezira Scheme headquarters is installed at Barakat, near to Wad Medani. It is one of the biggest irrigated schemes in Africa and it produces cotton, maize and wheat.
- Industry: it is one of important activities and here industries depend on the local raw materials, for example industries of spinning and weaving, food oils, food industries and beverage.
- Trade: a greatest proportion of trade activity is concentrated in the downtown where there are the biggest commercial fairs in the middle of the city. These trade exhibitions are divided into units such as jewellery, housewares, perfumes, clothes and foodstuffs, etc.
The town attracted inhabitants from all over the Sudan. It is worth noting that the first people who came to the town are the Dubasin who belong to Arab tribes which left the Arab Island and settled south of Khartoum. On emergence of the Gezira Scheme, immigration has continued towards the town which have included a number of tribes like the Ja'alin, Shaigiya, Manasir, Rubatab, Rufa’a, ‘Isailat, Rufa’iyin, Bashaqra, Kawahla, Awamra and Shabarqa in addition to Nubian tribes and Zaghawa, Rizaigat, Habbaniya and some groups of Fallata, Hausa and Barnu. All these tribes mixed with the Dubasin tribe and, as a result, created Wad Medani community (Tinneer, 2002). However, number of Wad Medani inhabitants somewhat increases in invariable rates, for instance, in 1973, number of population reached about 106.715 persons with an annual increasing rate of 5.5 % which is a greatest population ratio the town has ever experienced. So, concerning number of population, the town ranked third to Sudanese towns. Variably, according to censuses of the years 1983, 1993 and 2008, number of population reached 144802, 211962 and about 369817 persons respectively (Central Bureau of Statistics, Khartoum, 2012).
Hot and rainy tropical climate prevails over Wad Medani where temperature reaches the maximum rate in April, May and June while its high average equals 40° in May and the low average is 14° in January. The rainy season begins in May to October when rainfall reaches its highest rate in August with about 12 mm.
Important geographical and historical landmarks:
- Al Sheikh al-Sunni Dome in which a number of antiquarian sites are found. And there are the railway buildings.
- Ministry of Culture and Information:
The Ministry was opened in early ‘sixties when an information office was opened in the regime of General Ibrahim Abboud.
Radio and Television:
Broadcasting was launched in the ‘sixties from inside offices of culture and information when Radio Medani was linked with the national Radio. On another hand, the foundation stone of the TV was laid down by the then president Ismail Al Azhari in 1968 but TV transmission was opened by President Jaafer Nimeiri in the name of Gezira rural television.
It was inaugurated in 1963 in the era of president Abboud. It is one of the more distinctive theaters in the Sudan.
Regular education had confined to the elementary and intermediate stages till 1946 when Hantoub secondary school was established. However, Wad Medani includes a number of regular, government and private native schools as well as high education institutions like University of Gezira, Holy Quran and Originalization of Sciences, Native University of Wad Medani, Wad Medani College for Medical Sciences and Technology, Abu Bakr Othman College, Wad Medani Technological College and Gezira Technological College (Ministry of Education, 2017).
Wad Medani is the capital of the Gezira State and, as a town, it ranked second to Khartoum. There are a number of hospitals in the town, the important of which are Wad Medani Educational Hospital, Blue Nile Hospital for treatment of tumors and Kidneys Hospital.
Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:
Wad Medani and its suburbs produced many personalities and dignitaries which had impacts on political, economical, social and cultural fields, example of whom are Sheikh Muddathir Al Bushi, first Minister of Justice after independence of Sudan, Sayyed Abdallah Abdel Rahman Nugdallah and Professor Zubeir Bashir Taha.
The sheikhs of the town are Al Tayeb Babikir Bashir Abu Qanala, Al Gaili Al Hassan Salah and Ahmed Al Tayeb Ahmed Mansour.
Umdas: the Umdas of the town are Mohammed Saied Mohammed Al Amin and Al Haj Ali Hassan Abu Qurut.
Singers are Ibrahim Al Kashif, Al Khair Othman, Abdel Aziz Al Mubarak, Mohammed Al Amin, Abu Araki Al Bakheet, Ali al-Sigaid, Isam Mohammed Nour and Mahgoub Othman.
Wad Medani sportsmen are Ismail Al Jak Riziq, Faisal Abdallah Al Kuri, Ahmed Al Bashir Mohammed Bakheet and Khalid Abdallah Shimmat.
Poets of the town are Ali Al Massah, Kabbashi Hassuna, Jamal Abdel Rahim and Medani al-Nakhli.
The Nazir in Wad Medani is Yusuf Jameel Al Imam (Bihairi, 2014).
Su’ad Mohammed Al Amin and Awatif Sir Al Khatim are both TV female producers in Wad Medani.
Both Asmaa Mohammed Ali Ziyada and Batul Siddig Gumaa are female physicians of the town.
Neighbourhoods of the town:
Town of Wad Medani consists of numerous neighbourhoods which are as follows:
Hai Al Madaniyin, Aal-Hai al-Sudani, Hai al-Muneera, Hai al-Gamaa, Hai al-Zamalik, Hai al-Matar, Hai al-Dibagha, Hai Gazirat al-Feel, Hai Wad Azraq, Hai Banatt, Hantoub, Gabaruna, the TV Quarter, Hai al-Mazad, Hai Dardiq, Hai Shendi Fuq, Hai al-Buhuth al-Zira’iya, Al Nishaishiba, Al Daraja, Al Safa, Wad Kannan, Al ‘Ishair, Al Bustan, al-Hilla al-Jadeeda, Al Mansura, Al Farouq, Hillat Rudwan, Hillat Mahgoub, Al Waha, Gishlaq al-Police, Al Abbasiya, Al Riyadh, Mayu Nus, Barakat, Atra, Marinjan, Hillat Hassan, Awudha, Habeeb Allah, Arkawit, Hai al-Muwathafin, Al Sikka Hadeed, Hai Mayu, Hai Nasir, Hillat Al Makki, Al Galaa, Umm Sunut, Hai Al Kiraiba and Mayu Taraf (Al Fatih, 2017).
Town of Wad Medani includes a number of main roads and sub-roads, the important of which are the following: the Nile Street, along which most public institutions are located, al-Gamhuriya Street, One Way Street, Health Insurance Street and Al Daraja Street.
It lies 70 km away from and south of Wad Medani at the highway that links Sennar with Khartoum. This town is characterized by its boundary location between States of Sennar and Gezira.
There are multiple stories about the etymology of the word “Wad Al Haddad” but the more famous tale had it that the name referred to a man who used to practice blacksmithing in the area and that his son was “Wad Al Haddad”, i.e. son of the Blacksmith (field work, 2017).
Emergence and development of Wad Al Haddad:
The date when Wad Al Haddad was emerged is unknown but it likely began as a small village near its present location. Then, when it was relocated to its current site, it experienced some development, particularly when railways and Wad Medani—Sennar highway arrived to it. helpfully, its geographical location contributed to its development and prosperity given that the town is located between Sennar to the south and Wad Medani to the north (Ibid).
Wad Al Haddad is an agricultural town as it is located at margins of the Gezira Scheme. So, most inhabitants of the town practice irrigated and rain-fed agriculture where the town is famous for production of agricultural crops, especially maize, legumes like cowpea and oil crops such as sesame and groundnuts in addition to vegetables and some fruits like banana and citrus (field work, 2017).
Some inhabitants of the town practice pastoral activity besides cultivation. Here, natural grazing lands and agricultural residues encouraged rearing of cattle, the products of which can meet the town requirements of milks, meats and other animal products (Ibid).
Town of Wad Al Haddad is a trade center, having active trade movement as the town supplies Wad Medani and other towns with agricultural products and livestock the same way it delivers consumer commodities and other services for satellite villages of Wad Al Haddad administrative unit (field work, 2017).
There is a group of tribes in Wad Al Haddad where these tribes were melted in each other to create the social structure of the town. These tribes include the Kawahla, Mahas, Bidairiya, Ahamda and West African tribes, particularly Fallata and Hausa (Ibid).
Geographical and historical landmarks:
Wad Al Haddad includes a number of geographical and historical landmarks, the important of which are the following:
Wad Al Haddad Souk:
Wad Al Haddad Souk is one of oldest souks in south of Gezira State where it serves most villages in the south of the State. Even the domain of its delivered services includes some villages of Sennar State. The souk is characterized by a good trade movement and a center for trade of agricultural crops, livestock and other commercial goods (field work, 2017).
Faris technological college:
Faris technological college was established in 2015 under a decision taken by Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. In the vicinity, the college delivers to the local community some services of scientific courses for officials in the area. Furthermore, the college includes a center for community development and another one for memorization of the Quran (Ibid).
Sheikh Abdel Bagi Mohammed Al Amin Mosque:
This mosque is one of landmarks of Wad Al Haddad where it is built near the souk at Wad Medani—Sennar highway. As well, a khalwa for teaching the Holy Quran and Quranic jurisprudence is added to the mosque. To this khalwa, students from south Gezira locality and neighbouring areas rush down while the mosque is playing an apparent social role as inhabitants of Wad Al Haddad and neighbouring villages gather in it on different occasions (field work, 2017).
Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:
The following some of dignitaries and personalities of the town:
- Sheikh Abdel Bagi Mohammed Al Amin: he is one of leaders in teaching the Holy Quran and its jurisprudence.
- Abdel Raf’I Al Amin: he is one of the known personalities in the town of Wad Al Haddad and ophthalmologist in Al Walidaiyn Hospital in Khartoum.
- Al Sheikh Ahmed Bashir: He is one of sheikhs and notables of Wad Al Haddad, a.k.a. Wad Abu Janna.
Neighbourhoods of the town:
The town of Wad Al Haddad includes a number of quarters which are Al Mahas, Al Bidairiya, Al Diwaihiya and Al Dubasin.
Important roads in Wad Al Haddad:
- Wad Medani—Sennar highway: this national road was changed into an internal road passing through the middle of the town and around which different trade activities are centered.
- al-Nus Road: it is one of the internal and more active roads in Wad Al Haddad.
Town of Al Hasaheesa lies south of the national capital and north of Wad Medani, at the left bank of the Blue Nile River, at the intersection of latitude 14˚ 37´ N with longitude 33˚ 23´ E. It is located in the Gezira flat plain where its surface elevation is about 400 meters above sea level (Othman, 2008). Al Hasaheesa is about 121 km away from Khartoum (75 miles) and 46 km (28 miles) away from Wad Medani.
The town of Al Hasaheesa is bordered by Wad Habbuba rural area to the north, by Al Masallamiya rural area to the south, by Tabat rural area to the west and by the Blue Nile to the east. In the neighbourhood, there is the Friendship Factory to the north of the town while to the west there is the major canal of the Gezira Scheme (locally called Kanar) extending from north to south for 3.5 km long and from east to west for about 2 km (Ni’mat, 2008). The area of the town is about 4274 square km.
Emergence and development of Al Hasaheesa:
Al Hasaheesa emerged as a small village when Faki Al Zain and his clan came from the Dubasin area and settled at the place now lying east of Al Hasaheesa hospital, and later he moved to what is today known as Al Hai al-Sharqi.
The town likely emerged in the period of Khalifa Abdallah al-Ta’aishi, in the late 19th century, when it was chosen to be a mowrada, i.e. watering place, at which maize had been collected and carried to Omdurman. Later, erection of the maize sieve helped widen trade activity and, on another hand, establishment of the souk and extension of the railway gradually expanded the town and increased the number of its inhabitants. In addition to being a trade town, Al Hasaheesa was lent an administrative status since 1918 when Al Masallamiya merkez was relocated to it. As well, an elementary school, hospital, post and telegraph offices were established in the town ( Ali, 2006).
On inauguration of the Gezira Scheme in 1925, the town had developed when scutchers and workshops of maintenance of agricultural machinery were established. Then, the souk flourished and traders came to the town from northern Sudan along with manpower and, accordingly, the Fur Quarter was built to accommodate workers besides Hai Karima in 1940. During the period 1940—1970, new quarters emerged like Hai al-Hilla al-Jadeeda, Hai al-Maiquma and Hai al-Umda. Moreover, in the early ‘fifties of last century, the southern industrial area was established to contain different crafts such as mechanics, blacksmithing and carpentry, etc. Also, in this period, schools of different educational stages had expanded while, in 1963, Al Hasaheesa hospital was opened (Ali, 2006).
As of the year 1970 to date, the town has experienced operation of the northern industrial area which was launched by the Friendship Factory for spinning and weaving in 1975 which was followed by a number of factories like flour and food oils, etc. then, a number of neighbourhoods were planned, for example Hai al-Mazad, Hai al-Imtidad and Hai Arkawit along with asphalting of roads in 1984. Meanwhile, administrative boundaries of the town extended to take in both villages of al-Dhaqala and Wad Al Kamil sharq (Ali, 2006).
The more important economic activities practiced by inhabitants in Al Hasaheesa are presented by the following:
Town of Al Hasaheesa has some advantages that rendered the town an important trade center. However, the following are some of these advantages:
- The location of the town in relation to the Gezira Scheme because it is located at the heart of the Scheme and, accordingly, the town became important for marketing most agricultural products produced in the Scheme whether they are cash crops or food crops.
- The town is surrounded by a big group of villages belonging to rural areas and localities.
- The town represents a center for many necessary products required by the citizen such as soap, food oils, and clothes.
- At the general level, the town is commercially linked with grand towns in the country (field work, 2017).
Agriculture is one of the secondary activities to the town but it is a main occupation for the locality inhabitants, particularly in the middle of it where irrigated agriculture is dominant. Here, lands are characterized by high fertility where crops of groundnuts, cotton, wheat, maize and sorghum in addition to a seasonal kind of agriculture long the Nile called juruf (Ibid).
Originally, the area was a pastoral district when the founder of Al Hasaheesa, Faki Al Zain, had practiced this occupation and he especially came to the area seeking for grazing land. Alternatively, some inhabitants rear domestic animals. Also, there is the Hasaheesa souk of cattle to which traders come down from neighbouring areas. According to estimates of Al Hasaheesa locality (2005), numbers of animals in the locality were as follows:
- 2500 heads of cows.
- 2920 heads of sheep.
- 8534 heads of goats.
- 53 heads of camels.
- 201 heads of horses.
There are a number of ingredients of industry in Al Hasaheesa such as the capital, in private and public sectors, raw materials, souks for propagation and buy-off of products, easy getting of raw materials which are unavailable in the town, accessible manpower in the town where this workforce help multiply industries whose number exceeded twenty factories, besides light industries and handicrafts. These industries, an example of which is the Friendship Factory for textiles, contribute to the national income (Ibid).
Headed by Sheikh Ali Al Zain, the Dubasin was the first tribe which lived in Al Hasaheesa and, therefore, it is considered as the mother tribe and the Dubasin members are as the original inhabitants of the town (Al Hasaheesa information office, 2017). Then, multiple tribes moved to the town, for example the Halawin, Danagla, Shaigiya, Ja'alin, Mahas, Halfawiyin in addition to tribes coming from southern Sudan and others from western Sudan, particularly the Fur tribe which founded a quarter named after it, i.e. Hai al-Fur, and some tribes from Nuba Mountains (al-Miri, al-Kafeer, al-Kadaru and al-Anqula).
Geographical landmarks in the town:
The town includes a number of the following important geographical landmarks:
The railway, Friendship Factory for textile, the Hasaheesa--Rufaa Bridge, Education Faculty, University of Gezira, Al Hasaheesa souk with its various goods and green beaches of the Nile (field work, 2017).
Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:
Personalities of the town are Mustafa Sied Ahmed (singer), Abdel Muniem Haseeb (singer), Talal Dafa’allah (Poet), Mutasim Jaafer (sportsman), Malik Jaafer (sportsman), Al Mansuri family members (musicians) and Azhari Mohammed Ali (poet).
Famous neighbourhoods of the town:
Housing quarters in Al Hasaheesa are divided into different levels as there are the first class neighbourhoods like Hai Al Kamil and Expatriates Quarter while second class neighbourhoods are Hai al-Umda and Hai Karima. The rest of quarters are categorized as the third class neighbourhoods such as Hai al-Fur, al-Hilla al-Jadeeda and Hai Kambu al-Mahalij (labourer housing) while quarters lying west of Gezira are classified as shelters of emergency housing (field work, 2017).
Al Hasaheesa more important quarters are al-Hai al-Sharqi, Hai al-Muwathafin, Hai al-sujun, al-Dagala, Arkawit, al-Myquma, al-Rahmaniya, Wad al-Kamil Sharq, al-Hilla al-Jadeeda, al-Gamalounat, al-Mahalij, al-Fur, al-Kurmuk, al-Mazad, Wad al-Kamil Gharb, al-Imtidad, al-Awsat, Karima, al-Umda and al-Sadaqa (Ibid).
Town of Al Kamleen is located at the intersection of the latitude 15° 23´ North with the longitude 33˚ 11´ East in a low area at the bend and left bank of the Blue Nile. The town lies on the highway of Khartoum—Medani with 98 km away from and south of Khartoum (Hassan, D.T).
Regarding etymology of the word “Kamleen”, legends vary as some stories say that the name “Kamneen” was found in the structure of the old religious sermon and even the name was mentioned in the genealogical tree of al-Sheikh Al Siddig and in MacMichael’s memoirs. On his part, the French traveler, Charles Jacques Poncet, wrote it as “Kameen” while Numu wrote it as “Al Kameen” (Al Siddig, Structure of Old Sermon). Again, MacMichael saw that etymology of the word was derived from the Arabic verb “kamana, yakmunu” which means “lie in wait” and it was such named due to its multiple sights seen from afar because it is located at the bend of the River (the traveler, Abu Nasiba’s memoirs). On another hand, some tellers assumed that the area had been an ambush place for bandits who used to ensconce themselves at the khor which lies north of Al Kamleen and, through time, the name “Kamneen” was corrupted to “Kamleen” where the letter “N” was replaced by “L” (Tusu’s memoirs).
Emergence and development of Al Kamleen:
Al Kamleen had been a capital of the Blue Nile Province till 1902 when the capital of the Province was transferred to town of Wad Medani. From the beginning, arranged settlement in Al Kamleen had not been without reason as there were advantageous circumstances rendered people immigrated to this town or area in which socio-economic and security factors of settlement were available. However, first citizens made of Al Kamleen an ever appropriate town where they created a stable agricultural area with permanent schemes, out of which Al Kamleen agricultural scheme came to light and attracted farmers who settled in the area. As well, there is cultivation of juruf along the beach of the Blue Nile. Advantageously, the location of the town at the Blue Nile beach attracted citizens from different areas to come down to work, produce and settle in the area and, thus, numbers of population increased (Hassan, 2017).
The social structure of the town consists of a mixture of the local and incoming tribes, the important of which are the Shaigiya, Ja'alin, Magharba and Danagla, the four of which are the biggest tribes. Additionally, there are the Basateen, Egyptians, Turks besides the Nuba, Fallata and some Nilotic tribes. These tribes were melted in each other to form social, civic and cultural structure of the town. As to number of population of the town in the years 1973 and 1983, it was 8772 persons and 9241 persons respectively (Ibid).
Inhabitants of Al Kamleen deal with multiple economic activities, the important of which are the following:
- Trade: here, the good site helps prosper the trade movement in the town, particularly trade of crops and fruits. Also, the town represents a trade center for neighbouring villages.
- Agriculture: a part of inhabitants of Al Kamleen and its suburbs deal with agriculture in the Gezira Scheme or at banks of the Nile where cotton, vegetables and fruits are cultivated. Some inhabitants deal with pasturing and rearing animals or they work in public institutions or service sector in addition to professional and vocational private sector and entrepreneurships.
Important geographical landmarks:
Town of Al Kamleen includes the following important geographical landmarks:
- Al Kamleen souk.
- Al Kamleen ferry boat which links the town with eastern vicinities.
- The Nile and fruit orchards around it, particularly mango and citruses.
- Buildings of educational sciences college (arts), University of Gezira (field work, 2017).
The following are the khalwas founded during different times in the town:
- Al Sheikh Abdel Raziq al-Gaali’s khalwa (founded in 1887).
- Al Sheikh Mohammed Ali Abu Fadl’s khalwa (since 1874).
- Al Sheikh Mohammed Al Amin ibn Al Sheikh Ahmed Suwar al-Dahab’s khalwa (founded since 1895) – (Hassan, 2017).
First elementary school for boys was established in 1902 at the current site of the veterinary hospital. As well, a number of universities were established, for example University of Gezira (educational sciences college), after which a number of colleges were opened like Holy Quran College, Al Kamleen Native College and Open University of Sudan.
In this regard, social, cultural, administrative, intellectual, political and religious life produced prominent personae such as emir Nasr al-Din al-Jumlini, emir Idris Haroun and Nour al-Din effendi in addition to religious reformists, for example Al Sheikh Mohammed Al Amin ibn Al Sheikh Ahmed Suwar al-Dahab and Al Sheikh Mohammed Ali Abu Fadl with the educated man, Abu Othman Jagur (Mustafa, Towns and Landmarks).
Neighbourhoods of the town:
The following are the quarters of the town: Hai al-Basateen, Al Safa, al-Rayyan, al-Ma’mura, al-Sahwa, al-Wifaq, al-Rashad, al-Dawha, southern quarters and Hai al-Firdus.
Here, no specific names for roads except for al-Ingaz Street and al-Zaiem al-Azhari Street (field work, 2017).
Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:
The following are examples of notables of the town:
- D. Abdel Mutaal Zain al-Abdeen, lecturer of Philosophy in University of Khartoum.
- Zahra al-Turabi, a female leader in field of education.
- Hafiz Hasanain (owner of a college and schools).
- Mohammed Othman Hamza (one of the town notables).
- Abdallah Nabaq (one of the town notables).
The dominant names of men and women are those of Heavenly missionaries, prophets, the Prophet Mohammed’s companions and righteous Awliya.
Town of Rufaa is located at the intersection of the latitude 15° North with the longitude 33˚ 15´ East. It is seven kilometers away from Al Hasaheesa and bordered by the Blue Nile to the south, by Rufaa rural villages overlooking on the Blue Nile to the west, by Gineid Sugar Scheme to the north while, to the east, the Butana flat plain lays inside Rufaa rural area at Banat village.
Emergence and development of Rufaa:
History of Rufaa dates back to the 17th century, about 1608, in the era of the Black Sultanate (Al Saltana al-Zarqa) when the town was founded by tribes of Rufa’iyin after which the town is named and also by Shkriyya. As well, natural and human factors contributed to emergence and development of Rufaa, for instance fertility of soil which helped herders and farmers settle and practice farming and pasturing.
At the beginning, the town emerged unplanned but, when expanded, the town was planned when planning involved 4000 persons distributed over 3000 plots of land in addition to 2000 plots as a supplement of the housing plan (Al Hassan, n.d.).
Natural conditions effectively determines the overriding type of human activity where natural and human aspects are dovetailed to define such activities like agriculture, pasturing, industry, trade and other services and occupations sector.
Agriculture is the more important activity where the ratio of the inhabitants dealing with farming is about 28.2% of the total population of the town. In Rufaa, agricultural lands are divided into the two following parts:
- Nile lands (orchards and gardens): these lands are irrigated by pumps and agricultural crops like vegetables, maize, cowpea, millet, animal fodder (clover) and fruit trees are cultivated.
- Rain-fed lands: they are lands of the area lying between town of Rufaa and both villages of Banat and al-Tarajma. This land is cultivated with maize.
Pasturing is one of activities practiced in town of Rufaa where the more important animals reared in the town are goats, cows, sheep and horses.
There are light industries and handicrafts in the town such as industries of food oils and soap along with big numbers of workshops (Khadiga, 2008).
There are a number of tribes in Rufaa like Rufa’iyin, Quasma, Rikabiya, Fadniya, Shaigiya, Magharba, Halawin, Shukriyya, Mahas, Ja'alin, all of which represent the majority of the population as names of these tribes are lent to their quarters in the town. Also, there are other tribes in the town.
Regarding number of population, Rufaa ranked first in Sharq al-Gezira district (Al Butana) as, according to population censuses of 1993 and 2008, the number of its inhabitants reached 25.418 persons and 42.370 persons respectively. Clearly, the inhabitants are concentrated in the town where population density gets high owing to available services of water, health, education and security.
Important historical landmarks of the town:
The important monuments in the town are the Khalifa Ali Old Mosque and Naamiya Palace.
Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:
Examples of dignitaries of the town are Sheikh Awad Al Karim Abu Sin, Sheikh Mohammed Ahmed Abu Sin, Sheikh Babikir Badri, Ahmed Ali Jabir, Nafisa Awad Al Karim, ustaz Mahmoud Mohammed Taha, Mohammed Taha Al Nasri, Sheikh Hayati Al Sheikh Hamad’s family members, Lutfi’s family members and Al Sharif Abu Al Qasim Bannaqa.
Famous neighbourhoods of the town:
There are a number of the planned housing quarters in Rufaa where they were inhabited by incoming throngs of tribes to the town. The important quarters are Daim Lutfi, Daim al-Wasat, al-Zahraa, Wad al-Shain, al-Bayan, al-Qubbatan, al-Shaigiya, al-Halaba, al-Zaidab, al-Hisainab, al-Mustashfa, al-Ashlaq, Daim al-Awad, al-Hilla al-Jaddeda, Ansar al-Sunna, al-Shuhadaa and al-Fadniya (field work, 2017).
The following are roads of the town: Rufaa—Al Hasaheesa Street, the Souk Street and Hospital Street.
The dominant names of men and women are those of Heavenly missionaries, prophets, the Prophet Mohammed’s companions and righteous Awliya (Ibrahim, Mohammed, Ahmed, Mustafa, Aisha, Fatima, Zainab and other names).
Town of Al Haj Abdallah lies in the south of the Gezira State, at the western bank of the Blue Nile and half distance between Wad Medani and Sennar.
The name of the town is attributed to Al Sharif Al Haj Abdallah ibn Al Sharif Mohammed ibn Al Sharif who came to Sudan in the 16th century during the Funj Sultanate and lived in this area (Al Amin, 2016).
Emergence and development:
Emergence of the town is historically unknown, yet most legends say that it started as a small village at the Nile banks. On the launch of the Gezira Scheme in 1925, the British government drew up some administrative units of the Scheme in the tow. When railways were extended, Al Haj Abdallah became one of the important railway stations in Central Sudan. later, two projects helped the town become prosperous, the first of which is Al Haj Abdallah spinning factory which attracted manpower from different parts of Sudan and the second project is the land highway (Khartoum—Medani—Sennar) which passes through Al Haj Abdallah. Nowadays, the town is considered as an administrative and service center and a capital of the South Gezira locality.
Like other towns of Gezira State, Sudan different tribes are mixed in Al Haj Abdallah, for example the Shukriyya, Kawahla, West Africa tribes, Al Ahamda, Al Danagla and Al Arakiyin (Abdel Karim, 2012).
Inhabitants of Al Haj Abdallah practice a number of economic activities, examples of which are the following:
Both rain-fed and irrigated types of agriculture are practiced as the town is located in the middle of agricultural domain characterized by fertile flat arable lands. In this regard, Al Haj Abdallah is famous for production of cotton, maize, oil crops like groundnuts, sunflower, legume of lentil, cowpea and chickpeas in addition to different vegetables.
It represents one of economic activities practiced by some inhabitants of the town where residue of harvested agricultural crops and pastures help provide fodder for rearing animals and, thus, the town needs of milks, meats and other animal products are met.
There are some light manufacturing industries in the town of Al Haj Abdallah such as spinning factory where there is Al Haj Abdallah spinning factory which was established in 1981, Al Haj Abdallah ice factory which provides ice for South Gezira and Sennar in addition to some food oils squeezers and blacksmithing workshops.
Town of Al Haj Abdallah has active trade movement all through the year. In this concern, the following factors have contributed to prosperity of trade activity in the town:
- The geographical location of the town,
- Diverse agricultural and animal products and other commodities.
- The town good communication with neighbouring villages and vicinities.
Geographical and historical landmarks:
The following are the famous are geographical and historical landmarks in the town of Al Haj Abdallah:
Al Haj Abdallah spinning factory:
It is one of the prominent geographical landmarks in the town and located north of the town souk. The factory was established in 1981 to provide the spun cotton for textile factories in Shendi, Kosti and AL Duweim. Though the factory had once employed about 1182 workers, socio-economic life of the town has depressingly been impacted by the retreat of the factory owing to deterioration of industry of textile in the Sudan.
Al Haj Abdallah souk:
Al Haj Abdallah souk is one of the biggest markets in the South Gezira area and more active because of the wide geographical tract served by the souk and also due to the populated area.
This souk was traditionally started with small gatherings of traders where basic needs of the town and neighbourhood are sold, i.e. consumer commodities and vegetables and fruits. Henceforth, the souk has gradually developed according to development of economic activity and the change of social status of population on the emergence of the Gezira Scheme. So, the building look of the souk was changed from local building materials (thatch, wood and sacks) into a souk built with permanent materials (red brick and cement). In early ‘eighties, the souk witnessed a real prosperity when the land highway, linking Wad Medani with Sennar through Al Haj Abdallah was asphalted. Along with its economic job, Al Haj Abdallah souk has got a social significance as it promotes the social structure and strengthens linkages of the town and neighbouring areas (Haju, 2009).
Al Haj Abdallah railway station:
This station is one of oldest and more important stations in the Sudan. The station had played an important part in transport sector during the period of British colonization when agricultural produced crops of the Gezira Scheme and neighbouring areas, particularly cotton, had been transported through it. Regrettably, on building of the land road of Medani—Sennar and deterioration of agricultural production in the Gezira Scheme, the role of the station has generally declined.
The following are the famous quarters in town of Al Haj Abdallah:
- Hai Al Makkawi.
- Hai ‘Amarat Al Haj Abdallah.
- Hai Hillat Dafa’allah.
- Hai Abu Sagra
- Hai maktab Sab’i Dalaib.
Examples of dignitaries and personalities:
Dafa’allah Babikir Ali: one of the notables of Al Haj Abdallah, he is the caliph of sajadat Al Sheikh Al Sharif Al Haj Abdallah, i.e. a Sufi carpet with spiritual significance. He graduated in Hantoub high school and had for long worked as a teacher of intermediate schools in South Gezira locality. Moreover, he has social and religious contributions.
Famous roads in the town:
The following are the famous roads in the town of Al Haj Abdallah:
- The road linking Sennar with Wad Medani while passing through Al Haj Abdallah.
- Al-Souk road: it crosses Wad Medani—Sennar highway and links the souk with government institutions.
Famous names (designations):
The following are the famous designations in the town of Al Haj Abdallah:
Names of men are: Abdallah, Al Sharif, Mohammed, Al Makkawi, Ahmed and Ali.
Names of women are: Fatima, Zainab, Sumayya, Batul, Safaa and Saadiya.
Al Managil is located in the middle of the Gezira State in Central Sudan, at 412 meters (135 feet) above sea level. It is 62 km or 38.5 miles away from Wad Medani and it is one of the greatest industrial towns in the Sudan as it lies in the middle agricultural scheme carrying the same name of the town, namely Agricultural Extension of Al Managil Scheme.
It is said that name of Al Managil is derived from the word “manajil, sing. manjil” which means sovereigns or rulers as those sovereigns used to meet from time to time at the place where Al Managil is now located and issued their official decrees with a stamp on which the word “manjil” is engraved. Also, another interpretation had it that the word is derived from a popular play of central Sudan called “mangala” and that the area was such called because it had consisted of numerous furqan “singular fareeq”, i.e., make-shift hamlets, which were geographically close to each other in a way similar to pieces of the mangala play. Another story says that the town was such named because its people had often shifted from place to place (field work, 2017).
Emergence and development of Al Managil:
Town of Al Managil has grown and developed on the establishment of Al Managil agricultural scheme as an extension of Gezira scheme in the late ‘fifties of last century. The area of Al Managil agricultural extension, then estimated to be about million feddans, was cultivated with cotton as a main crop in addition to maize, groundnuts, vegetables and wheat. This had positively impacted socio-economic situations of the scheme district in general and Al Managil and its suburbs in particular where factories related to agricultural production were established and service sector developed. Thus, these factories attracted workforces due to available labour opportunities and waves of immigration from Gezira and the rest of Sudan areas began rushing into the area. With these newcomers, the town grew and new quarters were built to accommodate the new immigrants and, therefore, Al Managil has become one of the more important towns of the Gezira (field work, 2017).
Before establishment of agricultural extension of Al Managil scheme, economic activity had depended on rain-fed agriculture in autumn. But, on the establishment of the scheme, this activity diversified to include irrigated agriculture, trade and industry related to agricultural products, particularly industries of food oils, tahini and grinding of grains (field work, 2017).
Mostly, inhabitants of Al Managil consists of the Rufa’iyin, namely the Arakiyin, Kenana, Kawahla, Bidairiya, Rufaa, Masallamiya, Ja'alin and Funj besides great numbers of other tribes which rushed to it to bridge the gap of manpower when Extension of Al Managil Scheme was established (field work, 2017).
Examples of the town dignitaries and personalities:
Town of Al Managil produced many dignitaries and public personalities, for example the following persons:
- Dhiyaa al-Din Bilal, editor-in-chief of Al Sudani newspaper.
- Abdel Mageed Abdel Raziq, a journalist.
- Mirghani Abu Shanab, a journalist.
- Al Khatim Adlan, politician and journalist.
- Kamil Abdel Magid, a poet.
- Al Fatih Izz el Din Mansour, a former State Minister of Federal Ministry of Agriculture.
- Widad Babikir, wife of the President of the Republic.
- Al Sheikh Wad Al Bahar (religious leader).
- Ahmed Mohammed Dafa’allah (businessman).
- Al Hilali family members (a known family).
Neighbourhoods of the town:
the following are the quarters of the town: Al-Mazad (blocks 15, 16 and 17), Rufaa, Wad Nifai’, Al Kalakla and al Dasees, Kashkush, Wad Al Masllami, Hayyaruna, Ghiraigana, al-Sha’biya and al-Muhafiz.
The roads of the town are al-Souk street, Hospital Street, al-Dasees Street and Dakatra Street.
- Factories (food industries).
- The grand souk.
- People souk.
- Kosti stop parking souk.
- Al Managil educational hospital.
- Al Managil secondary school of girls.
- Al Managil secondary school of boys.
- Animal production college, University of Gezira, as shown in the photo.
- Computer Sciences College.
- University of Al Managil for sciences and technology.
Photo 39: Animal Production College—University of Gezira
Source: field work, 2017
The dominant names of men and women are those of Heavenly missionaries, prophets, the Prophet Mohammed’s companions and righteous Awliya, for example names of men are Mohammed, Ahmed, Al Dasees, Al Tiraifi, Al Mukashfi, Dafa’allah, and Abdel Bagi. As to names of women, they are Fatima, Aisha, Taiba, Amna, Haleema, Kaltum, Al Surra, Ghayat ‘Al Muna and Al Taya (field work, 2017).
- Abu Al Bashar, Sir Al Khatim Ahmed Al Mu’min (2007): Book, ‘Alam min al-Sudan, shakhsiyyat Barawiyya, i.e. Dignitaries from Sudan, Bara Personalities, Khartoum.
- Abu Hajar, Amna Ibrahim (2002): Encyclopedia of Arab Towns, Usama House for publication and distribution.
- Ahmed Ilyas Hussein and others: Saukin of History, Civilization and Global Interactions, Merkez al-Tanweer al-Maarifi, Khartoum.
- Ahmed, Abbas Al Tahir (2004): Book, Features from Town of Al Ubayyid, ed. (321—2004).
- Burckhardt, on his visit to Shendi, 1814.
- Burckhardt, Visit to Nubia, London, 1987.
- Khojali, Abdel Gadir Khalifa (2003): Book, Town of Al Ubayyid and History, Kordofan House for printing and publishing.
- Al Sammani, Mohammed Othman (2007): Book, Umm Ruwaba, Rajaa ‘Assada wa Da’watan, i.e. Umm Ruwaba, Re-echoing and two Invitations, ed. (558/2007).
- Choucair, Naoum (2007): Book, Gughrafiyat wa Tarikh al-Sudan, i.e. Geography and History of Sudan, dar al-Thagafa, Beirut, Lebanon.
- Choucair, Naoum (1972): Book, Gughrafiyat wa Tarikh al-Sudan, i.e. Geography and History of Sudan, Dar al-Thagafa, Beirut, Lebanon.
- Choucair, Naoum (1981): Tarikh al-Sudan, i.e. History of Sudan, verified an introduced by D. Mohammed Ibrahim Abu Salim, Dar Al Jeel for publication, Beirut.
- Shaikhu, Ali Yusuf Adam Ibrahim (2016): Malamih min Tarikh wa Turath Al Maidub, i.e. Features from History and Heritage of Al Maidub, Khartoum University Press, Sudan.
- Al Sadiq, Salah Omer (2008): Dirasat Sudaniyya fi al-Siyaha, i.e. Sudanese Studies on Tourism, Al Sharif Academic Library for publishing and distribution, Khartoum.
- Al Tayeb Mohammed Al Tayeb (1991): Book, al Maseed, ed. 1, Khartoum University Press.
- Abdallah Al Tayeb, Asdaa al-Nil, i.e. Echoes of the Nile (poetry diwan), 5th edition, Khartoum University Press.
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- Al Gaddal, Mohammed Saied (1992): Book, Tarikh al-Sudan al-Hadith (1820—1955), i.e. Modern History of Sudan, Al Amal Printing and Publishing Press Co., Khartoum.
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- Madibbu, Saied Siddig Hamid (2014): Book, Tarikh Madinat al-Ubayyid (1821—1956), i.e. History of Al Ubayyid Town.
- Mohammed Abbaker Suleiman and Ali Abbaker Suleiman (1988): Al Zaghawa, Madhi wa Hadhir, i.e. Al Zaghawa, Past and Present, Kuwait Press.
- Mohammed Al Tahir Bashir (2015): Gabasat min Turath Al Zaghawa, i.e. Gleams from Zaghawa Heritage, al Maktaba al-Wataniya, Sudan.
- Misbah, Tariq (2016): adhwa ala al-Hamish, lamha tarikhiya ‘an Madinat Bara, i.e. Shedding Lights on the Margin, a Historical Glance from Town of Bara (Ireland).
- Henry Cecil Jackson (1926), Abu Hamad District and its inhabitants of Rubatab and Manasir.
- Yahia Mohammed Ibrahim, Book, Tarikh al-Ta’alim al-Dini fi al-Sudan, i.e. History of Religious Education in the Sudan, 1st ed. Lebanon.
- Abbaker, Ayub Mukhtar Mohammed (2013), Urban Expansion and its impact on Services in Town of Singa, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.
- Ahmed, Ghada Al Jaili Haseeb (2000): Spatial Relationships of Town of Shendi, an unpublished Ms Thesis.
- Adam, Hassan Abbaker Abdel Gayum, a personal interview (2017): Town of Kabkabiya, North Darfur State.
- Adam, Ali Yusuf (1980): Some Features of Maidub History—a research presented for Honours Degree in History, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.
- Bashir Kuku Hummaida (1971): Profiles of the Magazeeb History, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.
- Bashir, Amani Yusuf (2011): a Study about Initial Studies for Documentation and Histories of Sudanese Towns-- University of Khartoum.
- Al Haj, Mohammed Yahia Ahmed (2005): Functional changes and their Impacts on Urban Structure.
- Al Hassan, Al Siddig Al Imam Mohammed: a Study on Geography of Towns (Town of Rufaa), unpublished PhD thesis, Al-Neelain University.
- Hussein, Hammad Ahmed Al Dhawi (2008): Rural Immigration to Town of Bara, Ms Thesis, University of Khartoum.
- Salim, ahmed Ibrahim mohammed (2013): Obstacles of Urban Growth in Town of El Fasher, 1980—2012, unpublished Ms Thesis, Al Zaiem Al Azhari University.
- Saaduk, Amal Al Tayeb Abdallah (2008): Impact of Socio-economic Factors on Mortality of Mothers and Babies—Town of kassala in the period (2000—2005), unpublished Ms Thesis, University of Khartoum.
- Salma Al Tayeb, Intisar Sighayrun (2007): Ms Thesis, History of Al Damar, of Significances of Urban Settlement, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology, University of Khartoum.
- Abdel Bagi, Amani Ahmed (1991): Socio-economic Impacts of Labour Redundancy Project in Atbara Railway Corporation, Ms Thesis, University of Khartoum.
- Abdel Hameed, Ismail Ibrahim (2014): Land Uses in Town of Shendi.
- Abdel Karim, Riyadh Adam Abdel Karim (2012): Impact of Socio-economic Factors on Fertility, South Gezira Locality, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum, Complementary Research, Bachelor of Geography.
- Abdel Muniem Ahmed, Ahmed Hamid (2012): Importance of Galaat Shannan Site for Studies of Neolithic in Shendi District, 18 September, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology, University of Shendi.
- Abeer Ramadan Hussein (2004): Archaeological Sources Management in Dongola Region.
- Ali, Hajir Khalid Abdel Rahman Mohammed (2006): Urban Development and Utilization of Land in Town of Al Hasaheesa, unpublished Ms Thesis, Education College, University of Khartoum.
- Fathallah, Muhannad Ahmed (2011): Urban Development for Town of Atbara during the period 1980—2010, Ms Thesis, University of Khartoum.
- Mohammed, Al Tigani Ibrahim Al Dhaw, 2002: Complementary Research for Bachelor Degree, Faculty of Arts, Department of Geography, University of Khartoum.
- Mohammed, Al Mahi Al Sheikh (2011): Geography of Towns Applied on Town of El Fasher, unpublished Ms Thesis, University of El Fasher.
- Haju Abdallah Mohammed (2009): Socio-economic Importance of Al Haj Abdallah Souk, a Complementary Research, Bachelor of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.
Essays and Reports:
- Taj al sir Othman (2014): an article titled Memories from Atbara Railwaymen Club.
- Al Turathi, Jaafer Bamkar.
- Umm Kaddada Locality, North Darfur State, 2017.
- An Article published in the ninth issue of Sudan Notes and Records, translated by Badr al-Din Hamid Al Hashimi.
- Agricultural Planning Office (2017): Town of Kutum, North Darfur State.
- Arab Authority for Agricultural Investment and Development, Kenana Sugar Company (2017).
- Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Planning Management—Kabkabiya Office (2017): Town of Kabkabiya, North Darfur State.
- North Darfur State, Al Tina Locality Headquarters, 2017.
- North Darfur State, Taweela Locality, 2017.
- North Darfur State, Millit Locality, 2017.
- North Darfur State, Millit Locality, Livestock Management, 2017.
- North Darfur State, Millit Locality, Rural Waters Management, 2017.
- North Darfur State, Millit Locality, Agricultural Planning Office, 2017.
- North Darfur State, Ministry of Urban Planning, 2017.
- Abbasher, Ahmed Suleiman (2017: Field Work, Kutum, North Darfur State.
- Ahmed, Al Tigani Al Nour (2017): an Interview, 2017.
- Ahmed, Othman Jalal Mohammed (2017): a Journalist Politician, an Interview.
- Ahmed, Mohammed Suleiman (2017): an Interview about Dignitaries of El Fasher Town.
- Ustaz Khalid Salih Al Haj Adam, town of Millit, an Interview, 2017.
- Nazir Mohammed Al Mansour Al Ajab’s Family, Abu Hasheem, an Interview, February, 2017.
- Nazir Mohammed Al Mansour Al Ajab’s Family, an Interview, March, 2017.
- Anwer Adam Mohammed Imam, Personal Interview (2017), Umm Kaddada, North Darfur State.
- Al Jak, Salah, 2017 (Interview).
- Al Jaili Khidir Mohammed Saghir (2017), one of the town notables and former manager of Bank of Khartoum.
- Hamid Hamad Ibrahim Al Faig (2017): Field Work.
- Hassan Gibreel Esa Mohammed, an Interview on 13/2/2017.
- Hassan Ibrahim Al Haj (2017): Field Work, Kutum, North Darfur State.
- Al Rasheed Makki, Head of Snuff Traders Union, North Darfur State, El Fasher.
- Al Shahir, Mustafa Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, 2017: an Interview.
- Al Shinnawi (2017): Al Rayyah Jaafer, entrepreneurship.
- Al ‘Agib Jubara, a former member of the locality police, an Interview, February, 2017, Town of Al Dindir.
- Al Fadil Adam Ali Mansour, a personal interview (2017), Umm Kaddada, North Darfur State.
- Al Fadil Yusuf, Al Dindir Locality Headquarters, an Interview, February, 2017.
- Al Fadil Yusuf, March, 2017, clerk in Al Dindir Locality Headquarters.
- Al Nour, Al Tuhami Ali (Al TYuhami Babanusa), (2017): correspondent, photographer and documenter of the Miseiriya Heritage, Babanusa Information (Interview).
- Adil Ubaidi (2017), private interview.
- Abdel Azim Al Sa’uri (2017), Interview.
- Abdel Ghaffar Adam Ali Mansour (2017): El Fasher, North Darfur State.
- Abdallah Ali Esa, Direct Interview, 2017.
- Abdallah Mohammed Kabbashi (2017), Par timer in University of Khartoum, a Private Interview.
- Omer Al Nour Nour al-Din, 17/2/2017, an Agricultural Engineer and a Farmer in Town of Al Dali, Al Dali Locality, Sennar State.
- Omer Adlan Al Mak Hassan Adlan, February, 2017, Town of Singa, Singa Locality, Sennar State.
- Omer, Tariq Al Tayeb Harun Ahmed Omer (2017): Assistant Nazir Umum Al Gawamaa (Al Rahad/ Umm Ruwaba/ Umm Dam), Private Interview.
- Mohammed Ahmed Al Kanun (2017), Al Dindir Locality Information, Town of Al Dindir, Al Dindir Locality, Sennar State.
- Mohammed Al Sayyed Al Ni’ma, a notable of the Town, entrepreneurship.
- Mahmoud Hussein Bahr (2017), a Teller of the Maidub Tribe sons.
- Mustafa Al Tigani, an Administrative Officer, North Darfur State, Taweela Locality, 2017.
- Mohammed Hamid, one of Wad Al Haddad Notables, on 10/2/2017.
Articles and reports published in the Internet:
- Data on Climate, Berber, Sudan, in English.
- Development Map of West Kordofan State, 2015, Vol. 2.
- Sudaress, Electronic Searching Machine.
- Wad Al Haddad Souk, an Article published on Al Sahafa Daily on 30/3/2012.
- Ubaid Mohammed Suleiman Al Faki, 2012, an article in al-Tawthiq al-Shamil Journal.
- Mohammed Al Amin Hamid (2016): Articles about Al Sharif Al Haj Abdallah, Al Haj Abdallah website.
- Mohammed Khair Mansour, 2010, an article in al-Tawthiq al-Shamil Journal.
- Towns and Landmarks of Sudan, writings by ‘Ashiq al-Tirhal, Sudan Elite Forums (2012).
- Mansour, Hamid Muniem (2013): Town of Al Nuhud website.
- The Legislative Council—Gezira State (2017).
- Al Maarifa website http://www.marefa.org
- Nour Al Islam (2010): Mustafa, Encyclopedia of al-Tawthiq al-Shamil, Amkina Forum/ September, 2010.
- ^ Berber – Encyclopedia.
- ^ http:\www.theodora.com/encyclopedia/b/berber.html
- http : // alfula .sudanforums.net/
- http:// www.sudaress.com/city/