Experience of gum Arabic producers in kordofan

Mon, 11 Sep 2017

Experience of gum Arabic producers associations in the development and marketing of production management systemsGum Arabic belt state of north kordofan

                    Dr. Hassan Ahmed Hassan Sheikh  

The word gum Arabic  belt define to the areas where the trees which produce gum Arabic  its cenralised,its considered as a Plant belt that make apart of the savanna zone with less rainfall, it is stretching from12 to 14 north and include all the Sudanese regions that represent the semi-arid environment of the African coast.
The acacia Senegal is producing the best quality of gum Arabic and there are approximately 9million trees in the gum Arabic belt in North Kordofan , spearing  there due to the annual rainfall rates and the nature of the soil and topography of earth and the natural use of earth(Siddig2005) .
It’s a small tree, its length is 8metres and known for its production of gum Arabic consisting of Spiral axles with a yellow colour and the length of corns with seeds is about 8000-10000 kilograms, that should be enumerated by planting seeds or growing it as a nursery and the success of it is growing is about 80%,the seeds collected from gog trees, the growing will begin after three days and completed through the first week, so the trees grow in  an area about4*4 to 10*10 meter according to the location, soil and the terrain, its roots  stretch  inside the soil vertically five times to the leg length.
The acacia tree  is linked with the sandy soil because of its capacity to stretch its roots vertically ,but also it grows in the light clay soil in different sizes and needs a rain  ranging from300-500 Millimeters in the clay soil and  about 300-700 Millimeters on the sandy soil  ,it bears the  hot temperature but it doesn’t bear the frost
The new small acacia tree is very sensitive, it needs a high degree of care ,it doesn’t bear any fluctuation in rainfalls ,but after a long time of growing it will be resistant to drought , insects, grass hoppers and  gluing gum will be very  sieve. it bears reduction in rainfall.
The acacia tree is glue in the dry season after five years of growing and the glue continue for15 years.
The acacia Senegal is a kind of gum Arabic trees produced by acacia tree carbohydrate multi-sugar dissolving in water and used in food  good manufacturing,drugs,drinking,sweets, papers ,ink,cosmotics,cocola,perfumes making etc. Because of its ability to effect on  nourishment  with its viscous  ,cells and size, besides distribution of its contents with various rates inside the mixing block,it is used to disposition of contents, and its  conglomeration, as well as other properties of analgesic and emulsification.
The stercuila urens is another kind of gum trees ,which is found in India producing  stercuila gum which is used on the adhesives .
Astragaulussp is another kind of emulsification tree used for food products such as mioneze (alsaid1997) but these kind of trees don’t compete with the other trees and have no manufacture ,medical and food importance like acacia.

the ownership of land in the gum Arabic belt
the acacia production system and administration
gum Arabic marketing
the working projects in the gum Arabic
gum Arabic producers associations
Gum Arabic belt deterioration
References and resources

the ownership of land in the gum Arabic belt

The system of the ownership of land is considered as a production factor if not one of its determinants  ,and is considered as an important factor for  using the land in Sudan.
It was known traditionally that at the begging of the Sudanese state ,the land in Sudan was owned by tribes , every tribe has it’s own agricultural land, or that one which is used for grazing ,agriculture and living ,migration –roads to other tribes, The first attempt of using this system was during the Anglo-Sudan .in1899 The land law was issued through a committee formed to look on the ownership of land in Khartoum, Berber and other Sudanese provinces. According to that law a comprehensive registering was put for land properties.The1899 law was intended to restrict areas controlled by the tribe and used for living, pastry and agriculture and collecting forests products. some of the tribes chives registered a large areas with their names or their family name  in a way that didn’t represent the real goal of the 1899 law(alsheikh1999).
According to that law the registration of land in the government offices was  compulsory.
In1902 the land  tenure was issued and gave the government the right to possess agricultural lands that of industrial irrigation  and in 1905 the law of land disputes and allocations of land possession was issued, and according to that law the deserted lands ,pastrures and forests  which are free from residents and not used, are state lands unless somebody approve his possession of the land(the law of 1905 led to transfer of the ownership of land from tribes to tribe members by tribal  covering preservation through the dominance of the areas used by the tribe members(Alshiekh1999).Moreover, in 1925  a law was issued that the transferring of land ownership is not legally valid unless by the government acceptance and the non-Sudanese were not allowed to have lands in Sudan except in special cases (the law of 1925 determined the sovereignty of the Sudanese state on all the lands including that which was owned by tribes members .
it refuses to non-Sudanese to own land but are allowed to use it(Alshikh1999).
In spite of these developments in the law, there  are large lands in Sudan which were not registered but were used, The lands that was  used by the countryside’s settler as part of their tribal lands ,they gained its ownership by using it for along time . That was not recognized by the law,in1970 another new concepts of property of land came ,like approval of land ownership to the state and not the tribes
The  non-registered land indicated all the used lands, the unused lands and non-registered lands are considered as owned by the state thy should be registered according to this legal basis(the law of 19970 came with new concepts in land ownership like approval of land ownership to the  state  and not  the tribes and the non-registered land was registered by people if they approve their ownership of the land and under this act  registered to state but they are allowed to use it(Alshiekh1999).
However ,the ownership  of forests , the farmer owns the trees and collect its gum or fruits it is possible to use the land in pastures  or growing some crops in separated lands, but after the law of 1970 which gave the ownership of forests to the National Corporation of Forests and allowed farmers to collect the gum ,however the selling was monopolized by the selling operations in a holding company, (the Gum Arabic Company), but the other restricted free forests  were directed by the National Corporation for Forests

the acacia production system and administration

The acacia gardens is a local name called for the areas where the acacia trees grow whether it was grown naturally or by people inside the gum Arabic belt in a shape of  a tenure.
The tenure of lands inside the belt are divided to various kinds linked with the production systems and administration
a.    The production systems in the small tenure:
Usually a small tenure  in its area and the amount of production is different area according to the productivity of the area.it is between5-30 five times and called the acacia garden, owned by the junior producers(according to the law of 1970)
The production operations  are done according to the experiences and possibilities of junior producers ,so the small family shares with the farmers in gluing gum and collecting it and its possible to engage the village people by nafeer .There the family members will participate inside the village as a treatment will repaying  to the family during any calling up to a collective work related to other groups(alnafeer is a stimulating motivation of all the village members   to cooperate  to achieve a collective work in a short time which need a lot of hands without money  to work as a guarantee to the participation of all members in any other work if called for it according to the traditions and customs inside the villages(alshiekh1999)
b.    The production system in the big tenure:
The big tenure is large and production is extended from the sandy plains or clay plains ,its area is between 50-500 meters ,The production processes are  done such as gluing by the leased employees  by day or by contract ,while the collecting of gum was done by the daily wage or by sharing the crop and the conditions differ according to the circumstances and type of work. These tenures are owned by people(according to 1970 law)they produce the acacia gum by themselves or rent to other people to perform all the  production process for a limited ratio of production which returns directly to the major owner of the garden, however in the production of these kinds of tenure .was declining recently because of different circumstances like less financial revenues to the owner of garden ,he replaced the trees with cash crops like sesame.
c.     Production system in the projects related to forests:
There are more free lands or restricted forests or the   agricultural projects which are taken by the National Corporation for Forests to rehabilitate it after losing its fertility or the agricultural projects that are abandoned or not cultivated for a long time because of the insecurity , The acacia trees WHICH grew  there, are related to the government and rented for farmers and the period of renting finished without  its cultivation or carrying on  its cultivation, These projects are often introduced in  a general tender and the production operations will be according to the winner of the tender,
d.    The production systems in the contract companies projects:
The companies contract projects were launched like the integrity project and Dar savanna project,Malysian gandil company which its name changed to the project of acacia company , establishing a large areas of acacia in north kordofan.The cultivated area reached 50,000 fedan(3000 fedans,)by acacia company project, these farming began its  production through the partnership of crop with workers and the contractors of gluing and collecting gum Arabic.
1-4 the gum Arabic operations production
a.    Gluing  gum process
The gluing  is considered as  the separation of the bark of the tree without harmful consequences to the tree or the cell around it through a way which make the tree producing the gum Arabic, The  glue is considered as the most important of the production process ,The control and time related to this process ,(the glue process )done according to known steps as follows:
1-    choosing the suitable tree(its age should not less than five years to the nursery tress and seven years to the seed tress and four years to the back trees (ramli2005).
2-    The use of    machine(is a solid object made from iron ,its length is20-25cm,it has a sharp mouth with4,5cm width.it looks like the bird beak and it’s very sharp from outside tapered from inside  it ends in cylindrical  with slots to fix the dagger to the wood and never expose it to insects infections and the farmer is able to reach the tall branches from all directions besides saving time and workers as well ,The tree  is able to produce a clean gum Arabic without remains.
3-    Timing and thickness of the glue.(the suitable time of gluing coinciding with the end   of the rainfall  when the leaves of the trees colour change to a dark green yellowing ,furthermore the suitable timing of the gluing may be known   with the dark of the tree colour to a reddish brown colour and the dark of the tree is easy  to be removed. The suitable time for acacia tree gluing  is from1-15 October and the first of November to acacia which grow naturally in sandy soil and from15-29 October to the first of November  for the acacia which grows naturally in the mud soil)but (the glue density is three branches to trees from 5-10 years and 8branches to the old tree)
a.    Collecting gum Arabic process : The process of collecting gum Arabic is done after 40 days of gluing(the first collection)and it’s the first  suitable time period to complete the size and weight, after that the collection is carrying on every 15 days seventh collection (the collection after 40 days from gluing  is a guarantee for getting gum as a big amount in size and  round in shape which will never cracking and coincide with the foundling gum   and the warm weathers because the cold reduces the tree secretions of gum and the basket , cloth bags in foundling  gum to protect it and guarantee its quality and cleaning in shadow  to ensure no evaporation saturated water to gum and collecting in jawals and go away to marketing so as the color should not change or reduce weight (albdulrahim2006).

gum Arabic marketing

The year 1920 was the beginning  of the real enlargement in the gum Arabic trade,in 1933 to do the marketing mechanism and the colonizer entered the audition market ,inn 1962 the Ministry of Trade ,industry  and mining adopted a policy of concentration price for purchasing gum in production places and the policy of minimum of the exports and the receiver in Portsudan,the policy of concentration failed and the prices of gum fell as a result of the absence of a mechanism it guaranteed  the  purchase of surplus from the exported amounts and the lack of the  real products to a negotiating mechanism    and absence of its protection as well as Censorship and quality, as the farmer became alone in facing the meditators who represent national interfaces to foreign companies  which were very keen to the deterioration of the gum prices to be less than the concentration price, the  official agencies became evading from receive the gum because of its inability of marketing it, as  a solution to this problem the gum Arabic company was established in 1969 as a  join stock company as  outputs of the socialist  orientation to the government to achieve the following goals:
a.    Organization of gum Arabic trade internally and abroad.
b.     Protecting the  Comparative advantage to the country in producing gum Arabic and protect the producers with purchasing all the products and with the concentration declared price.
c.    To provide money necessary for purchase and export gum Arabic and reduce  pressure on the banking systems.
d.     To maintain on international  high prices which Commensurate with the comparative advantage through unification of supply channels  for the commodity abroad.
in purchases  aspects and treatment with the product ,the company is bound with intervention to protect it in the coming situations:
a.    If the merchants refuse the purchase as non-commercial reasons.
b.     If the merchants unable  of the purchase because of the weak funding.
c.    If the merchants introduce prices less than the concentration price.
 About the  issued products the company enjoys exporting of raw gum Arabic, in 1973 the government has changed ,a few group monopolized and the board of directors and some producers the company share,some  attempts to correcting the company trends occurred that the producers should have role in it(now30% of the company shares  to government and 70% owned by500 shareholders),the company provide franching  seller(monopoly) abroad and ales franchising  from the monopoly inside Sudan with  a limited freedom in the internal trade to the commodity and permitting to some companies to export the manufactured gum  Arabic only.
In a study done by Mahmoud2005 to know the impact of the Price Incentives of the sectors which benefited from the gum Arabic ,production, marketing and manufacturing using policies analysis matrix to the years1999-2002 and resulted as follows:
a.    The gum Arabic has remunerative he financial returns  and a high comparative advantages competitive comparing with the other crops.
b.    The producers get3% from these financial returns ,meditators5% and the rest for the company.
c.    manufactured gum Arabic has competitive, international financial return that reach20% for the ton compared with the raw gum Arabic. Here the producer doesn’t get any benefits because the purchase  is done with the raw prices.
d.    Most of the producers are young farmers spreading in rural areas and produce little amounts which make them able to enter local markets and deal with the companies,  and become a fertile soil for brokers and meditators, so, their share will be lower than concentration prices, no more than40% while the meditators get 60% as  a commission.
e.    The junior producers lack the knowledge of the real prices of concentration and selling with less prices to the meditators .the meditator purchase the crop from them before its production with cheap prices  not more than 15% of the concentration price.
f.    The above factors weakened the producers communities and lead to the decline of production and no participation in concentration price or convincing  them to inter the markets, The deterioration  of the production zones, schools,roads,hospitals,electricity and water led to impoverished producers who left the work.
Internationally various difficulties have appeared such as:
a.    The  world production of gum Arabic declined in world market because of the alternatives.
b.    Appearance of African countries exporting gum Arabic like Central African Republic and others.
c.    The lack of the strategic studies which encourage the production and expose it to the world market fluctuations  and encouraging alternatives.
d.    Loss of the main markets like United States of America because of the economic sanctions.

the working projects in the gum Arabic

The gum Arabic gained the interest of various international  and regional organizations which work in the reconstruction of belts because it’s one of the places which witnessed deterioration  in its ecological systems as a result of droughts , desertification and missuse of lands which led to negative outputs on human life and environment.
The prominent programs that were done in gum Arabic belt in North kordofan will result in large outcomes if data has scientific knowledge is adopted.
1-    concerning of stopping the desertification and rehabilitation, a document was prepared in this respect in 1976 under the supervision of expertees is considered as the first reference in the field of desertification and avoiding the negative effects  in Sudan(the document is built on the basis of the arid and semi-arid ecology of Sudan which control mainly the rainfalls, distribution and the direct and indirect other factors which affects the plant relation with the soil ,topography ,surfaces, ,discharge ,expressing that the rainfalls are not predictable: ,also if the dry period is very long(Alshiekh2004) it means that the rainfalls are different from one year to another which  has it effect on the ecological balance between the climate circumstances plant and animals, Every misconduct in using land may cause big damages and carrying on misconduct in using land may cause  high damages that cannot performed.
Dicarb program adopted  a package of applied programs aiming at stopping agriculture  in the land that is vulnerable to washouts because of wind and following agricultural sessions including Leguminous crops .  Adopting improved farming methods, calling for rational use of the pastoral lands ,besides Seed dispersal, and open fire lines as well as soil maintenance, developing protective fence belts ,help cultivating the acacia trees.
the most important projects that were adopted by decarb in north kordifan state  are as follows:
-    Fixing sand dunes projects , re-implantation of acacia trees and sowing grass seeds as well as pastry direction and saving water, was done in supervision of development ,guidance and  planning unit in north kordofan state as follows:
a.    Alwdia project for rural integral development 1985-until now.
b.    Jirjukh project for re-habilitation of the pastures and sowing seeds 1995-2000
c.    Hamrat Alwiz belt project1985-1986
d.    Re-habilitation of Alkhiran area pastures project in North kordofan state 1985-1986
e.    Survey of pastures  in North kordofan State 1985-1986
2-    Re-habitation of Gum Arabic belt project in North kordofan from1983-1996,was implemented by food and agriculture organization(FAO) funding from the Netherlands government ,The goal is long-term project is Combating Desert Crawling,while the short terms goals are increasing individual income as well as providing  job opportunities to people inside gum Arabic belt. They also provide the support  to farmers in the framework of nursery of acacia trees  freely with a view of increasing the farmers income  from the gum Arabic sales.
3-     North kordofan rural development program is one of the choosed areas  for developmental projects in Sudan which is funded and implemented by the united nations developmental programs ,The period of the project is six years 1990-1996 ,The period was extended  to the year2000,The project was located in shikan locality ,It aims in the short term to train the people in small industries and establishing nursery ,sowing seeds, spreading the culture of afforestation and limiting cutting trees ,with providing alternatives to energy as well as implementing all the works through participation of all people.
4-    The rural development project in North kordofan state: This project was prepared by the government of Sudan in cooperation with the world fund for agricultural development –IFAD- to implement it in the gum Arabic area in the two localities of um Rawaba and Bara during seven years from june2000 to may2007 ,it aims to improve the social situation of families, improving environment and achieving Self-Security, The methods of work were built through participation in financing by 60% to the downers and 40% to the people, The people were trained  in the simple technologies to work in the pastures, re-habilitation and forest rehabilitated, with sowing seeds and planting trees, for various benefits that preserve local environment,  with concentration on the acacia trees cultivation in a shape of forest protectorates such as Alsimih forest, Dalg Altob forest, Abusaad, Aljambria, and Fanguga.
5-    Supporting the food security projects and poverty combating  in the African countries.aproduction of fish: it is a regional activity with funding from the Italian government  and achieved by( FAO ) The project included six African countries Sudan is one of them,It was applied in north kordfan state and sennar state,The work was divided into terms extending from it ten years ,it aims at improving and cultivating the forest belts to improve the environment  , combating poverty like Abuhabil forest project.
6-    Akashia project: In IFAD conference in 1981 there were claims to entering the private sector in the forest investment, Some private companies had accepted to work in the fields of forests like Alshikh Mustfa Alamin and the integrity project and Jandail project which its name changed into Malaysian company and to akashia company for investment in the field of forests, during the year2004 the company cultivated three forest of acacia by an area of 19 thousand fedan to the one forest ,they are Nawa forst and shikan forest and shag um sail and the cultivation also done in Gardod hard land in an area 4×4 metre,this  short area  as well as the Gardod hard soil effects and the dimension of trees from each other  effected on the growing of  acacia trees  which  dwarfed by the  tangle of roots ,the experiment of Akashia tree was recent and its vision was not clear ,it need more studies and following up.
7-    The green crawling project
It is  a recent project in the field of rehabilitation of the gum Arabic project, and is considered as an extension  of the projects work in this field ,The project was achieved in 2004 with funding from the Sudanese government and the support of voluntary national  organizations  ,the project ended in october2009,but according to the big  returns  done by the national corporation for forests,  the project period extended until2015,The trees were  produced inside the nurseries related  to the national corporation for forest   and the popular  nurseries related to the gum Arabic producers associations with funding from the government of the republic of Sudan ,the seeds were distributed to the farmers to grow acacia trees),then seeds were collected and thrown on the belt , That work was accompanied by guidance programs including all the gum belt areas in north kordofan state.
In 2003 the project goals were developed The forest guidance was entered , the environmental guidance as well as maintaining  the natural resources and calling up all the official efforts ,it is clear that the efficient participation of the  university of kordofan in these national projects, supplied a large amount of the natural resources  the graduates reflected their efforts positively especially, as they are from the surrounding  villages.
8- The gum Arabic company limited:
The gum Arabic company limited was established in 1969 according to establishment instructions, the development of gum Arabic production is one of the important priorities. The basic goal as well as other secondary goals that led for increasing production, it’s the researches and marketing.
The company began its first efforts with arranging scientific conferences in all the producing provinces to gum Arabic, including  all specialists  from producers,meditators,merchamts,specialists and forest and economy scientist, so as  to know the main reasons behind  the deterioration  of gum Arabic production as well as making a charter to enhance development  to increase production.Moreover,the company adopted short-term, work strategies. The short-term and long -term  are the  acceleration of funding the production process and opening new channels for marketing. so The long-term strategy included all the aspects that may develop the production(the gum Arabic company, started with good beginning that made more people entered , It began with solving the water problem and improving the civilians environment  for stability with planning to establish schools, health centers in the big villages, improving roads, encouraging producers to grow acacia as well as guidance and training(Alshikh1999)
in the year 1973 the basic goal of establishing the gum Arabic company was changed and the company became aholding company  for marketing the gum Arabic neglecting the production process  and research ,without catering for any other side.,So,the production deteriorated and the producers  became the weakest in this new system, The drought rates were very big, some efforts for solutions began with opening monopoly door to companies which decide to manufacture the gum Arabic inside the country and export it, because of this initiative ,the gum Arabic company intervened, establishing gum Arabic manufacturing company and exporting it, however ,the properties that have been found as increase for the companies income ,but was not reflected to the real products that never gain any benefits ,but still deepening the problem that made tit under pressure increasing for brokers and meditators.

gum Arabic producers associations

In 1992 the gum Arabic belt project adopted an idea of establishing a branch of social institution development  to be responsible  of moving the rural communities that participated in the different  project activities  ,especially those who did the cultivation of acacia tree in their different villages.  ( hence, the concept of establishing agricultural communities  and producers of the  gum Arabic becoming one of the most important activities of this branch from the project, the main goal was Reinforcing the principle of self-reliance among the social communities spreading  inside the gum Arabic belt area(Ramli2004) especially(the area became full of numbers of organization which work in this field of re-habilitation of gum Arabic belt, which provide services
 this changed the civilian from a productive civilian to receiving to subsides and supports(alshikh2004) the experiment sought to improve the gum Arabic production systems through fighting (Alshil system)(it’s a crop sale process from the farmer directly by the  merchants  before its production with a cheap price which doesn’t suite  with the primary prices or the farmer efforts, the farmer resorts to this because of his p[poverty and the  lack of other alternatives (alshikh1999) as well as  fighting meditators ,brokers and Beneficiaries and link the rural civilian with the land, besides increasing his income and reducing the migration to cities as well as creating the cooperation  between the members of societies through the collective work to participate in increasing the production and  raise the environmental awareness generally Interested in the  acacia tree and develop it especially.
The  national cooperation for forests in establishing  gum Arabic producers societies on the long the gum Arabic belt and training the societies leaders how to administrate it to the modern technologies  in the field  production  and marketing of the gum Arabic to increase the yield of the products directly  without meditator   and activate the modern harvest experiment as well as encouraging  the collective marketing of the crop besides the coordination with the companies, organization and the working authorities in this field to solve the water problems and education in the society villages.
how to establish and create a society to produce and market the gum Arabic  
The first steps that should be followed  to establish a society to produce gum Arabic are:
a.    To make field survey by the branch of developing the social corporation to be managed with national corporation for forests is the targeted locations.  to estimate the social needs and assure the trees density in the area as well as its classifications and increase  the society knowledge of society goals and its interests and their needs  besides their readiness to accept it and write their applications to join it by the sheikh or mayor or the popular committees.
b.    To start analyzing the field information and taking care of listing names of farmers  and their total areas covered with acacia trees which produce gum Arabic and the areas of the other crops and the uncultivated land ,and determing the neighboring villages and the possibility of merge it in one association according to location and geography.
c.    Three people should be chosen to every society (president,secertryaccountant officer,)by the farmers in a general meeting and they should be accredited by Alshiekh or the popular committee in the village.
d.    A general compulsory training was put about how the identity of administration included(meeting administration-holding books and opening files- arithmetic operations-fund calculation system) in addition to treatment of the acacia tree included(its type,numbers,age ,how to glue the embryo of acacia, how to glue ,how to store –how to relocate the crop ,marketing and dividing the benefits as well.
e.    Making awareness programs and guidance to all the members of the association  with the productive processes
f.    Taking care of getting services facilities and funding from the Competent authorities  and working to develop the production areas and representing farmers in all the forums and events.
During the period 1992-1995 20 associations were established in north kordofan belt villages after making the first survey to the targeted villages and estimate its  social needs  and making sure that farmers own acacia forests not rented ,besides the beginning of registering members at least 75 member to each association, after the completion of the  basic information and meeting the requirements ,programs for the  guided visits and starting training process about how to hack acacia trees as well as collecting the crops and establishing popular nursery and get benefits from the wells water and how to collect seeds and cultivate them with the agricultural crops,
The production areas witnessed a big prosperity ,number of primary school were established in the big villages like fanguga,dalg altub,abusaad umgamair shabula shag alwindi abuhamra,water wells also were established in merikha ,shbula and samandia.
In 1995 the  first deliberative conference  of the gum Arabic producers association  was held  in cooperation with the gum Arabic development  limited  corporation ,the conference outputs are a number of recommendations  as making an agreement contract with the associations , the national authority for forests ,the gum Arabic corporation that to fund the processes of financing the work of hacking and marketing the production ,the associations would produce and receive all the gum Arabic to the corporation which will be responsible of marketing and dividing the profits in equal shares .
The deterioration of the association’s role:
After the association dained playing an efficient role in presenting the services to farmers and getting services and improving the profits while reducing the dominance of meditators and brokers as well as educating citizens  and interning in a partnership with the  forest national corporation in establishing  the people nursery and participation in the projects efforts, worked in the rehabilitation of gum Arabic belt fields, nevertheless, the farmer has weak share from profits and the non-achieving  of agreement that contracted between  the corporation in dividing the gum Arabic profits although its good  news was spread yet ,the corporation takes more than90% from profits this led to farmers frustration to the recession of association role and its importance, no addition witnessed in its full preparation as was planned ,its numbers reached 35farmers associations in2015.
The attempts to succeed the association experiment continued  through searching for alternatives to funding as(the model harvest experiment with a partnership with Khartoum company to manufacture the gum Arabic in 1997-1999 to a number of five associations and(karme 1999) in addition to the participation of organic products limited company which interested in the organic crops included the gum Arabic because of its   free from chemicals in Issuing quality certificates  which helped in the international marketing  and its participation in training processes and controlling quality ,also, the national corporation for forests lent association lented the associations to fund the production processes to a number of 25 associations from2007-2014 ,moreover ,it sought to find  alternatives bodies to marketing the gum Arabic with the Malaysian company and Dar Savanna compny,as well as entering in  partnership to manufacture the gum Arabic with the German company, a direction of grouping people into a professional union ,in Alobeid city the first conference was held in February 2004 for the purpose of making a general union to the Sudanese color and the forestry products like farmers union and the pastors union ,including  the gum Arabic producers  association and the association of the  gum Kakmut and sequins associations and the owners of coal and wood, preliminary committee was formed  to the suggested union to complete all procedures with the authorities.
Although of the done efforts (the association went on the way of recession and the idea of the experiment of  association was aborted for reasons related to gum Arabic marketing(mahmoud2004) now it’s found with a photo format, there were shy attempts to rehabilitate its role ,but the ashare of the farmer from marketing is the real test to the success of all the done efforts to preserve the gum Arabic belt because(the farmer doesn’t fell about the big effort benefits that he does in the production processes  and his share from profit is 5% while the meditators and the holding company take 90% from profits(ramli2005),this situation is the main reason of destroying other crops like sesame ,benuts and karkade ,the farmer cultivate does with less efforts and getting an easy funding, and he does the marketing processes and get a big benefits contrary of what happened in gum Arabic marketing(abdulrahim2006)however the produced gum in the big tenure  and because of  contractors the smuggling doors are occurred  far away from company monopoly  to fulfill profits, neighboring countries marketing the gum Arabic occurred ,it doesn’t produce it or the size of its marketing is not like its production.

Gum Arabic belt deterioration

There is a big recession in the gum Arabic production as a result of various natural factors like droughts ,soil degradation and biological factors like overgrazing ,grasshoppers and a planning factors  like marketing policy ,transporation,thirsty,guidance and social factors like farmers income, migration ,population pressure and the land owners styles and the relation between production and absence of security in some production areas and deterioration of farmers corporations  like gum Arabic production associations.
Although of these factors with different rates led at the end to the decrease of production in the gum Arabic belt,however,the gum Arabic belt has its reasons from the  beginning, because people used to treat gum Arabic as  a natural resources  taking it without any efforts to keep its continuation ,According to this all the projects work in this field of rehabilitation of the gum Arabic belt came with ideas and ready programs which achieved beforehand far away from the actual requirements to the natural and human constituents.
The years 1967-1968  were the most successful years of gum Arabic production they were the basic years which production of gum Arabic built on it, increased the gum Arabic participation in the national income ,in 1955 38 thousand ton were exported with6,5 million dollar and in the year1965 14 thousand ton was exported  with7,3millon dollar ,in the years 1967-1968 the basic year the production reached form acacia gum 61,9 thousand ton, the production began its deterioration  because of the banishment of the acacia trees resources and the migration phenomena that the youth have travelled  to work in Aljazeera project to collect cotton and included  the migration of all villages members to work and all the villages members settled in Aljazeera project because of the conflict circumstances which they lived  in the gum Arabic production areas,also, the state concentrated by all communication tools that the flow of workers helped in succeeding Aljazeera project table no(1) and increased the cultivated areas in Aljazeera  during the periods 1960-1970 that led to:
a.    There are large areas where the acacia tree grows and they were not  used and there are no users.
b.     The forests of acacia were neglected and left without protection or guard ,so the acacia trees were cut for coal usage and the land is used for the overgrazing and the unfair agriculture as well as the fire outbreak without  stop.
c.    35% of the forest owners left it free and migrated to Aljazeera in the periods 1967-1972(awda1973)
The production areas of gum Arabic don’t get the technical and administrative required care or the scientific planning, the area was left with its natural factors which led to a continuing pressure from the producers with their primitive methods without supervision ,arrangement or care.
Table no(1) the increasing of collecting workers in Aljazeera project


Number of collecting workers

The average in percantage































Resource: Awwada1974 the worker research department ,work office


1-    The necessity of complete the procedures of gum Arabic like the way of the farmers union.
2-    The necessity for deepening the experiment and the producers of gum Arabic associations .
3-    The importance of  activating the role of associations in guidance and services field and make them a key partner in the gum Arabic rehabilitations projects.
4-    Investment on the people throughout the education, medical care ,services to lead the development process without  the need for meditators, and achieve settlement and limit the spreading  migration phenomena.
5-    Giving the national corporation for forests powers and roles linked with the marketing the forest products generally and gum Arabic especially considered it as a forest products  and the people in belt are real experts on acacia and acacia producers, are the most concerned for the continuation of the belt .
6-    The concentration price of the product should be accounted according to the international price to the commodity.
7-    Reviewing the monopoly of the gum Arabic company and going towards the freedom policy gradually taking care of the producer, so the few monopolist  of private companies not the state that controlled .
8-     Redistribution of the fees that imposed on the commodity in the different times of  production ,marketing  according to the financial returns.
9-    Improving the  storage capacity of gum Arabic and provide  stores for the strategic  stock to ensure a good marketing and to be avoid from the fluctuation of the market and speculation.
10-     Following fees system and balanced taxes  so as to cope with the international competition and the comparative advantage of the gum.
11-    Encouraging  the local manufacture development linked with the gum Arabic and export it manufactured and  gradually  of reach  export phase  of preventing exporting of raw gum.
12-    Subject the projects of the gum Arabic belt  with its different names and goals  according to national measurement.

References and resources

the Arabic references:
1-    The gum Arabic company(2002).the trade of gum Arabic the present problems and challenges of the future ,a workpaper   presented in a workshop in friendship hall,khartoum10/5/2002.
2-    Alshikh,HasssanAhmed Hassan.1999.the reasons behind deterioration of the vegetation and soil in the semi-arid invironments,Master Degree unpublished university of Khartoum.
3-    Alshikh,Hasssan Ahmed Hassan2004 the droughts and its impact in vegetation in the semi-arid environment  from the African coast.
4-    Mahmoud,Tarig Alshikh 2005,the ways of developing production and gum marketing, presented paper in the national workshop to developing production  of gum Arabic systems and maintaining  the capacity of the producers association ,Alobeid.
5-    Sidding Mahmed Mukhatar belal2005,the production system and gardens administration produced the colors, paper presented in  the national a workshop of the developing gum Arabic production systems and, developing colors production and  maintaining the capacity  of  the producers associations .Alobeid
6-    Ramli.Fatima Muhamed Ahmed2005 the experiment of the producers of gum Arabic association in north kordofan state. Presented paper on the national workshop to developing  the gum Arabic production of colors systems and maintaining the capacity of producers association .Alobeiod
7-    Ramli.Fatima Muhamed Ahmed2005 how to create and make an association of production and marketing gum Arabic .presented paper on the national workshop of the developing the production of colors systems and maintain the capacity of producers association Alobeid.
8-    Abdul Rahim ,Bahia Fathallah2006,systems of administrate and develop the acacia gardens, study of Umrawaba locality status ,a published research paper .Alnylin magazine ,no 4.
9-    Awwda ,Amin Maki 1974 the gum Arabic its present and future ,gum Arabic research Alobeid
10-    Saif aldin ,Abualgasim 1973.the phenomena of desert crawling  and protection from it, making into account the topic of protection of the gum Arabic zone in Sudan ,gum Arabic research alobeid.
11-    Hamadok,Abdallah adam1985 the drought and desertification in the gum Arabic belt ,research paper presented to the national workshop to prevent the drought effects, national corporation for forests Shikan printing press ,Alobeid.




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