History of the Christian Religion in Sudan

Sun, 15 Oct 2017



 

Dr. Mohamed Al-Amin Omer Yusef Al- Sibae

Abstract:

Christianity is the first divine religion to enter Sudan. Its arrival to the Nubian Kingdoms was early. Those kingdoms were Christianized by the missionaries which were  sent by the Roman Empire around the sixth century A.D. however, the presence of Christianity weakened when the Arab groups overlook the Nubian Land, controlled it and influenced it culturally. The result was disappearance of Christianity and reappearance during the Turkish-Egyptian rule. It paved the road to the Canonization in the areas in which Islam had not spread, especially, in the Nuba Mountains and South of Sudan . the British administration encouraged Christianization by all means and took care of the Ecclesiastical and social organization issue, and in spite of that Christianity is a minority in current Sudan.

Introduction

Infiltration of Christianity to the Land of Nubia

Missionaries to Nubian Kingdoms

Christianization of Kingdom of Makurria 559 A.D.

Ecclesiastical Systems and Institutions in the Lands of Nubia:

Evangelism in Modern Time

Condominium Policy and Christian Missionaries

Evangelical Work in Kordofan

Churches and Missionaries in Sudan

Conclusion

References

 

Introduction

This study comes in the context of handling the situations of Christianity in Sudan. It is so important as the first divine religion to come to Sudan. They believed in it, especially, when the rulers of the Nubian kingdoms( Nobatia, Macarra ans Alawa) came and made Christianity an official religion the fact which had its influence in labeling the Christian Kingdoms. But, it did not go deep among the common people and depended on the political situations in Egypt. Therefore, it lost the influence of spread and continuation. When the Muslim rulers tightened their control over Egypt, Christianity disappeared in the Lands of Nubia, but it appeared again with the European missionaries and found a footing in the areas where the Islamic presence was weak, especially, Nuba Mountains and South of Sudan when Christianization became difficult in the North. The study aims at shedding light on Christianity by discussing the missionary work in its first stages and highlighting the role played by the Roman Empire in Christianization of the  Land of Nubia and the consequent Ecclesiastical organization. It explains the extent of the depth of Christianity. The next important stage is the Christianization and missionary movements in Sudan, without pointing to the missionary work in the South of Sudan (The State of South of Sudan since 2011).

The study handles the ecclesiastical activity through the statistics of some churches that spread in Sudan, their different activities and become acquainted with Christian minorities. The study adopts the historical methodology based on description and analysis.

Infiltration of Christianity to the Land of Nubia:

Christ was born in Nazareth in Palestine which was part of the Roman Empire. Thence, Christianity infiltrated secretly to Egypt about the middle  of the first century B.C.  by Saint Mark ( of Gospel of Mark). He built the first church in Alexandria in 69 A.D. this religion found believers from Jews and pagans, but it was faced by oppositions from the Roman emperors and  persecution persisted and reached its utmost at the time of Emperor Daglidianos (284-305 A.D.) but that did not eradicate  Christianity[2].

The crawling of Christianity on the Land of Nubia was first natural in the light of the relations between Egypt and Land of Nubia. The wave of persecution practiced by the Roman emperors since the first century A.D. forced Christian groups to immigrate to the South and ,also, it was natural that  the men of the commercial caravans  which were common between Egypt and Nubia would talk about the new religion and so new believers gained.

No doubt, in the first and second centuries A.D. individuals from Nubia embraced Christianity, however this number was not significant. This is clear from  what C Valentini  stated “ The Minister of Finance for Kandaka- the queen of Marawi- embraced Christianity in 35 A.D. “ this was mentioned in the Book of Acts of Apostles Chapter II, Gospel of Luke.

The archeological discoveries by Emry & Kirwan,  dated before  500 A.D. at the area of Ballana found cemeteries for kings   containing copper and sliver antiques stamped with the cross[3]. The Ebrim Palace discoveries revealed letters written in Greek language by some Christians to a Christian king called Kantani Master of Nubatia which dated back to 450 A.D. in addition to that Silko, the King of all Nuba wrote in the temple of Kalabsha that God of Heaven and Earth  gave him victory three times over the Ethiopians and Palmese[4]. From the above statement we can infer that the Christian existence in the Land of Nubia was early due to the political, economical and cultural relations between Egypt and Nubia. We can describe this period as entry of Christianity extra- system and more effective. It was characterized by the political momentum which rendered it acceptable and acknowledged by the ruling authority in the Land of Nubia and distinguished by sending missionaries. Emperor Justinian wanted to convert the pagan Nubia to Christian Nubia in the sixth century A.D.  Therefore, he ordered  a complete shut down of Temple of Isis in 543, in Phila and the removal of statues to send them to Constantinople. After a while, he changed it into a church. The great pagan seasons of pilgrimage in the temple of Phila every year provoked Emperor Justinian to make a movement to serve  Christianity, especially, as those processions were accompanied by hustle and noise in the bishopric of Aswan. He had a strong desire to bring the pagan tribes into the fold of the Byzantine  State. Therefore,  he strived to attract the Plamese and Nubians to Christianity in order to control the Middle Nile Valley[5].

Missionaries to Nubian Kingdoms:

In referring to the Christianization of Nubia, we must mention the conflict and doctrinal difference between Emperor Justinian and his wife, Empress Theodora. The emperor believed in doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church. He was enthusiastic about spreading its teachings among his subjects. While his wife, Empress Theodora- from Egyptian roots, beloved in Jacobinism Doctrine ; the doctrine of Church of Alexandria with whose followers she was sympathetic. She, also did not hide her sympathy with the Egyptian Copts. Thus, we know that the Emperor and the Empress had different doctrines and virtually, they sent missionaries to the Land of Nubians each for his doctrine.

Julian and Longinus played the primary role in Christianalization of the Nubian kingdoms which rose on the ruins of the State of Marawi and divided into three interconnected kingdoms: Nobatia Religion in the north, extending from the first cataract to the third cataract in the area of Corseco, and it is sometimes called “Maris” with its capital at Faras, and Makuria kingdom next to Nobatia southward and may be called Kingdom of Dongola after the name of its capital, Old Dongola. It controlled the area the southern Nile Valley between the fourth and fifth cataract. The  town currently called Abu Hamed was the southern border and separates from the next kingdom; Alawa. It lies to the south of the area which was occupied by Nobad after the fall of Marawi. It was also called Soba after the name of the capital on the Blue Nile south of Khartoum[6].

Julian was urged by a great desire to Christianize the Nobatians. He conveyed his desire to the Empress who sympathized with the Jacobinist sect (which believed in one nature of Jesus). She was glad of the proposal and enthusiastically applaud this project. She promised Julian to do her best to fulfill his desire[7]. She actually, sought to do that, but, it appeared that she made a big mistake when she had told her husband, Emperor Justinian that she wanted to spread Christianity by Julian in the Land of Nubia and the Emperor was afraid that his wife would send  her people, from her the Jacobins, her aids. He sent a letter to the bishops of Upper Egypt to urge them to go to the Land of Nobatia to teach them the principles of Christianity according to the belief approved by the Chalcedon academy without mentioning the opposite belief represented in Jacobinism.  He, also, gave letters to the governor of Upper Egypt District , who was one of his aids, asking him to do his best to pave the road for his messengers to the Land of Nobatia[8]. But, Empress Theodora very soon discovered the plans of her husband, the Emperor and very soon sent to the governor of Upper Egypt a messenger who delivered to him a letter and she asked him in her letter to well receive a priest named Julian and do his best to get her messenger to the Land of Nobatia before the messengers of her husband, the Emperor Justinian get there. She threatened to behead him iuf he allowed the Emperor’s messengers to enter those lands before Priest Julian.[9]

As the result of this threat, the governor of Upper Egypt placed obstacles on the way of the Emperor’s messengers  to prevent them from entering the Land of Nobatia before Julian. He told the chief of the Emperor’s mission that there was  no means of transport because the camels he had prepared were stolen and he would arrange some animals once again. He said he would provide some guides who knew the desert paths from the desert Bedouins. On the other hand, the mission of the Empress arrived under the leadership of Julian and found the animals ready and guides and escorts waiting for them. Actually,  the messengers of the Empress took the animals and headed towards the Land of Nubians. Julian and his mission reached the outskirts of the Nubia around  543 A.D. and with them Theodore,; the bishop of  the city of Phila whom Julian thought would be the best to assist him in his mission as he was expert at the nature of the Nubian land and people[10]. On the other hand, the governor of Tiba did not hide the truth from the Emperor Justinian’s envoy and showed his fears from the Empress and promised to prepare means of travel. The Emperors mission kept going following the trail of Julian without its head thinking of the treason plotted against him[11].

Julian kept going until he reached the borders of Nubia and received by the messengers of the Nubian king who assumed the guard of the caravan to their capital and the mission was well received by the king.  The Nobatian king accepted the presents of the Empress with pleasure, and soon, he and his princes, declared their abandoning paganism and witnessed that no god but God, alone and has no partner.  After they embraced Christianity in the Jacobist doctrine, Julian told them that the messengers of the emperor would soon arrive carrying misguidance teachings and he warned them against listening to them. Indeed the messengers of the Emperor arrived in Nobatia and brought our their presents and asked the Nubian  king to accept Christianity on the Orthodox Church system and its men, otherwise he would be misguided as the those who rejected it were misguided and excommunicated. The king accepted their presents and apologized for not accepting their doctrine. He told them that they had embraced Christianity in accordance with the right principles of the Alexandrian patriarch, for which the patriarch was suffering from persecution and banishment and not in accordance with  the principles of the Emperor. He said: We would not be abandoning the delusive worship of idols and falling in other delusions. Julian peptized the king and princes and stayed two years working under harsh climatic conditions. He was assisted by Bishop Theodore whom Julian commissioned to take care of the Nobatians after he left for Constantinople where he was well received by the Empress  for his good deeds  in the service of Christianity[12].

After the death of Julian, his successor Longinus sent a bishop to Nobatia in 556 A.D. to complete the work of Priest Julian, but the new Byzantine emperor, Justinus  ordered  the arrest of  Longinus to prevent the spread of the Coptic doctrine in the land of Nubians[13]. Because of the opposition of “Angelicans”, Longinus faced many troubles and he managed to escape undercover and arrived at the Land of Nobatia in 569 and he did a good missionary work in Nobatia , built a church and appointed priesrs after he had spent six years, then he left for Egypt[14].

It becomes clear from what Yuhanna Al-Afsusy mentioned that the kingdom of Nobatia was the first Nubian kingdom to embrace Christianity with Jacobism, thank to Empress Theodora who risked her life in order to achieve Julian’s idea which aimed at Christianization of the Land of Nubians starting with Nobatia. We can imagine the unexpected Nubian reaction from the Nobatians who fought in many battles all forms of Christianity in the Nile Valley. But, when the Empress’s messengers arrived for evangelization in their country, they showed unexpected acceptance, perhaps for twop reasons:  the first is that the Nobatians wanted with this conversion to Christianity to win the friendship of the Byzantine  Empire , that greater power at that time.  The second reason is that perhaps the Nubians had reached a degree of knowledge that enabled them the mistake of worshipping idols. This is attributed to their direct contact with the persecuted Egyptian Christians at the beginning of Christianity. Also, such contact explains the reason which made the  Nobatians to accept the Jacobist doctrine which was followed by the Copts  in Egypt, because all who immigrated to them from Egypt were followers of this doctrine.

Christianization of Kingdom of Makurria 559 A.D.

It is necessary to into account the importance of the recounting of Yuhanna Al-Afnusi about Christianizing the Land of Nubians as he was one of the writeke any reference to rs who lived  at the time of the events of Christianization of the Land of the Nubians. However, we must deal with his story cautiously as his recounting might be less incredible because he was one of the followers of  Jacobism; the doctrine of the Egyptian church  and one of the opposes of the decisions of the Caledonian Academy.  So, he is one of the enemies of the Anglican doctrine. He did not make any reference to Christianization of the kingdom of Makurria, and he intentionally, as it appears, did not mention anything about the activity of  the Emperor Justinian’s Anglican mission  in the Lands of the Nubians in 543 A.D. it is possible that this mission changed its course to the Kingdom of Makurria and achieved some positive results[15].

In another account of another historian- Yuhanna Al- Baklary, who was Anglican and contemporary of Yuhanna aL-Afnusi, and an eye witness of those events, he mentioned information about the Christianization of the Kingdom of Makurria. He said: “ in 574 A.D. a delegation from the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Makurria arrived in Constantinople bringing presents to the Roman king, Emperor Yustinus, the successor of Justinian who died in 565 and requested him  to make a treaty with them. They ,also, they that four years before the arrival of the delegation of Makurria, a delegation from tribes called Germentis ( Germentans) had arrived. These were the tribe of Guraan which inhabits today between Sudan and Libya. They requested the Emperor to make a treaty with them and asked to be taught Christianity[16]. Baklary continues narrating more details of that period and gives important information stating that in the third year of the rule of Emperor Yustinus, that is around 568, a delegation arrived from Makurria and presented to the Emperor gifts of elephant tusks and giraffe. In this way, people of Makurria strengthened their relations with the Roman Empire, and perhaps, the king of Makurria wanted by this mission building good relations with that powerful empire. This king took into his account the bad relations with the king of Nobatia who whom the king of Alawa was an ally. Perhaps the King of Makurria considered the conversion of these two kings as an alliance against him, especially, when we know that his country lies between these two kingdoms. In addition, he knew that the doctrine they adopted is against the doctrine supported by the Emperor and all the Byzantine Empire. This king wanted to be an ally of the Roman Empire so that he would find support from the Empire if those two kings tried to any hostilities against him. Or perhaps the king of Makurria wanted with this action to be at odds with the king of Nobatia and the king of Alawa who converted to Christianity on Jacobist doctrine and wanted embrace Christianity on a different doctrine and found the Anglican the best option and followed it. This proposition is supported by the hostile spirit that prevailed between the king of Nobatia and the king of Makuuria[17]. The statement of Yuhannan Al Bakary shows that the people of Makurra embraced Christianity in 569, and believes that the Anglican mission on its way to Alawa between (570-580) passed by the Kingdom of Makurra before Longinus’s arrival and progated the teachings of Christianity on the Anglican doctrine, but this view is not supported by strong evidences[18].

Monre tends to not believing in YUhanna Afsusy’s opinion because his prejudice to his doctrine. He depended on tombstones which were found in the Lands of Nubia to form his opinion, and we can notice from the supplications written on them in Greek and resemble the supplications of the Byzantine Church and there is nothing similar to it in Egypt. This is a sufficient evidence that its source is Byzantium and this supports the aforementioned   opinion that the Jacobist doctrine was weak in the Lands of Nubia at the beginning of the Christian missionary movement.  There are some accounts that evidence the Anglican influence in the Lands of Nubia, and that is the presence of an Anglican bishop, at some time, at Tafa in Lower Nubia[19], and this completes the details of the Christianization of the Kingdom of Makurria. 

Thirdly: Christianization of Kingdom of Alawa 580:

The Christian expansion was not limited only to Kingdom of Nobatia and Kingdom of Makurria, but also, the Kingdom of Alawa which was separated from the Kingdom of Nubatia by the Nubian Kingdom of Makurra. The Kingdom of Alawa lies south of this kingdom. The relationship between the king of Makurria and the king of Nobatia was characterized by hostility and which  became an obstacle for the missionaries going to to the Kingdom of Alawa. They had to cross the lamds of Makurra and its king who was an enemy of the King of Nobatia  and friend of the king of Allawawould not allow that [20] .

Longinus did not suffice with Christianizing Nobatia only, but another mission was waiting for him to fulfill , that is  the Christianization of the Kingdom of Alawa.

It was said that, in 578, the king of Alawa to the king of Nobatia (Arfila) announcing his desire to convert to Christianity and asked him to allow Bishop Longinus to travel to his kingdom and peptize him and his subjects. But, when the message arrived the king was in Egypt attending a conference of bishops. The ruler of Nubatia sent a message to Egypt to convince Longinus to return to Nubia and visit Alawa in response to the demand of its king[21].

When the Anglicans heard that they began plotting and convinced Butrus, the Patriarch of the Anglican Church in Alexandria to discharge Longinus.  They sent a copy of this decision to the King of Nobatia to convert him from Longinus and his doctrine , but the Nobatian king did not respond and insisted on Longinus’s return because he does not accept a substitution for him. He drove away the Anglicans from the country[22].

The return of Longinus once again was a decisive point in the history of entry of Christianity into the Middle Nile Valley was burdened . He was burdened by many problems that hindered his arrival to the  Kingdom of Alawa, not from the side of the Anglicans but fro the Nubians rep[resented in the King of Mucurra who prevented the mission across his land. In 580, Longinus decided to return to the Lands of Nubia to satisfy the wishes of the King of Allawa who desired to make his country a Christian land as did Nobatia which had friendly relationship with it. He made arrangements for this expedition and took into his account avoiding a clash with the kingdom of Alawa whose king was instigated by the Anglicans against the expedition when they heard of it[23].

When Longinus arrived, he was welcomed by in Alawa. After a few days of teaching, the king himself was baptized with all his nobles. Later, his people were baptized and Longinus achieved his mission successfully and the King of Alawa sent a letter to the King of Nubatia thanking him for his valuable assistance and asking more assistance in the establishment of the church[24].

Ecclesiastical Systems and Institutions in the Lands of Nubia:

Thus, the Land of Nubia Christianized through the missionaries which competed for preemption as we have already seen. Also, the process of Christianization was not blameless of political gain which was sought by the Nubian kingdoms. It was said that the spread of Christianity in the Lands of Nubia was gradual and it was influenced by wandering preachers, by presents and by elocution  in order to be more accepted by the public. Arab historians and Coptic sources mention that the Lands of Nubia was inclined, in its spiritual leadership to the Egyptian Church. It seems that through Nubians after being Christianized changed the pagan temples to the new houses of worship after they had gotten the permission of the king. It seems that the first building for a church in Nubia was in Abrim Palace which was definitely a main administrative center. It was designed by re-innovation and reshaping the old building which was built one thousand years before by King Tahraqa[25] as contended by the stone pictures engraved on the Pharaonic temple in Wadi El Sabaa in the Egyptian Nubia. The pagan pictures   and Hieroglyphic writings were effaced by paint and on them the pictures of Christ, Angles and Saint Peter and others were painted[26].

The first church was built oin Nubia by the preacher Longinus around 570 and it was hurriedly constructed and it consisted of normal houses adapted to the ecclesiastical usage by adding architectural modifications.  One of the biggest and most decorated church built in the first two centuries of Christianization of Nubia is the Episcopal Cathedral in Ebrim Palace. It remained throughout the Middle Ages the finest model of the ecclesiastical architecture south of Aswan. It was built with carefully modeled  and its design reflects the unique characteristics which distinguish the Nubian church architecture[27].

Regarding the Nubian church in Nobatia, this church was of dual doctrine and its transfer to the unitary call came late. This doctrinal manifestation was not seen in Makurra where the dual doctrine was followed and the structure of the Nubian Church depended on a Metropolitan chief appointed by the Patriarch of Alexandria with duties of blessing bishops and priests. It was not independent and the Nubian bishops were nominated by the patriarch of Alexandria. Nubians were members of the Coptic Church in Egypt. The number of Episcopal mounted  to thirteen Episcopal belonging to the Egyptian Church and distributed as follows: seven in Meris, six in the Kingdom of Alawa[28], but the Anglican Church did not give up its civil rights and its influence was limited to the Kingdom of Makurra for a period not exceeding the eighth century[29]. Prayers and supplications in the Nubian churches and monasteries, mostly performed in Greek before interpreting them into   Coptic. The Greek Roman had infiltrated to the Nubian Lands in previous centuries. The Nubian language was the language of the country, literature and writing. Then, the Coptic words entered the Nub9ian religious rituals and practices.

In spite of the intensive work that associated with the Christianization movement of the Nubian Lands, Christianity had no deep roots  in the Nubian Lands and this might be attributed to the fact that Christianity in Nubia did not represent a national attitude and coexisted in Nubia with pagan religious ideas and did no replace such ideas because their belief did not emanate from a doctrine, understanding and deep thinking. Also, the Egyptian Church remained treating the Nubian Church is a small child and appointed  archbishops and all clergies, most them Egyptians who lived in isolation  and Nubians .  The men of the Egyptian Church were considered as foreigners and the language with which they performed the religious rituals was strange and incomprehensible.  Provision of the Nubian Church with priests and missionaries was influenced by the    internal situation of Egypt and prevented dispatching Egyptian emissaries for a long time. Therefore the religious positions remained vacant for long times and had not been practicing religious rituals . The Nubian Church did not, at that time produce scholars   of theology or religious philosophy[30].

It was noticed that the religious activity was limited to the Nubian area which was described by some as  extending from the first cataract to some distance south of current Khartoum . It did not go deeper to the Area of Bija in the East of Sudan in spite of the old relations that existed between Bija and Egypt and the unsuccessful attempts of Egypt to control bija. The people of Bija was not much influenced by Christianity as a doctrine and remained in their idolatry and both the areas of Kordofan and Darfur remained in their traditional  religions. The Christian activity did not extend to these areas, although some sources indicated that existence of Christianity in the area of Jabal Marra, but this is not a sufficient evidence of the spread of Christianity in those areas because of the remoteness of the area from the center of Christianity. Christianity continued in the Coptic doctrine; the formal religion in the Nubian Kingdom and the missionary activity was associated, from the beginning, with political motivations and political events and vicissitudes in Egypt. With the arrival of Islam to Egypt in 641, the new Islamic systems tried to subject the Nubians , but they failed. It remained a formidable obstacle to the sweeping  Islamic expeditions against the Nubians.. therefore, both parties chose to enter into  a treaty or a truce which governed the course of the relations between the two countries for more than six centuries. During the Islamic era in Egypt. Christianity in Nubia was paralyzed because its  relations with the Egyptian Church in Alexandria  weakened in obtaining bishops. The relationship ended since the time of patriarch Serel 1235 and the Nubian church was left with no external aid and ended. The religious sources of the Christian doctrine coming from Egypt started to be less and less and at the same time the priests kept silent[31]

The archbishops in the area extending from Alawa to Atbara were governed by clergies until the end of thirteenth century , the time when the Kingdom of Makurra entered into a conflict with Mamaliek in Egypt. During that period, the sons of the king’s sister had access to throne in Makurra. They had no influence over the Christian clergies  who performed the religious duties for the people who  maintained their Christianity for a long time. This was proved by the grave of a bishop found in Ebrim and near it an imitation of a copy in Arabic Language and Coptic Language from the patriarch of the Episcopal Church. The date of baptism goes back to the year 1375 and this indicates that the non-interference of the Arab groups in the worships but they left every individual to follow his own belief[32].The severance of the religious relations between Alawa and the Egyptian Church and stopping sending Egyptian bishops to the Nubian Lands since the middle of thirteenth century greatly affected the religious lives of the Nubians. Rituals were neglected, churches were deserted and most of them were destroyed. A Portuguese priest called Farez visited Abyssinia between 1517- 1520 maintained pictures of the religious conditions of the Nubians in early sixteenth century. According  to  Mustafa Musad[33] , those Nubians do not know their religion. They are neither Christians nor Jews nor Muslims. They say they were Christians and most of them lost their religion and hope to be Muslims.

Christianity no longer existed in Sudan as an organized church in sixteenth century although there were some Coptic and Ethiopian Christians who cross the Land of Sudan to their business. Europe did not know at that time the political development in Sudan, especially, after Mulims had access to throne of Alawa following the fall of their capital, Suba, in the hands of Funje Sultanate which established an Islamic rule in 1504.it is mentioned that in 1634, the Ethiopian King Fasi Lass deported from his country all the Portuguese : the descendants of the soldiers who had come to Ethiopia since 1530. They left the Ethiopian Heights and lived near Gallabat on the Sudanese –Ethiopian borders. Europe heard the news of their deportation. Therefore, the Holy See in Vatican became concerned with the problem and sent some pastors to find facts, but the Ethiopian king made an agreement with the ruler of Swaken to arrest any European pastor going to Ethiopia and kill him. Some pastors died as a result of these procedures[34]. The Pope of Vatican sent three missions of Franciscan monks hoping to resume relations between the catholic church and the Ethiopian church. The mission failed and forced to cross the lands of Nubia and Kingdom of Sennar and hided about three years. Also, Pope Filament the Eleventh sent Father Dabiano, the Franciscan in 1701 who headed to the King of Nubia , wrongly thinking that the King of Nubia was Christian and Makkurra was in Sennar. When he arrived in Sennar, he met a Greek called Atonjy who warned him against presenting the written message  anjd revealing himself. He advised him to present the gifts only to the King and went back in 1702[35].

There were attempts of Christianization from time to time but they were not effective, perhaps due to the nature of the existing political system. We can describe that period of the history of Christianization of Sudan as the period during which the missionary process disappeared  if only for a while.

Evangelism in Modern Time

Arrival and spread of Christianity in modern time was associated with the work of the missionaries and churches and started in the middle of nineteenth century by catholic and protestant missions. Christianity entered the contemporary Sudan in two phases; phase 1 extended from 1843- 1881 , about forty years. The pioneers of this period were from the Catholic Church under the protection of the state of Mohamed Ali Pasha when the regime stated to  use the Europeans in the administration of Sudan. Evangelists disguised as discoverers and military technicians to get acquainted with the Sudanese people and their behavior. The second phase was associated with the English –Egyptian rule which rooted for the ecclesiastical and angelical work.  The Italian priest, Masnury belonged to the White Priests and he arrived in Khartoum in July 1843 running away from Ethiopia. He built a small catholic church in Khartoum and attached a school to it. He was thinking of expanding his business in Upper Nile among the Shuluk. Before finishing his work he returned to Ethiopia leaving an another European evangelist named Serau who was the first to start the catholic Christianization movement.  He  returned to Europe seeking the assistance of the Papal Church for Sudan. In 1848, the papal assistance arrived in a Christianization mission that consisted of evangelists [36].

The Papal Administration paid a special attention to Sudan this time, when Pope Gregory the Sixteenth appointed an apostolic administration attached to a clergy mission which was known by the “Central African Administration”  and appointed one of the volunteering priests as the head of it ; Father Rou, the Polish . he arrived in Khartoum in 1848 and died in the same year and was succeeded by Dr Knoblacher, the Austrian who built a base in Khartoum[37].  In 1857, Maza Institute in Verona, Italy organized and funded a Christianization mission to Sudan on the River Nile. The mission consisted of five evangelists including Danial Camboni (1831-181). The mission passed Khartoum and established an evangelical station , but due to the Sudan’s health conditions, two of them died and Camboni returned to Italy in 1859 to attract support and bless for Sudan Christianization.  His efforts were crowned by establishing an evangelic college for African mission in 1967, and in the same year, Camboni set out with a number of priests to Sudan once again. Since that time, Camboni’s life pivoted around Khartoum and within a few years, he established six evangelic centers in North of Sudan and built two beautiful churches in Khartoum and Obeid. During his stay, he was able to secure the cooperation of the Turkish Authorities and European protection to execute his project[38].he was given by the Khedive Ismael wide  powers and authorized him to fight slavery. Camboni built the buildings of the Catholic Missionary in Khartoum.

In 1877, Camboni was promoted to bishop and he was the first catholic bishop in Modern Sudan, and that was a recognition of the correctness of his project and activity [39].

It seems that the most important leaders of the Christianization movement were knowbancher, Camboni and Gordon. This phase was characterized by geographical, climatic and health difficulties which resulted in death of many European evangelists . This period, also, contributed to crystallization of the Islamic feeling towards  Christianity and gave legitimacy to the Mhadia Jihad Movement to rejuvenate religion and for ousting unbelievers , like, Gordon, Gessy and Salatin and destruction of Christianization missionaries in Berber, Khartoum, Dalanj and Nuba Mountains.

Condominium Policy and Christian Missionaries:

With the rise of the Mhadi Revolution, the ecclesiastical activity ceased entirely. Some evangelists escaped to Cairo and Mahdi announced that the Land of Sudan is a land of Islam  and anyone who violates will be banished. Also, the Mhadia State destroyed all the churches  which spread  in the Sudanese cities and destroyed the attached ecclesiastical schools[40] . the catholic church could not resume its activity except after the arrival of the English –Egyptian army. The British policy underwent pressures to let the evangelical societies to return to Sudan, especially, by the Catholics who exerted  a strong pressure on Cromer’s government which reconsidered the British policy towards the issues of preaching in Sudan[41]. Ve4ry soon, in 1899, two priests came and Lord Kitchener gave them a wide piece of land on the Nile, the same w here exists the Cathedral of Saint Mathew and School of Monks[42]

In 1900 Lord Salisbury, the prime minister of Britain issued a statement and warned the church against preaching in any Islamic community  in Sudan. He knew that the conversion of the Muslim from his religion is very rare and that will adversely affect the security and peace in Sudan[43]. The laws of Sudan organizing the evangelism state that “No evangelical mission shall be established north of latitude 10 north in any part of Sudan which is considered by the government as Muslim” but the government authorities tried to build churches all over the country and in the heart of the cities and most important locations. Ecclesiastic schools were established in the northern cities for girls and boys and the evangelical work remained active without restrictions[44].

Evangelical Work in Kordofan:

The area of Kordofan is one of the areas that enriched the Islamic Movement. Two Islamic kingdoms rose in Kordofan;  Tagali which took its name from Tagali Mountains in the South and Musabbat in North and Central Kordofan where Islam prevailed since sixteenth century. However, the get-through of Islam to the south was little due to the natural geographical conditions which rendered the area repellent. Therefore, the Arab migration just recently reached such places and the cultural differences contributed to isolation of habits, traditions, language and religion. The Christianization began in North Kordofan from Obeid which saw the first contact with Christianity and it was associated with the visit of two catholic priests by the order of Father Danial Camboni the founder of the modern evangelical work in Sudan. The two priests were able to establish a church and ecclesiastical school  in Obeid when there was on single Christian. In 1873 , Father Camboni visited Obeid and strengthened the structure of the ecclesiastical work. Obeid was also visited by Gordon Pasha in 1877 who opened schools and an agricultural center, but these efforts were lost when the Mahdia Revolution erupted[45]. South Kordofan was pested with  backhandedness and ignorance and the majority of the Nuba Mountains population were spiritually influenced by practices of magicians charlatanry and magic and still some areas are isolated from  the influences of the modern civilization. The local tales affirm that Christianity preceded Islam in the Mountains and this evidenced by the cross which the native population used to draw  on their houses and used to make it clearly even though some of them did not know its implication and also some habits practiced for children when they are born where pagan values overlap with extinct Christian believes[46].

The first initiative for permeation of Christianity in Nuba Mountains by Catholics in the seventh decade of the nineteenth century  aimed at curbing the Islamic expansion and linking the evangelical areas to the Christian belt which was set up in South of Sudan. In 1881, Father Camboni visited Dalanj to identify the future of the movement of Christianity in the Mountains.  Before the evangelical work was  deep[ rooted, the Mahadia Revolution erupted and the efforts of the preachers went in vain. The Missionary of Dalanj tried to mobilize the Nuba against Mahadi, but the forces of Mahdi aborted their desperate attempts  and seized their arms and took the foreign preachers as prisoners[47]. After destroying the Mahdia State, the Britain Administration expressed its fears from the phenomenon of the spread of Islam in Nuba Mountains, so the English director, Gelan drew the attention of the authorities in Khartoum and urged them to send missionaries. That was apparent in the united missionary which led the activity of call using all means including social services. The government allocated a financial grant managed to or the missionaries which to set up two centers for Christianization at Hiban and Abry. Then, the authorities recognized that such centers were insufficient before the growing Islamic movement and proposed to the United Missionary to set up six additional evangelical centers. When the missionary failed to fulfill this mission, the government called  the Anglican Christian Society to open a number of schools and evangelical stations[48].  We can see that the aim of the English government was to intensify the evangelical work and it opened the door wide for the evangelical societies without taking into consideration a certain sect of doctrine. The Catholic Church resumed its evangelical work, but it did not make any success in the lands close to the Mahdi influence , and the priests were driven away during the first world war. In 1916,  the catholic work ceased and in that year the last catholic priest in Dalanj  died and the Catholic Church could not sent another priest. The Episcopal Church assumed the work there in 1934. Many centers were opened and each center opened had a school. The centers were: Salara, Kadogly, Abry, Hiban, Katcha, Kawda, Muro, Taludi and Tabania. A small church was built at Salara . the missionary in Sudan was a branch of the Episcopal Church in Australia and it came to assist but it terminated its duties after twenty years [49]

These efforts came after the governor of Kordofan, Douglas Newbolt addressed an evangelical conference in Nuba Mountains in 1934 and described the aim  of the government as Christianization of the population and establishing a local church which may be promoted to the stage of self-reliance in the management of its affairs. Efforts were concentrated on the issue of the education and the Latin alphabet was used in teaching Arabic Language in attempt to create a cultural barrier against Islam , but the experience of writing Arabic in Latin alphabets failed, so, the administration  turned towards the secular education[50].

The aim of the Christian missionary  which operated in Nuba Mountains was: to make a Christian population, in the first place, hinder the spread of Islam if possible or remove it totally, in the second place,  and link the area of Nuba Mountains with South Sudan because of the ethnic and cultural similarity.

Churches and Missionaries in Sudan

Firstly: Catholic Church:

This church was established in the middle of the nineteenth century when Yubigi (FR) arrived and opened a small school for the children of the Christian Community in Khartoum. Then, he established a church after he had obtained a piece of land to make a Christian cemetery. In 1878 Archbishop Camboni completed the construction of the building of the Catholic Missionary in Khartoum which was stated by Dr. Kanoyachr in 1853. Danial Camboni died in October 1888 with fever in was buried in the garden of the Catholic Church in Khartoum[51].

With the coming of the Mahdia Revolution, the ecclesiastical work ceased totally and some preachers escaped to Cairo and those who stayed were fell as prisoners and the Catholic Church could not resume its activity except after the fall of the Mahdia State and arrival of the British-Egyptian army to Sudan.  Soon after, two catholic priests came to Sudan and Lord Kitchener gave them a wide piece of land on the Nile, the same land on which currently exist Saint Mathew Cathedral and Nuns School. The building was constructed in 1933[52].

The church became active in education every place it went.  The history of Catholics is  distinguished by establishing Maza College in 1854, and they established a school and a church in Obeid in 1871. In 1873, Archbishop Camboni re-opened the Missionary School in Khartoum and provided it with specialists .

In 1980, a catholic church was established at Haiel Zuhur in Damazin ( it is now the headquarters), and in 1985, two catholic churches were built in North of Blue Nile , the first 9in Sennar West in local materials and the second in stable materials  at Suki Agricultural Scheme[53].

The Catholic Church Sect is the largest ecclesiastic sect in Sudan. It follows the State of Vatican directly and consists of qualified personnel for religious and social work and other works. It depends on the foreigners in the management of its religious activity. The headquarters of the general secretariat of the Catholic Archbishopric in the district of Riyadh south east of the Khartoum Airport. The following table shows the Catholic Churches[54].

No.

Area

Stationary churches

Casual Churches

Shools & Institutes

Health Services

Social service centers

1

Khartoum State

25

45

40

15

4

2

North Kordofan State

1

6

2

2

1

3

South Kordofan State

4

5

3

2

1

4

North Darfur State

2

4

1

1

-

5

South Darfur State

6

12

5

2

-

6

White Nike State

5

5

1

1

-

7

Blue Nile

4

10

4

4

1

8

Sennar

5

6

2

2

-

9

Northern

4

6

2

1

2

10

Gadaref

1

9

3

2

1

11

Kasala

2

5

1

2

-

12

Red Sea

2

4

3

8

3

13

Gazira

1

-

6

3

3

 

Total Aggregate

62

117

73

45

16

Statistics of the Catholic Churches in Sudan- 2009[55]                              

From the table, we can see the rise of the number of catholic churches to 179 churches, the highest number in Sudan and that is attributed to the rise of the number of casual churches which are distributed over the country except Gezira State. The number of churches, schools and health services is high in Khartoum State and most of the churches accept to contribute to educational and health services and social centers.

Secondly: Episcopal Church in Sudan:

The first successful attempt to establish an Episcopal church in Sudan is attributed to the efforts of the archbishop Loylin  Green the English who came to Sudan in 1899 to establish a missionary in the South. But, Serdar Kitchener prevented him at that time because of lack of security in those areas. Guin was successful in 1904 and started to build the cathedral west of the Republican Palace in Khartoum which was inaugurated in 1912.[56]

The strategy of the Episcopal missionary was to have control over education and health, then going deeper through them to reach the local population. Therefore, it donated three thousand sterling pounds to establish Gordon College in commemoration of him. Also, it opened Omdurman Hospital and two schools whose headmaster was   the famous Mr. Guin after whom the Guini College for Theology was named. It provided the church with teachers and preachers .  Guin is the founder of the modern organized evangelical work in sudan. The missionary established Omdurman Hospital in 1912.[57]

Schools became the most important factor of success for the missionaries despite of the opposition of the nationals to bringing up their children, especially, the girls, in this way. But the activity increasingly developed , especially, after the government provided some aids to the schools that meet the required conditions. The most outstanding achievement of the missionaries is the Union College for Girls in Khartoum.  But the clerical activities were represented in the presence of the British in the most important cities in the North and building churches for themselves in Wad Madani, Atbara, Port Sudan and Wadi Halfa.in 1922, Sudan United Association began operating in Hiban in Nuba Mountains[58] and the Episcopal Church assumed work in Nuba Mountains in 1924, after the death of the last catholic priest in Dalanj in 1916, and several centers were opened in Salara, Kad, Katcha, Kawda Muro Taludi and Tabatna, each with a school[59].

The Archbishopric Sect in Sudan consisted of 24 dioceses before the separation of the South in 2011, and at the head of each archbishopric  is a bishop or archbishop elected from among the archbishops. They were divided into two groups; a group of 20 in the South and 4 in the State of Sudan. These are the archbishopric of Khartoum with its headquarters in Omdurman,  the archbishopric of Nuba Mountains with its headquarters in Kadogli, East archbishopric with its headquarters in Port Sudan and the archbishopric of West of Sudan and includes Kordofan and Darfur with its headquarters in Obeid[60].

The following table shows the missions performed by the Episcopate in different states of Sudan

No.

Area

Stationary churches

Casual Churches

Shools & Institutes

Health Services

Social service centers

1

khartoum

4

25

7

2

1

2

Red Sea

1

4

2

6

-

3

kasala

1

4

2

-

-

4

gazira

1

12

3

-

-

5

northern

2

-

-

-

-

6

South Kordofan

4

16

3

2

2

7

North Kordofan

1

4

4

1

1

8

South Darfur

2

-

2

-

-

 

Total Number

16

65

23

11

4

Statistics of Episcopal Churches in Sudan in 2009[61]

We can notice from the table above the large number of the Episcopal churches, especially, the casual ones and mostly without license. The schools and institutes are distributed among different states of Sudan. The largest number of medical centers and dispensaries in the Red Sea State, and there are less social services, in general.

Thirdly: Orthodox Churches:

Historically, there are three orthodox churches in Sudan; the Coptic, the Greek and the Ethiopian and the followers are from the subjects of neighboring countries, such as the Coptic Church which consists of the greater orthodox religion and the Armenians Church; a small group in Khartoum and they do not have a resident priest. In addition, there are the Greek Orthodox Church and Eritrean Orthodox Church[62].

After Patriarch Kirkisy, the Pope of Alexandria became the chief of the Orthodox  Copts in 1904, he established the Cathedral of Our Lady in Khartoum and followed it by establishing the other churches in Khartoum North and Omdurman. The Coptic Orthodox Church opened schools for boys and girls. In 1958, the Egyptian Ministry of Education assumed their supervision  subject to an agreement with the ecclesiastic authorities. The Coptic Church consists of two archbishoprics, the first is called the Archbishopric of Khartoum and Uganda  with its seat in Khartoum and it began its activity among the southerners and Nuba members, the second is in Omdurman[63].

The Greek Church is one of the old churches and it exists in Gumhuria Street, Khartoum. It has branch churches in Madani, Port Sudan and Obeid. Archbishop Titus was nominated in Khartoum in May 1997 to succeed the previous archbishop Dionysus who resigned in March of the same year.  Several schools  belong to the church[64].

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church was founded by the then Emperor Huila Se lassie  in 1960 in Khartoum 2. This church is frequented by many people from the Ethiopian Community in addition to the members of Ethiopian Diplomatic Corps. They remarkably increased recently in Sudan[65].

The Orthodox Armenian Church is in Khartoum 2 and it is joined by a small group of Armenians in the Capital, Khartoum. They have no resident priest. These eastern churches, excepting the Coptic Church,  prevent the members of their sect from exercising any evangelic activity[66].

The following table   the distribution of the churches

No.

Area

Stationary churches

Casual Churches

Schools & Institutes

Health Services

Social service centers

1

Khartoum

5

-

10

3

20

2

Gazira

1

-

10

5

6

3

Sennar

2

-

3

-

-

4

Kasala

1

-

3

-

-

5

Red Sea

1

-

5

-

9

6

Gadaref

1

-

2

-

-

7

Northern

5

-

3

-

-

8

North Kordofan

1

-

6

2

6

9

South Kordofan

1

-

4

-

5

10

North Darfur

2

-

3

-

4

11

South Darfur

1

-

1

-

-

 

Total Number

16

-

40

10

50

Statistics of Orthodox Coptic Churches in Sudan in 2009[67]

We  can see from the table the spread of the orthodox churches in all states of Sudan and the total absence of the casual churches of orthodox sect. The majority of them is in Khartoum State and Northern State, where Coptic sects are many and participation in education is high and there are many schools and institutes, especially, in Khartoum State and Gazira State and, in addition to this, there are  social centers most of them in the Red Sea State and then North Kordofan State.

Evangelical Church:

The establishment of the evangelical church in Sudan was done by a number of Egyptians and Syrians , followers of the evangelic doctrine and who occupied some positions. Its activity was only clerical  and the performed their services in some houses until the evangelical church was given a piece of land in Omdurman in the heart of the city to build an evangelic center in 1907[68]. They got a club for themselves in Khartoum and Omdurman and in 1940, they opened a center south of Khor Abu Anja in Omdurman and at that time the society began teaching Bible in Dinka Language, when Arshid Shaw in 1933, completed the New Dinka Testament , an effort that  lasted for thirty years [69] and then all the responsibility of the evangelical work in Sudan went to the Sudanese and the Evangelical Sect Council was established independently from Egypt, except for keeping the bonds of the doctrine. Evangelical Churches spread in many states as shown from the table below[70].

No.

Area

Stationary churches

Casual Churches

Schools & Institutes

Health Services

Social service centers

1

Khartoum

4

15

13

2

4

2

Gazora

2

1

6

-

2

3

Blue Nile

2

8

-

-

2

4

Gadaref

1

-

2

-

1

5

Kasala

1

-

2

-

1

6

Red Sea

1

4

3

-

1

7

North Kordofan

1

9

4

1

2

 

Total

12

35

30

3

13

Statistic of Evangelical Churches in Sudan in 2009[71]

We can see from the table the increase of the caual churches in Khartoum State and North Kordofan. In addition, the evangelic churches contribute to the field of education and social centers and their contribution to health services is less, except in Khartoum and North Kordofan.

American Missionary:

It started its activity with the arrival of Dr. Surlin in 1903. He bought the evangelical church house located east of Omdurman Governmental Hospital  where the first school for boys was built in 1907.in 1905, Dr. Gifn bought the block on the Palace Street west of Coliseum Cinema  near the grand mosque. A school was opened in 1911 and an agricultural school was established at Geraif after the missionary bought 13 acres. A piece of land in Mulazmin was licensed for it in 1947 to establish a Christian center[72].

The church used education as a means of preaching and it took up and cared for Camboni schools and Nuns School in Omdurman and the catholic school at Fetaihab and other schools and educational institutions in the capital and other areas in Sudan[73].

Fourthly: Sudanese Church of Christ:

Sudanese Church of Christ is one of the churches specialized in the evangelic work among the people of Nuba Mountains and the first chief of it was Priest Samuel Jangul from Kualib. He remained chief between 1970 -1980. The complex of these churches is located west Khartoum Stadium and this church has casual churches in Khartoum and Nuba Mountains[74]

Fifthly: The Adventist Church:

This church holds its services on Saturdays each week believing that the  Sunday service is not the Holly Script. The center of this church is in Khartoum 2 and there are some branches  in Khartoum State and it also exists in Gadaref. It does not recognize other churches and neither the Sudanese Churches Council, so it is not recognized by other churches[75]

Sixthly: Church of the Sectarian Brothers:

The sectarian brothers is one of the few membership sects, like the sect of Baptism, New Apostolic Community and  the Holy Trinity. It has no administrative system nor a building and it does not recognize the Sudanese Churches Council , neither it recognized[76].

Council of Churches:

The Sudanese Council of Churches belongs regionally to the All Africa Council of Churches. It is a founding member of the branch group of the International Council of Churches in the area of the Great Lakes, in Africa and Horn of Africa. It consists of a system comprising seven regions (before the South separation 2011 ) four in the South and three in the North ( North of Sudan, west of Sudan, East of Sudan and  Gadaref and the later was added to North of Sudan[77].

Christian Minorities:

Sudan is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious  country. Islam is the religion of the sweeping majority  amounting to 97%  while the Christians form 1.5% , in addition to the traditional religions 1.5%[78]. There are no accurate statistics of the number of the Christian sects , especially, after the separation of the South. Most of the statistics are instable between increasing and decreasing the number.  Philip Thauth Faraj (FR) estimated the number of the Christians by 5 million, three million out of them are Copts.

The Copts in Sudan form a Christian minority  and hey mention that the spread of Christianity increased in the Lands of Nubia by the immigration of Copts from Egypt following the Persian invasion in 619 and the wave of persecution exercised against them after Byzantium recaptured Egypt[79] . They used to participate in the Nubian churches and contributed with their art and engineering and when Christianity entered formally by the Coptic Empress Theodora, the Copts  of Sudan bore the burden of the administration with their brothers from the Nubian nation[80]. Under the rule of Mohamed Ali Pasha, large numbers of Copts entered Sudan when decided to get some them to take administrative positions. It is said that he brought forty highly qualified Coptic clerks with their families, wives and children and distributed them to different provinces of Sudan to join the Coptic traders and businessmen who filled Sudan[81].

The glory of the Coptic nation was restored after the Anglo-Egyptian Conquest as Pope Kirlis the Fifth who put the corner stone of the Church of Our Lady and it was the first Coptic Society in the modern history of Sudan …

In addition, there were minorities of Armenians and Greeks distributed to different areas. There are many Christians fro neighboring countries, especially, Ethiopia and Eritrea. The civil war which broke out after the separation of the South resulted in immigration of large numbers of Southerners to the North, most of them Christians practicing their religious rituals in the churches of the North as they did before.

Conclusion:

The study concluded several  findings  as follows: firstly, the spread of Christianity in Sudan took place in two stages; the first was from the beginning of Christianity until the last quarter of the sixth century. The second stage was associated with the colonialist movement and it was more active and effective and was able to deep- root Christianity in Sudan.

Secondly: Sudan has known multiple Christian sects and the beginning of Christianization was associated with  the Egyptian Coptic Church whose influence increased. But, the doctrinal competition increased   with colonialist movement and opened the door for the evangelic societies without limitation.

Thirdly: different ecclesiastic institutions spread in Sudan and most of the churches are in Sudan where the number of Christians is large. We can classify two types of churches: those built with fixed materials and the other type is the causal churches and they are numerous. Besides religious service, the ecclesiastic institutions provide educational and health services and social centers.

Fourthly: there are no accurate statistics of the number of the Christians and the number of the sects. Most of the statement are estimative and the statistics are not neutral, so they are less valuable in the historical writing.

References:

  1. Juvani Vantini (FR) Christianity in Sudan, Omdurman- Mohamed Omer Nasheer’s Center for Sudanese Studies- First Edit. 1988- P. 7

  2. Mustafa Musad, Islam and Nubia- in Middle Ages, Cairo, 1960 , P. 35

  3. Vantini, previous source, P.9

  4. William Adams, Nubia the Loftiness of Africa, Translated into Arabic by Mahmoud El-Tigani, Cairo, Fatimiah Brothers Printing Press., 2nd edit. 2005, P.396

  5. Mustafa Musad, Previous Reference, P. 71-72

  6. Johe of Emphesus,Ecclesistical History,Book4,Oford,1860 1940, p254

  7.  Ibid

  8. Ibid

  9. Ibid, P. 253

  10. Mustafa Musad, Previous Reference, 58

  11. Ibid, same page

  12. Vantini, previous source, P.14

  13. Adams , Previous Reference, P. 397

  14. Mustafa Musad, Previous Reference, 58

  15. Ibid, same page

  16. Vantini, previous source, P.14

  17. Adams , Previous Reference, P. 397

  18. Ibid, same page and next

  19. Vantini, previous source, 18

  20. Mustafa Musad, Previous Reference, 61

  21. Ibid, 62

  22. Ibid, 63

  23. Adams , Previous Reference, 397

  24. Ibid, 400

  25. Vantini, previous source, 20

  26. Adams , Previous Reference, 422

  27. Ibid, 420

  28. Mustafa Musad, Previous Reference, 92

  29. Shugi El-Gamal, History of Nile Valley Sudan, Cairo, Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop, 1969, P. 212

  30. Mustafa Musad, Previous Reference, 176

  31. El- Shater Bisaily Abdul Galil, History and Civilization of Eastern and Central Sudan, Arab Book Corporation, 1972, P.120

  32.  Mustafa Musad, Previous Reference, 186

  33. Vantini, previous source, 60

  34. Ibid, 61

  35. Hassan Makki, The Christianization Project in Sudan, Khartoum., Islamic- African Center, Department of Research and Publishing,  issue 11, 1411h, 1991, P.20

  36. Vantini, previous source, 63

  37. Hssan Makki, Previous Reference, 63

  38. Abdul Mahmoud Abu Shama, Christianity from Napata to Mahdia, 2001,P.73

  39. Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Saleem, History of Khartoum, Beirut, Dar El_Gabal , 3rd Edit. 15411h, 1991, P. 38

  40. Abdul Gader Khalil, Christian Origins and Crisis of Identity in Sudan, Cairo, Tobgi Corporation for Printing and Publishing, 2006, P. 125

  41. Hassan Makki, Previous Reference, 143

  42. Abdul Gader Khalil, previous reference, 139

  43. Tareg Ahmed Osman et al, Introduction to Study of Christianity in Africa , Khartoum, Center of Africa University for Publishing, issue 45, 1424h, 2003, 30-31

  44. Hassan Makki, Previous Reference, 199

  45. Tareg Ahmed Osman, Christianity in the Area of Nuba Mountains, Khartoum, International Africa University , African Studies Center, 2011, P.1

  46. Hassan Makki, Previous Reference, 80

  47. Ibid, 81`

  48. Tareg Ahmed Osman, previous reference, 1

  49. Hassan Makki, Previous Reference, 81

  50. Ibid, 142

  51. Ibid, 143

  52. Kaisar Musa ElZain et al , The Annual Report of Christianization in Africa 2009, Institute of Mubarack, Department of Research, Khartoum, Money Printing Press, 1st edit. 2010, 156

  53. Ibid, same page

  54. Source: Churches Department- Ministry of Social Planning, quoted from Kasisar Musa El;zain et al, previous source , 158

  55. Vantini, previous source, 66-67

  56.  Hassan Makki, Previous Reference,147

  57. Vantini, previous source, 68

  58. Kaisar et al, Previous reference, 162

  59. Ibid,163

  60. Ibid, 165

  61. Ibid, 169

  62. Hassan Makki, Previous Reference, 150

  63. Kaisar et al, Previous reference, 169

  64. Ibid, Same page

  65. Vantini, previous source, 69

  66. Churches Department, Ministry of Social Planning, quoted from Kasisar Musa El;zain et al, previous source, 171-172

  67. Vantini, previous source,71

  68. Hassan Makki, Previous Reference,148

  69. Vantini, previous source, 73

  70. Churches Department, Ministry of Social Planning, quoted from Kasisar Musa El;zain et al, previous source, 176

  71. Hassan Makki, Previous Reference, 149

  72. Tareg Ahned Osman, previous reference, 32

  73. Kaisar et al, Previous reference, 180

  74. Ibid, 181

  75. Ibid, 181

  76. Ibid, 97

  77. Wikipedia, free encyclopedia, website 2015

  78. Mustafa Musad, previous reference, 67

  79. Philip Thouth Farag (FR) Social States for Sudanese Orthodox Copts, Khartoum, Coptic Society, without date, P. 6

  80. Ibid, same page and next.

  

 

 

 


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