Non –Timber Forest Products in Sudan

Tue, 17 Oct 2017



 

Dr. Ahmed Hamed Ibrahim El- Faeg

Abstract

This paper analysis and studies the non-timber forest products in Sudan in terms of their concept, geographical distribution, production and domestic and foreign trade. Information has been collected from published  and non-published sources, particularly, the reports of the Forest N ational Corporation, supported by field work for the purpose of documentation of such trees as (Balanite aegyptiaca,  Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus Spp, Acacia, Hyphaene thebaica . Borassus aethiopum Mart, Tamarindus indica). The study adopted the descriptive methodology and the analytic methodology to collect and analyze such data. The study concluded that the non-timber products trees are widespread all over Sudan as the climate and soil are favorable for the growth of these trees, and the non-timber products have a special significance in the Sudanese culture where sixty-seven (67) species are used in medical drugs and eighteen (18) species are used as a source of fodders.  Also, they are used as raw material for rural industries. All parts of these trees have multiple uses, particularly, the bark, the trunk, the leaves and the fruits. They, also, play a major role in the domestic trade, hence, they are considered as an additional source of income for the rural population, especially, to support the incomes of the poor and provide additional job opportunities. The tamarindus indica, adansonia digitata fruits and buckthorn are non-timber products that make up the greater part of the domestic trade of such products, respectively, 35.2%, 18,9% and 9,3%. The exports of non- timber products are estimated by seven million Dollars; exported to Egypt, Jordan and Libya, but recently, production began to decline, especially, the products of adansonia digitata, given that Sudan imported four hundred twenty (420) tons of it from Chad and Nigeria. The study, also, concluded that the distance between production areas and national marketing areas coupled with the backwardness of means of transport in such areas, royalties and taxes imposed on these products and lack of accurate statistics with the official authorities, in addition to the natural factors such as drought, desertification and pests get in the way of the production and promotion of the non- timber products. To address such obstacles, the study proposes  to reduce the royalties and taxes imposed on these products,  connect production areas with modern and effective means of transport, spray these trees with pesticides to get rid of insects, worms and fungus and train the natives on this with the need to involve local communities in the plants of development of this sector.

  • Introduction
  • Geographical Distribution of Non-Timber Products Trees in Sudan
  • Examples of Some Non-timber Products and Their Uses in Sudan
  • Domestic Trade of Non-Timber Trees Products
  • Non-timber products Foreign Trade
  • Conclusion
  • References

Introduction:

Non-timber products are defined as all the items of biological origin.  Non-timer products have a vital role in the life of nations, especially, the fruits, like tamarindus indica, adansonia digitata, Acacia Nilotica, senna, Balanite saegyptiaca, Hyphaene thebaica and Borassus aethiopum Mart and other fruits. You ca, also. Extract oil from non-timber fruits (Beyumi et al, 2001). These products were proven by experiments as important and needed by the world, and they have their own domestic and international markets  (Abdul Magid, 2001).

With the exception of the gum Arabic, non-timber products did not receive adequate study and research, but there are some efforts in form of studies and theses which handled this topic (Beyumi et al, 2001). Among these studies, the study by Maher and El- Doma (1994) provided some information on the uses and marketing of some of these products. Then, this paper studied some non-timber products represented in terminalia chebula, adansonia digitata, tamarindus indica, buckthorn, hyphaene thebacca, acacia nioltica and borassus aethiopum Mart. Among eighteen hundred and thirty (830) species of wood plants, shrubs and climbers registered in Sudan, one hundred and fifty four (1 54) species were found to be of non-timber products, ninety (90) species of them are used in food, drinks and fodder, sixty seven (67) species of them are used in medical drugs and chemical products, eighteen (18) as a source of fodders, nineteen (19) used as raw material for rural industries and handicraft and sixteen (16) species of them have rank in the heritage. Out of these species, ninety four (94) species have been recognized as having a big effect on the lives or people, eighteen species  occupy  a position in the domestic trade of volume of three hundred eighty six (386) million Dinars, while the export volume amounts to six million and nine hundred thousand (6.900.000) American Dollars (Beyumi et al, 2001).

Non-timber products spread over most parts of Sudan which is located between longitudes 21¢48¢ 58¢and 38¢35¢29 east and latitudes 23¢8¢34¢ and 8¢38¢36¢ north in an area of 1882000 klm2, as shown on the map 1, (Sudan Survey Authority, 2015) where soil, terrain and climatic conditions vary, especially, temperature degrees and rainfall and the distribution of such trees are affected by the elements of climate, such as the solar radiation, humidity, winds, heat and rain, combined with the actual value of the rain. (Guda, 1988, Tarih, 1983).

Sudan is located within the northern tropical latitudes (El-Toam and Abdul Rahman 2010). This location made the high temperature degrees a hallmark for all parts of Sudan. In the light of this geographical situation, rains become the most effecting and principal controlling element in determining the vegetable body in terms of type, distribution and density (El-Toam and Abdul Rahman, 1998). The role of rain depends on the value of its quantity and time distribution, consequently, Sudan has been divided into several climatic and vegetable regions, including desert, semi-desert, rich Savanna and poor Savanna where trees become spaced from each other. But, in the desert region, you can find trees and vegetation on the banks of the River Nile or on the edges of some seasonal valleys.

Some environmental and ecological conditions and capacities of some regions where these trees spread, do not meet the nutritional needs of the population. Therefore, most of these trees are used in dry and semi-dry regions to increase the agricultural production and achieve the food security. Some of these trees are part of the environmental protection trees which effectively contribute to the protection of dry and semi-dry lands. They provide a vegetation that is used as animal fodder, (Badr Eldin, 1998).

Acacia trees are the primary focal point of timber and non-timber products of various types and forms that are used in medicine, food, tourism and animal husbandry. Non –timber forest products are the pivot of the domestic and national economy . they are 100% natural. Trees bear fruit and the fruit is eaten directly and the tree is left. For example, vitamin C which is obtainable from little grams of fruits of Adansonia digitata equals the vitamin contained in eleven (11) oranges (Eisa 2011). Also, there are the fruits of Terminalia chebula, tinnas grewia, ziziphus, hyphaene thebaic, tamarindus indica and barossus aethiopum  and they all contain reasonable quantities of  minerals, and there are many forest fruits of nutritional and medicinal weight for many rural people (Eisa, 2011).

 

Geographical Distribution of Non-Timber Products Trees in Sudan

Balanites aegyptiaca:

Balanites aegyptiaca is found in most dry and sub-humid areas all over Sudan (Fogt, 1995) and spreads widely in the areas where rainfall ranges between (200-800mm)

Adansonia digitata:

Adansonia digitata trees spread in Sudan in the states of Greater Kurdofan and some found in South Darfur and Blue Nile State.

Tamarindud indica:

Tamarindud indica trees are found in the southern parts of the central Sudan near creeks and valleys in the areas where rainfall exceeds 500mm (Fogt 1990)

Ziziphus spp:

Sudan is the original home of Ziziphus spp. (Abdul Wahab 1998). It widely spreads in the low lands and near river courses (Fogt, 1995 and Kees, 1995). It, also, spreads in poor Savanna, on river banks, valleys and depressions of light soil in the center and north of Sudan along the River Nile and its tributaries.

Hyphaene thabaic:

Hyphaene thabaic widely spreads in the East, especially, in the regions of Durdaib, Kasala, around Atbara River and North of Sudan. It, also, widely spreads east of the Nile, in the Nubian Regions, south of Abu Hamed in the bottom of the dry valleys, western mountainsides of Red Sea, Gash Delta and the states of Kasala and Blue Nile, and in less numbers in South Kurdofan State.

Acacia nilotica:

Acacia nilotica trees spread all over Sudan in the states of Darfur, Kurdofan, Blue Nile, Kasala, Gadaref, Gazira, Sennar and White Nile where climate is favorable for their growth (Forest National Corporation, 2014). The Acacia nilotica tree grows in alluvial soils and depressions flooded with water, especially, in the central Sudan and on the banks of the river and they produce fruits of Acacia nilotica.

Borassus aethiopum:

Borassus aethiopum growths in the alluvial soil near rivers and valleys in the rich Savanna where rainfall ranges between 500- 1000 mm.  The Borassus aethiopum tree spreads in South Kurdofan ( Nuba Mountains), South Darfur, Blue Nile -South of Sennar, Dinder and Rahad (Forests National Corporation, 2014)

The fruits of these trees are the most famous fruits in the Sudanese towns and countryside, being used in making refreshing drinks like drinks of tamarindus indica and adansonia digitata (Beyumi et al, 2001). Most of these trees are, also, important as animal fodder, especially in Summer, because they are the only source available in the dry season. The capsules of the red Faidherbia albida, fruits and leaves of Acacia seyal are one of the greatest fruits to feed animals (Beyumi et al, 2001)

Examples of Some Non-timber Products and Their Uses in Sudan

Firstly: Terminalia chebula:

Terminalia chebula is produced from the Balanites aegyptiaca tree which is an evergreen tree. Sometimes, its height will be ten meters (Forest National Corporation, 2014). Balanites aegyptiaca trees are thorny trees with yellow flowers (figures 1 and 2).  The number of the seeds amounts to about 800 seeds in one kilogram. The seeds germinate after the second week of planting, but it usually grows in a natural way without cultivation. The seed contains cooking oil of 45% of the weight of the nucleus

 

            

 

Figure 1: Balanites aegyptiaca tree         Figure 2: Balanites aegyptiaca tree

West Kurdofan State                                     West Kurdofan State

Balanites aegyptiaca tree has multiple uses that can be detailed as follows:

  1. The stem is used in manufacturing furniture, as firewood and charcoal
  2. The fruits are eatable
  3. Fruits and leaves are used as fodder for animals, especially, in Summer season and dry seasons
  4.  Oil is produced from the seeds to be used in food and soap production

Studies indicated that about 400000 tons of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits, collected from natural forests in Kurdofan,  Darfur, Blue Nile and Kasala, contain five million gallons of ethanol, about 1500 tons of carbonic acid, 13600 tons of oil and 2400 tons of firewood (Eisa, 2011).

An agreement was concluded between the Forest National Corporation and Research and Industrial Consultations Center to set up the Terminalia chebula project in 1977. The project was funded by the United Nation Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in 1979 and it lasted for a period of ten years. The site of the factory was proposed to be at Abu Jebiha in South Kurdofan State in order to produce oil and molasses. The following was confirmed by the feasibility study:

  • The annual capacity of the factory :  33600 tons of terminalia chebula fruits per year.
  • The production of the factory: 1310 tons of oil per year.

At the beginning of the year 2002, the trade of non-timber forest products rebounded in the local and international markets. The price of one hundred (100) mm of Balanites aegyptiaca was estimated to equal twenty (20) Dollars in Saudi Arabia and the United States of America, but in Sudan, the sack of Balanites aegyptiaca was twenty two (22) Malwas (measuring unit) and the price of one sack was equivalent to about sixteen (16)  Dollars in Yamani and Saudi Arabian markets (Eisa, 2011).

Secondly: Fruits of Adensonia digitata- baobab:

Gonglise, baobab fruits are produced from Adensonia digitate, it is one of the large and durable trees. Its roots extend to abysmal depths and it has no leaves for 6 months from the period from October to June (Figures 3 and 4). It appears that this tree germinated and grew in the rain period experienced by Sudan in immemorial times. It suffers now from continuous shedding and lack of growth of new trees (El-Faeg 1996).

Figure (3) Adensonia digitata tree without leaves, October, 2016

Source: researcher: 2016

Figure (4) : Adensonia digitata tree without leaves, October, 2016

Source: researcher: 2016

Adensonia digitata trees are characterized by their vthick and very green leaves as in the figures (5 and 6), especially, the rainfall season from early June until late September. These leaves are used instead of vegetables, especially, in the rural areas.

Figure (5) Adensonia digitata trees with thick leaves, August 2016

Source: Researcher, 2016

Figure (6) Adensonia  digitata trees split to many trees, August 2016

Source: Researcher, 2016

Adensonia digitata has many uses including:

  1. The bark of Adensonia digitata tree is used to make local ropes of multiple uses
  2. Due to the big size of the trunk of Adensonia digitata tree, they hollow it and use it as water reservoir, especially in the areas of Kurdofan. It will be possible to store between 10-20 cubic meters of water to be used in the Winter and Summer seasons
  3. At the beginning of the rainy season, the leaves of Adensonia digitata are used as one of the vegetables and for a salad of a nice taste, and used as fodder for animals
  4. The fruits of the Adensonia digitata tree is known by the name “gonglise”. These are fruits of sweet and bitter taste used as a drink, especially, at public places and during the month of Ramadan. These fruits are, also, used as a medicine for treatment of diarrhea. They contain a large quantities of vitamin C. The vitamin C contained in little grams of gonglise equals the vitamin contained in eleven (11) oranges (Siddig, 2007)

Thirdly: Hyphaene thebaica tree produces (Daom palm) fruits:

 Hyphaene thebaica tree   is a high tree with regular trunk, it branches at the top into a cluster of leaves as shown in figure 7 (Saudi, 1983, El Shamy, 2000). It endures the dry conditions and high degrees of temperature. A single tree can give one thousand fruits per year and one fruit weighs 140 grams.

Figure 7: Hyphaene thebaica trees

 

             

Source: Researcher, 2016

Hyphaene thebaica tree has many uses, the most important of which are:

  1. The nucleus of the Hyphaene thebaica fruit is used as raw material industries where it takes place of ivory. Therefore, it is sometimes known by plant ivory (Phytelephus)
  2. The fronds produced from the Hyphaene thebaica tree are used to make mats and small handicrafts, in addition to the reeds mats, brooms, plates, ropes and mats industry
  3. Used in medicine, food and manufacturing
  4. Provides job opportunities for many local people and it is an important additional source of income for those who collect and use the fruits of the Hyphaene thebaica tree, especially, in East of Sudan.
  5. Trunks are used in building, especially, in North of Sudan.
  6. The nucleus is used in the manufacture of buttons
  7. The fruits are used in treatment of bilharzias, eye diseases, spleen and abdominal pains (Ibn Auf, 2002)

Fourthly: tamarind is produced from Tamarindus indica tree.

That is an evergreen big size tree, figure (8) . it height may come to twenty meters (Forests National Corporation 2014). The number of the seeds in one kilogram may amount to 1700 seeds. This seed will be fit for germination for more than one year under good storage conditions. The fruits are source of vitamin B and C and it contains effective substances and elements of acids and the fruit is used in the treatment of gallstone diseases, (Eisa, 2011).

Figure (8) Tamarindus indica trees

    

Source: Researcher, 2016

Parts of this tree have multiple uses, including:

  1.  Uses of Trunk and Branches-

-The stems and the large branches of the Tamarindus indica trees are used in manufacture of furniture and local household wares

- used in production of firewood and charcoal

 B. Uses of Fruits:

   - Fruits of Tamarind are used as a local treatment to treat malaria and laxative for constipation

- tamarind is used as a popular drink in Sudan, especially, during Ramadan and public p[laces.

C. Leaves:

- The leaves and small branches of tamarind are used as a source of animal feeding, especially, goats and sheep.

Fifthly: Buckthorn is produced from Ziziphus Spina- Christi.

It is a tree or a shrub of 1-5 meters height and of dense leaves; it carries many leaves. Its leaves appear with the end of Fall and shed at the beginning of Winter season. The leaf has three veins from the bottom. The plant auricles are mutated into thorns. The fruits are yellow or brown in color and eatable for their sweetness. they contain a high percentage of vitamin C. The Ziziphus spina-  Christi trees are desired by man and animal. They are susceptible to grazing by animals and unjust cutting by man for building enclosures and other uses as local building materials.

     

Figure 9: Ziziphus spina-  Christi trees

Source: Researcher, 2016

Ziziphus spina-  Christi trees have many uses and avantages:

  1. They are used as heavy and flexible wood to manufacture furniture, handles of utensils, sticks, anagreeb (wooden beds) and fence poles.
  2. Used in manufacturing sleepers, firewood, charcoal and enclosures
  3. Honey is produced from Ziziphus spina-  Christi trees. The Ziziphus spina-  Christi trees honey is one of the best kinds of honey (Forests National Corporation, 2014)
  4. The Ziziphus spina-  Christi trees charcoal is used mixed with ginger to treat the snake bite, and this is part of the traditional medicine.
  5. Boiled leaves are astringent and anthelmintic
  6. The fruits are used for treatment of fever and treatment of measles.

Sixthly: Dalaib and Garad:

Dalaib (African fan palm) is produced from Borassus aethiopum tree. This tree is resistant to extreme heat and its height goes up to 20 meters. The wood of the  Borassus aethiopum tree, which is of dark brown color is used in buildings, bridges and telephone poles and the industry of manufacturing boats and drums for its durability.  The leaves are used in manufacturing reeds mats and as house roofs, but the fruits are eatable. Haluk (Heterotrophes) is produced from the seeds and eaten in many parts of Sudan. (Source).

capsules of Garad are produced from Acacia nilotica which is a thorny tree whose height gets to 12 meters, as shown in figure 10. Acacia nilotica is a tree of intensive production and its capsules are the most nutritious fruits for animals. Garad was used in medicine in ancient times, especially, the Egyptian civilization. The Garad fruits are very bitter, dry and black and it contains a black grain inside it.

Acacia nilotica tree has numerous uses:

  1. Garad capsules are used in skin tanning
  2. Garad capsules are used in treatment of many diseases
  3. Garad forms a basic source of animal feed in Summer

    

Figure 10: Garad producing Acacia nilotic trees

Source: researcher 2016

Generally speaking, the simple division of non-timber products depends on the type of use and type of trees. The most important uses of non-timber products in food, medicine, fodder and other things can be summarized as shown in table (1)

Table (1) General Uses of Non-Timber Trees Products

Units

Description and Type of Product

Food

Vegetables: used in foods and drinks which are made from fruits, seeds, roots and grains

Fodders

Given to animals as feed, honey industry; produced from leaves, fruits and flowers

Medicine

Natural plants (leaves, bark, roots, used in the traditional treatment or by drug manufacturing)

Dyes and tanning materials

Extracted from the bark, leaves and seeds; source of tanning materials

Utensils and handicrafts

A set of homogeneous types including detergent materials, bark and leaves

Fruits and honey production

Balanites egyptiaca, tamarindus indica, tinnas grewia, adensonia digitata, hyphaene thebaica, ziziphus  spp

Fodders

Faidherbia albida, ziziphus spp,  balanites aegyptiaca

Pharmaceutical and therapeutic

Tamarindus indica, ziziphus spp, balanites aegyotiaca, adensonia digitata, tinna grewia

Soil protection

All

Shade and entertainment

All

Source: Eisa, Elssiddig, 2004

Domestic Trade of Non-Timber Trees Products

Most of the non-timber products are sold and consumed locally by the rural population.   Most of them are sold in the village markets and some are sold in local markets.  The most  goods traded are  eighteen items: capsules of Acacia nilotica which are used in tanning skins and treatment of many diseases, tamarind and  gonglis from which refreshing drinks are made inside and outside Sudan, terminalia chebula, fruits,  fronds of borassus aethiopum and hyphaene thebaica (figure 11). Fruits of hyphaene thebaica was formerly an important commodity for export as a plant ivory and button industry which was set up in Khartoum North and Atbara, but they did not stand steadfast in front of the competition of plastic. A fodder industry was set up on the fruits of hyphaene thebaica in Kasala but it, also, did not last. Also, fruits of Cordia Africana and Tinnas grewia, which make delicious porridge (Asida), and fruits of buckthorn (Zizphus spp), aljigig, abu laila and um madika are included in the domestic trade of these products (Beyumi et al, 2001).

Figure 11: non-timber products fruits

Source: http://iddcsuofk.edu/multisites/Uofk-iddcs/images/stories/ami/fr%20page.gif

Women harvest the goods from their sources in the forests surrounding the villages and they prepare them in a presentable form in the village markets. They are transported to these markets on their heads or on the back of animals. Then, the role of the men starts with marketing and distribution in big markets in towns (Beyumi et al, 2001)

Khartoum, Khartoum North, Al-Obeid, Kadogly, Al- Dalang, Um Rawaba, Habila, Ban Gadid, Cartala and Um Dorman are considered the largest markets of non-timber products and from there, they are distributed to all over Sudan. Some of the famous markets are: Souk Abdullah Bin Masaud in Obeid, Souk Um Dafasu in Niala and Souk Manwashy (Beyumi et al, 2001). Quantifies and prices of non-timber products differ from year to year as shown in the tables (3_-4). The trade of non-timber products is practiced by both males and females.

Table 2: Non timber Products Production and Marketing in 1994

Item

No.

Unit

Value in thousands of Dinars

%

Hyphaene thebaica

--

Sack

5763

1.5

Terminaqlia chebula

1753

Sack

28710

7.4

Garad (Acacia nilotica)

380

Sack

1465

0.4

Gonglis (Adensonia Digitata)

7475

Sack of Peeled gonglis

73813

18.9

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)

5590

Sack

135864

35.2

Ziziphus spp

1140

Sack

36076

8.3

Tinnas grewia

.05

Sack

8230

2.1

Senna

000

Quintals

2400

0.6

Source: Beyumi et al, 2001

Table (3) Domestic Marketing of Non-Timber Products in 1995

Item

No.

Unit

Value in thousands of Dinars

%

Hyphaene thebaica

28000

Sack

6763

1.5

Fronds

121986

Sack

29191

7.6

Terminaqlia chebula

111735

Sack

28710

7.4

Garad (Acacia nilotica)

20380

Sack

1456

5.4

Gonglis (Adensonia Digitata)

137475

Sack (peeled)

72813

18.9

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica

30550

Sack

135864

35.2

Ziziphus spp

1114o

Sack

36070

9.3

Tinnas grewia

2805

Sack

830

2.1

Chili

20000

Sack

2400

0.6

Henna

65000

Quintals

42250

210.9

Total

                        386036

100

 

Table 4: Domestic Production and Marketing of Non-timber Products Outside Reserved Forests for 2015

State

Drag of thorn  (No)

Saddles (No.)

Other products

Senna (quintals)

Ropes (parcel)

River Nile

0

0

556

0.0

44

Gezira

180

0

0

0.0

0

Sennar

118

0

200

0.0

0

White Nile

2.825

0

287

3.061

0

Blue Nile

0

0

0

0.0

586

Gadaref

0

0

0

0.0

142

North kurdofan

922

13

0

139

0

South Kurdofan

0

26

0

0.0

0

West Kurdofan

1.264

193

29.800

0.0

0

North Darfur

1.506

0

0

4.011

0

South Darfur

2.560

112

0

275

0

West Darfur

488

0

0

10

0

East Darfur

0

22

0

0.0

0

Central Darfur

464

126

0

0.0

0

Total

10.327

502

30.843

7.496

772

 Source: Forests National Corporation, 2015

 

Table 5: Domestic Production and Marketing of Non-Timber Products Outside Reserved Forests for 2015

State

Reed mats

Fronds

Wooden beds (Anagreeb)

Tools’ handles

Reed basket

Wooden mixers

Parcel

Parcel

Parcel

No.

No.

Bundle

Northern

0

0

0

0

0

0

River Nile

12

1.258

0

0

539

0

Sennar

0

32

0

110

6

200

White Nile

0

412

0

0

0

680

Blue Nile

25

6.333

0

2.440

0

0

Red Sea

0

0

0

0

0

0

Kasala

475

11.428

0

0

0

0

Gadaref

0

0

0

0

0

0

North kurdofan

4

32

0

212

0

1414

South Kurdofan

235.5

1.303

0

0

0

970

West Kurdofan

0

215

5

2.026

0

0

North Darfur

6.709

759

0

0

0

0

South Darfur

494

4.575

0

10.590

0

0

West Darfur

0

17

8

0

0

0

East Darfur

0

25

0

0

0

0

Central Darfur

250

42

0

250

100

O

Total

8.205

26.431

13

15.728

645

2264

Source: Forests National Corporation, 2015

 

Table 6:  Domestic Production and Marketing of Non-timber Products Outside Reserved Forests  for 2015

State

Adasoniad digitata

Hyphaene thebaica

Ziziphus spp

Tamarindus indica

Different forests fruits

Bee’s honey

Quantities in quintals

Northern

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

00

River Nile

0.0

0.0

.00

0.0

5

00

Sennar

0.0

0.0

0.0

.00

243

00

White Nile

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0

00

Blue Nile

1.210

129

0.0

0.0

19

00

Red Sea

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

00

Kasala

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

00

Gadaref

0.000

0.0

0.0

0.0

735

00

North kurdofan

568

188

3.070

3.070

1.991

18

South Kurdofan

1.726

167

363

363

4.189

38

West Kurdofan

1.596

2.121

6.661

6.661

15.397

51

North Darfur

0

167

0.0

0.0

9.921

110

South Darfur

1.372

6.289

14.427

14.427

1.773

3.709

West Darfur

410

0.0

754

754

76

316

East Darfur

0.0

0.0

6.593

6.593

00

60

Central Darfur

3.440

10

0.0

4.848

3.440

461

Total

10.322

9.071

4.810

3.5.716

37.789

4.736

                       

 SOURCE: FORESTS NATIONAL CORPORATION, 2015

Non-timber products Foreign Trade

A good number of organizations, some of trading houses and honored companies in Um Dorman, Port Sudan and Um Rawaba are involved in the non-timber products Foreign Trade. The marketable goods for export are: tamarind, gonglis (Adensonia digitata, incense, senna and henna. The volume of the foreign trade of these goods is about seven million Dollars, annually (Beyumi etal 2001) These products are exported to several countries, including Egypt, Jordan, Libya, and other countries as shown in table (7).

Table (7) Non-timber Products Exported in 93/1994

Goods

Quantity

UNIT

Value/Dollar

Exported to

Tamarind

1005

Ton

752500

Egypt

Incense

228

Ton

549000

Libya

Goglis (Adensonia digitata)

6

Ton

2100

Egypt

Senna

390

Ton

156000

Libya, Jordan

Henna

77326

Parcel

5469987

Libya

Total

 

6929587

 

 Source: Beyumi et al, 2001

These products are transported from local markets and weekly markets to big markets in the cities by trucks and different means of transport, so, creating job opportunities for a large sector of population, and thus improving their income. Taxes and royalties imposed on such products contribute to the national income (Eldoma and Suliman 1994).

 

Table 8: Imported Non-Timber Products in 2015

Company

Type

Quantity in tons

Imported from

Wadel Tina Trading Co,

Adansonia digitat

340

Chad

Abdl Aziz Musa Trading

Adansonia digitata

80

Nigeria

 Source: Forest National Corporation 2015

Obstacles of Non-Timber Products Trade

There are several obstacles that face the development of the non-timber forest products, including: distance between production areas and national markets,  which results in  the shrinking of the weight of some of such products due to the drying process when they are exposed to heat and air. These products, are also, subject to direct  royalties  and taxes, so, their production cost rises. Also, one of the obstacles is the exposure of the areas of the non-timber products to agents of drought, desertification and unjust cutting of different trees. Consequently, wide areas of such trees will subside and result in less production. Some of these trees, such as Adansonia digtata fell down and their production dropped and consequently, gonglis (Adansonia digitata) was imported from Chad and Nigeria,

The following are some obstacles:

  1. Lack of accurate statistics at the offices of Forest National Corporation, in the states.
  2.  Traders fear to give the actual figures of the products to avoid taxes, fees and Zakat.
  3. Difficulty of access to the areas of production, therefore, there are no accurate and comprehensive statistics on the volume  and trading of such products in the local and regional markets inside Sudan.
  4. Backwardness of means of transport in many of the areas of production, as these products are transported by conventional means of transport, such as   carts or, sometimes, by man.
  5. Some of these are infested with some pests and diseases, especially, weevil, birds and worms

Conclusion:

 Non-timber products are considered as one of the important resources in Sudan. They provide ample job opportunities for many of the rural population and increase their incomes. They are, also, a source of medical drugs and extensively used in the traditional medicine. Non-timber products constitute a reasonable volume of the domestic trade and contribute slightly  to the foreign trade.

There are several obstacles that face non-timber products, especially, the difficult environmental conditions, specifically, drought, desertification and the fragility of the natural environment, in addition to the poverty by which the rural population is stricken. Therefore, the rural population took these products (as their basic target and refuge) as a source of living, fodder and building materials, in order to increase income. As a result, these trees are subject to unjust cutting and removal. Therefore, in order to correct this and develop non-timber forest products, the study recommend the following:

  1. Provision of accurate statistics on non-timber products is required at relevant corporations and institutions
  2. Involvement of the local communities in the protection of the trees, especially, non-timber products trees
  3. Protection of non-timber products against pests, worms and fungus
  4.  Provision  of alternative sources of energy, such as gas, will be necessary  to reduce the use of wood and charcoal as conventional energy sources, and thus, preserve the non-timber products trees
  5. Find alternative building materials to reduce the use of such trees as conventional building materials.

References

  1. Ibn Ouf Mohamed Osman (2002) Economics of Non-timber Forest Products in Blue Nile State, Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Forestry  and Pastures, Sudan University for Science & Technology
  2. Mhady Amin ElTom and Babekir Abdullah Abdul Rahman (2010): Sudan’s Physical and Human Geography- publications- Sudan Open University
  3. Al-Shamy, Salahel Din (2000): Sudan- Geographical Study. Manshatel Maarif- Alexandria
  4. Bdrel Din, Abdul Wahab (1998): Trees and Environment- Green Revolution of Twenty First Century, Manshatel Maarif- Alexandria
  5. Beyumi, Abdul Aziz Mohamed Said et al (2001) Sudan Forests in 100 years 1902- 2002, Forests National Corporation, Khartoum
  6. Guda, Hassanein Guda (188): Climatology and Biogeography - Manshatel Maarif- Alexandria
  7. Saudi, Mohamed Abdul Ghany (1983): Geography of Sudan- Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop- Cairo
  8. Tareeh, Abdul Aziz Sharaf (1983) Climatology and Plant Geography, applied to African climate and Arab World climate- Dar El Maarif El Jameya- Alexandria
  9. Eisa, Ibrahim Yagub Hamed (2011): Non-timber Products Collection and Marketing in Dalang Locality- Ph.D. Dissertation, Faculty of Forestry and Pastures, Sudan University for Science and Technology, Khartoum
  10. Fogt, Kees (1995): Field Guide to learn common trees and shrubs in Dry Regions in Sudan and ways of their proliferation and advantages- publisher: SOS Sahel International, London, (UK).
  11. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2015) : Annual Report – Forests National Corporation, Khartoum
  12. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry   (1999) – Prospects of Forest Industry in Sudan- Forests National Corporation, Khartoum
  13. Source: http://iddcsuofk.edu/multisites/Uofk-iddcs/images/stories/ami/fr%20page.gif

Elfaig, A.H. 1996. Agro-pasturalist adaption to environment change at Elkhwui.

M. Sc. Institute of Environment Studies, University of Khartoum. 

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