History of IslamTue, 12 Sep 2017
Dr. Munira Mohamed Abdullah Sheikh Mohamed
Head of Department of History& Islamic Civilization
Faculty of Arts- Umdurman Islamic University
The name (Sudan) was not known before the arrival of the Arabs. The Arab geographers and travelers in Middle Ages gave the name “Sudan” to the land located south of Egypt. It is a name derived from the color of the skin of the human race which lived in that area at that time. Also, all the area located in south of Great Sahara- east and west were called Sudan. Ancient Sudan included the Nile Valley extending from Aswan southward to the confluence of White Nile and Blue Nile at Khartoum, and that was Nubian Land , in addition to Kordofan, Darfur and Land of Balameens/Bija . The area called South Sudan was not known before nineteenth century . Geographers divided the Nubian region to three parts: Upper Nubia where Kush Kingdom was established with its capital in Napata , South of Wadi Halfa, while Central Nubian Valley and Lower Nubian Valley were under the Kingdom of Maqara with its capital in Dongola . Nubians are divided into five main groups: Dongalawese in the south, Mahas, Sikkot, Kinouz and karmaco . Land of Nubians was, like the other ancient lands, idolatry and non-religious, then, Christianity slowly infiltrated into it in the late third century. An Episcopal was established in the fourth century, in addition to a number of monasteries and churches in Tiba and Aswan. But, the decisive stage of the Christian vocation in the Land of Nubians was at the time of Emperor Justinian (515-517). It remained Christian 700 years until conquered by the Arabs .
Access Routes to Sudan
Firstly: The Red Sea
Secondly: Via Egypt
Thirdly: Route of Western Sudan
Secondly: The Role of the Maliki Doctrine in Propagation of Islam in Sudan
Thirdly: Examples of the Most Famous Mesgids and Khalwas in Sudan
Oldest and Most Famous Masgids in Sudan
Access Routes to Sudan:
The entry of Islam to Sudan was associated with several migrations of Arab Muslim tribes whose dates of arrival and places of settlement varied, but eventually, succeeded in Arabicisation and Islamicisation of Sudan. Therefore, we must, when handling the history of Islam in Sudan, shed light on the history and routes of these migrations.
The Arab Islamic migrations are one of the main routes of access of Islam to Sudan, because the excellent geographic location of Sudan in Africa had greatly influenced it to play a major role in the spread of the Islamic Call in different parts of Sudan. Then, it spread to the rest of the parts of Africa. The Islamic Call in Sudan preceded the rise of the State, different from what it had been in Iraq, Levant and Egypt. Waves of migration came successively to Sudan and the Arabian Peninsula remained the main source of such migrations. Arabs found in Sudan a climate similar to the climate of the Arabian Peninsula, abundant with water and pasture and they settled down. These Arab migrations and cultural and commercial connections had a great influence on the spread of Islam and the inhabitants embraced Islam and became Arabicised.
There are several routs used by Arabs to enter Sudan. The most important three routes were:
Firstly: The Red Sea:
Arabs new Sudan before Islam via The Red Sea. This fact has been proved by Geography and historical accounts. The Red Sea was never a barrier that blocked communication between its Asian Arab Coasts and African Coast. The width of the sea does not exceed one hundred and twenty miles at Sudan and it is not difficult to cross by small boats. In the south, The Red Sea narrows at the Port of Bab el Mandeb and does not exceed ten miles. It was the route taken by families and races to the continent of Africa since tens of thousands of years ago .
The Red Sea was one of the Sudanese ports which are chronically considered as one of the most important inlets of Pre-Islamic Arab settlements in Sudan. They settled on the coast opposite to the Arabian Peninsula, and went deeper into all parts of Sudan. After the arrival of Islam, those ports and their Arab inhabitants were given a significant dimension according to their precedence of arrival. The first ports were Badie , Eizab and then Suaken . It was evidenced that some Arab communities established themselves on some islands of The Red Sea, such as Dahlac , since several centuries before Islam.
In the last two centuries, large numbers of Hmyarites of Yemen crossed Bab- el Mandeb, some of them settled down and some of them moved following Blue Nile and Atbara River to Lands of Nubia . Trade
boomed in the Red Sea. When Hmyarites and Sbaees settled in different parts of the Nile Basin, their relatives and families joined them . Similar stories indicate military campaigns lead by Hmyarites in the central Nile Valley and North Africa. Those campaigns left behind groups that settled in the Lands of Nubia , Land of Bija and North Africa. These stories tell about a campaign lead by the Hmyarite Abraha Zul Manar the sun of Zulkarnain against the Nubians about the first century before Christ. Perhaps the turban with the two tails which was the badge of power for Nubatia is a proof that Abraha was known by Sab Zulkarnain . Riad believes that the Hmyarites intermixed with Hamites; inhabitants of East Africa. They inherited the monarchy of their maternal forefathers according to the inheritance system of the Hametic peoples which bequeaths the son of the sister or the sun of the daughter . Paul believes that the ones who benefited from this bequeathing system among the Arabs, are a group of Hadarma, the inhabitants of Hadramout who crossed to the African Coast in the sixth century AC and intermingled with Bija and formed a dynasty. They ruled the Bija who were known by the name Zanafij. They embraced Christianity and learned their language in order to be able to lead and control them . At the end of the seventh century AC, , a group of Huazen Arabs crossed The Red Sea and inhabited the Land of Bija and they were known by Halanga. They moved to the area of Taka. Paul believes that those Halanga were the first Arab Muslims to settle in the Bija home. This group in the East of Sudan is known by Bilaw- meaning the foreigners. The word Bilawet means speaking a foreign language which is Tabdawya; the local tongue of the East Sudan Population . Paul believes the original home of these in the Arabian Peninsula is the region of Shahar ( a city in Sultanate of Oman). He believes, also, that they are a branch of Hmyarites .
Dr. Eabie Mohamed El Haj says: ( It is not easy for the researcher to determine a specific date for the beginning of relationship between the Arabian Peninsula and the Land of Sudan, in general, and Lands of the Nile Valley, in particular. However, there is a semi-consensus among the historians and researchers that this relationship is deep rooted in time and goes back to a long time before the mission of the Prophet (PBUH) . Salah Omer El Sadig believes that Arabs knew the western coast of The Red Sea before the era of the Righteous Caliphs. They had important assembly centers and achieved coexistence relations with the local race . This is confirmed by what Tabary mentioned in his book (History of Messengers and Kings) that Omer Ibn El Khattab banished Aba Mihjan to Bdie in the Sixth Higry year as Aba Mihjan used to drink wine. Tabary asserts that Badie was densely populated before Islam. This is confirmed by the remnants found in Badie including tombstones written in the un-dotted Kufi font .
Secondly: Via Egypt:
This is the northern route, the route of Ismuth of Suez . It played a serious role in the history of the relations between the population of the Peninsula and population of the lower Nile Valley. However, some people believe that the route of the Arabian Peninsula, as a direct source of Arab migrations across The Red Sea was of a little significance and less influence compared to the northern source-Egypt, whether before Islam or during the Islamic expansion . In fact the Arabicisation of Sudan was via Egypt. History does not record, at any time, arrival of violent waves or migrations to Sudan via the Nile from North to South- from Egypt .
We find a confirmation of this view in what McMichael (that some Arab tribes in Sudan claim that their forefathers came from the Arabian Peninsula directly to Sudan across The Red Sea in order to support their claim of affiliation to a noble Amawi or Abbasi linage, or that they are sons of some Companions, given that some Arab families arrived from time to time via this route to Sudan. They came either for trade, to have a place for migration or in search of pastures. History did not record extensive migrations across this route as it recorded the migration of these Arab tribes to Egypt and from Egypt to Sudan .
Also, the desire of Arabs to live the nomad and freedom life which they were used to in their original environment and was not available in Egypt is one of the causes that made them to migrate southward, where the pastoral environment similar to the one in the Arabian Peninsula is available . Migrations to Egypt rolled from Qahtanis and Adnanis, then, Muslims, after conquering Egypt thought of conquering the Lands of Nubians. Both the Caliph and the commander in Egypt, Amr Ibn El As wanted to invade the Nubians and secure the ancient road of trade between the two countries. Amr Ibn El As sent a cavalry under the command of Ogba Ibn Nafie El Fihary in 641.
It is probable that the number of the Muslims in that Campaign was not so big and their losses were great because of the fierce resistance of the Nubians, in addition to their skill at shooting bows, so, they were called by the Arab historians (Shooters of Eyeballs). Therefore, the Muslims could not go deeper into the south and they made a treaty- armistice to resume the trade between both parties. But, the Nubians did not honor the treaty after the depose of Amr Ibn El As and death of Omer Ibn El Khattab . Abdulla Ibn Sad Ibn Abil Sarh succeeded Amr Ibn El As in Egypt and his armies went deeper into the south to Dongola the capital of the Christian Kingdom (Maqarra) (28h- 652). They besieged Dongola and used manganigue (fireballs) to strike the city. The Arab Commander decided to make a reconciliation agreement which was known by Baqt , providing that the Nubian king shall pay to the Muslims’ house of treasure 360 slaves, and Abdulla Ibn Sad promised to present him annually clothes and food, as the king complained from the scarcity of food in his country. Abdullah Ibn Abil Sarh wrote a covenant that was considered as the basis of relationship between the Muslim Egypt and Christian Nubia. The agreement, also, provided for securing the Nubians and ensuring not to fight them since they are implementing the terms of agreements between them and the Muslims, in addition to protecting the Muslim or covenanters who visit the Land of Nubians and protect the mosque in their city, and Muslims shall not be obliged to repel the enemy attacking their lands . We see in the agreement the Muslim traders are allowed to visit the land of Nubians, and this is an indicator of propagating Islam in the Land of Nubians. The traders were an active agents of the Islamic Call and this is what happened in the Land of Nubians. Also, this treaty achieved for the Muslims good neighborly so that they can feel assured of the safety of their borders from the south . The treaty lasted six centuries until the rise of the first Mamluk State in Egypt which defeated the Christian State of Maqarra and spread Islam and Islamic culture in the land of Nubians .
Just one century passed after the treaty when the Bija launched new raids on Aswan Front and they were greatly hurt. The rulers in Aswan reported the incident to Caliph Mamun. He prepared a campaign under the command of Abdullah Ibn Abil Al Jahm (232/841). Battles were fought and ended with reconciliation and signing a new treaty between them and their leader, Knun Ibn Abdul Aziiz . One of the most important terms was:
1. That the Land of Bija from Aswan to the border between Dahlak and Badie (Wind Island) shall be owned by the Caliph andKanun Ibn Abdul Aziz and the people of his town shall be slaves of the Caliph with Kanun remaining their king.
2. Bija shall respect Islam and shall not offend it and shall not mischief any Muslim or the people of Scripture(Dhimmis) , whether free or slave, on the Land of Bija , in Egypt or on the Land of Nubians and they shall not assist anyone against the Muslims.
3. If one of the Muslims entered their land for trade or residence or crossing for Pilgrimage shall be secured to the limits of their borders.
4. Kanun shall let the officials of the Caliph enter to collect the charities of the Bija people converting to Islam
5. They shall not destroy any of the mosques built by the Muslims in Saiha or Hagar.
6. If one of the Bijas entered Upper Egypt crossing or trading, they shall not display arms and shall not enter cities and villages
The important point is that the Land of Bija up to Musawa became part of the Islamic State, in addition to the terms of the lands taken by force to levy taxes on them .
In a recounting by Ibn Hugal, some of the Bija converted, committed themselves to Islam, applied its rules and uttered the two witnesses (I witness that no god but Allah and I witness that Mohamed is the Messenger of Allah, so , Abdullah Ibn El Sarh let them off and did not fight them. Ibn Hugal added: (Some of those who participated in Ibn Al Jam’s campaign against the Bija chose to stay at Alaqui as they were astounded by the gold mines and they were joined by a group from Yamama due to pressure exerted by other Arab groups. . No doubt, these different Islamic groups influenced the Bija in learning Arabic Language and propagation of Islam which was their main objective. Therefore, they had to learn the language of the Bija to communicate easily with them.
The arrival of Arabs to the Land of Sudan increased for the gold of Alaqui, especially, when Caliph Mutasim concluded an agreement with the Bija (232h-681) and obliged them to pay taxes and not to prevent Muslims from working on gold and emerald mines . Arabs increased at the gold mines due to Mutasim’s policy to bring in more Turks. This policy resulted in negative effects on the Abbaside State economy . Also, Abu Abdulrahman Abdullah Ibn Abdilmageed Al-Amary started from Egypt in (868) with a campaign to the Land of Bija accompanied with many of Rabiea and Juhaina Arabs. After he punished the Nubians, Al-Amry headed to the south to the sites of gold near Shangair (*) and obtained the right to build bases on the river to get sufficient water for Egypt . Al-Amry’ works expanded and his influence extended to Aizab to the east and Aswan to the north. Constructions expanded until the number of camels transporting goods amounted to 60000 camels, in addition to the transporters from The Red Sea to Aizab.
Magrizy says: (The reason is that Al-Amry wanted to establish an Islamic Emirate under his command in this area because of his bad relations with Ibn Toulon in Egypt .
No doubt the intermingling of these immigrant Arab groups with Nubians and Bija lead them to be influenced by the Arab blood which is continuously renewed with the rolling Arab migrations due to the turmoil of the economic conditions and rise of strives and upheavals in the Islamic world.
Thirdly: Route of Western Sudan:
The other route of entry of Arabs to Sudan was the western route to the west and east northern of Sudan. This route is specifically known as the Libyan Route which became a source of the Arab Islamic culture after the emergence of Islam. Arab Islamic migration came by this route from Arab Maghrib and settled in Sudan. Scholars, also, came from Morocco and Land of Shingeit, so, Islamic kingdoms and Sultanates emerged in West Sudan . This western route was also used by the Arab tribes in their migration towards the Land of Nubians after Islam controlled over the most northern areas in the African Continent, therefore, it is the least important route. It goes towards the plains and prairies between Nubia, Kordofan and Darfur, but it had no effective role for its dryness and difficulty because of the desert and shortage of water. However, there were routes and inlets the Arab tribes used in this direction, including the route beginning from Shingeit , ending in Tumboktu and running to Abbes chi and Fasher. Scholars and preachers came by the route from Morocco to Sudan .
Professor, Yusef Fdal believes (that the route of Islam to Kordofan and Darfur was slower and it was taken by the Arab immigrants who came from the north and east and intermingled with native population and traders from North Africa .
The routes and passages taken by different Arab groups to the central Nile Basin, included the route that goes southward from East Aswan and Kurmuku across the lands of Bija running along The Red Sea. But, the importance of this route is limited compared with the other routes for shortage of water and poor pastures. The majority of the Arabs migrating from Egypt to Central Nile Basin took the roué that goes along the course of the Nile to Dongola. Others took the road beginning from Korti along Wadil Muqadam across Al-Dabba along Wadil Malik to Kordofan, where migrations split up, some going towards Darfur and nearby westward and southward. From there, it goes along the Nile and across Bayuda Desert to Atbara and Blue Nile River towards the south eastern borders of Ethiopia . There is another opinion that the Arab groups which immigrated from Egypt southward to Sudan by the Nile, did not follow the Nile in all its parts, but followed a route that follows the Nile from the south of Aswan to Korseco or just before it, then goes through Al-Atmour roaddirectly to Abu Hamed. From Abu Hamed it follows the Nile again to the South, and this road was used by some Arab groups, perhaps before the fall of Dongola or early fourteenth century to prevent Arabs or other non-Nubians from going further south from the second cataract except for trade .These routes which were mentioned were used for the trade which represented one of the means of contact among the peoples. Trade was well on the go in ivory, gum, frankincense and gold between the Arabian Peninsula on one hand and ports of Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia on the other hand .
The presence of the Arab communities was not limited to the African Coast, but these communities went deeper into the inland and some of them reached the banks of the Nile and set up a network of trade caravans between the Coast of The Red Sea and inner lands. Arabs reached all countries of the Nile Valley from the north, the road passing through Sinai Port to Egypt, then, they descended southward to the lands of Nuba and Bija. It will be noted that the Great Sahara was a crossing bridge to unify relations and ties between North Africa and Sub-Sahara regions. Finally, as a result of the fall of the Christian Macarra, and cracking of the wall Arabs could not enter through the Nile Valley, Arab migrations increased incessantly as others crossed the Eastern Desert and found that they were preceded by their nationals and spread some features of the Arab Islamic culture. Some of them followed the Butana Plain and Gazira, then crossed the Blue Nile to Kordofan and Darfur until they met other Arab groups which came by the western bank of the Nile, then, Wadi Al_Muqadam and Wadil Malik and settled on the plains of the Central Sudan, after of the completion of the Arabicisation and Islamicisation process in Sudan with the emergence of the Funge State and fall of The Christian Alawa State in (1505) As the Muslims at the time of the Funge State, represented, for the first time, the Islamic State in Sudan, they needed to strengthen their cultural and social ties with the Islamic countries. One of the important factors that facilitated this process was the geographic location of Sudan which is in close distance to Egypt and Higaz. Under the auspice of the Funge State invitations were sent to religious leaders in Egypt and Higaz to visit Sudan and stay some time. They were welcomed by the kings of the Funge State. This unbridled desire was associated with the need for guides to teach people the affairs of their religion, including fiqh (Jurisprudence), Tawhid (monotheism) and Shariah. This provided chance for the clergy and Sufi orders to enter Sudan from everywhere. Sudan became a suitable area for the propagation of the New Call. At that time emerged the individual signs of Sufism based on asceticism.
Secondly: The Role of the Maliki Doctrine in Propagation of Islam in Sudan.
1. Introduction to the Maliki Doctrine:
The Maliki Doctrine is one of the four doctrines of the Sunnis and fiqh groups: Abu Hanifa Al Numan’s Doctrine, Imam Malik’s Doctrine, Shafie’s Doctrine and Ahmed Ibn Hanbal’s Doctrine.
Imam Malik Ibn Anas Ibn Amer Ibn Amr Ibn El Harith Ibn Ghaiman Ibn Amr Ibn El Harith whose family had the honor of accompanying the Prophet (PBUH).
Imam Malik wsa born in Madina Al- Minowara (93h and died in 179h) and he did not leave Madina except for Hij. Imam Malik started learning as a young boy and was taught by a number of instructors, including Ibn Hirmz, Ibn Shihab Al Zuhry and Nafue Ibn Omer. He based his doctrine on the priority of the Script of Allah, then the Prophetic Traditions, Consensus, then the Analog and induction thereof . He was intelligent and good at memorizing as reported by his instructors. He double checked the accuracy of what he was taught. He was righteous and gave legal opinions at early age. He had a class in the Prophet’s Mosque and regular lectures. His affiliation to Medina played a major role in the propagation of his doctrine inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula due to the high position of Madina Al Minoura in the heart of every believer.
Imam Malik combined imamate in the hadith and imamate in opinion , in addition to his accurate strict methodology in taking the Prophetic traditions and also, in his Fetwas (legal opinions) so, he put a ceiling on the sources of legislation. He hated the people of innovations and misguidance. He believed in the doctrinal plurality within one Islam, freedom of choice and possibility of coexistence with other doctrines . A number of students were taught by Imam Malik and those students were characterized by activity, vitality and enthusiasm to his juristic opinions, therefore, he was famous all over the Islamic World.
2. Prevalence of the Maliki Doctrine in Africa and Land of Morocco
The researcher mentioned before that Islam spread in a peaceful way in Nubian Land, Bija and North Africa thanks to the traders and efforts of the scholars who came from the Arabian Peninsula bringing with them the Message of Islam to these areas, therefore, it was natural that the Moroccan cultural effects should transfer to these peoples, and that their life should be of Moroccan nature for their direct contact with the Moroccans. Since the second Higry century, the Maliki Doctrine has been prevailing in the region of Morocco in exclusion to other Sunni doctrines and it was natural that it should transfer to South of Sahara, especially, Sudan. Thanks to the efforts of the scientists and scholars in establishing the doctrine, such as Al Ghazy Ibn Gais , Ziyad Ibn Abdul Hay nicknamed by Shabtoun, Mohamed Ibn Basheer Al Qadi, Abul Waleed Al-Bajy and others. The Maliki doctrine started to spread quickly toward Morocco. Judge Aiyad mentioned that the number of the scholars who were taught by Imam Malik was twenty one. But those who were taught by his students and the students of his students, in general, until the end of the record of Judge Aiyad of his book (Tarteeb Al- Madarik) were three hundred and thirty five. This figure appears big and surpassed by any other figure in the land of Islam. This indicates that the Maliki Doctrine had found a new home in Morocco .
By the figure and bibliographies it becomes clear that the Maliki Doctrine had been remarkably present in Africa since its emergence. The first of these leaders was Abdullah Ibn Ghanim, the judge who assumed the judiciary of Africa in 171h- 787 and Asad Ibn Furat. It was strongly present in Morocco, although, sometimes, it was subjected to rulers who adopted a doctrine other than the Maliki Doctrine 296h-1048. Perhaps the real reason for the North Africans to insist on the Maliki Doctrine was loathe of the insurrections of Khawarig which did not cease political rebellion, innovations and misguidance, when Imam Malik became famous .
3. The Role of Moroccans in Propagation of Maliki Doctrine in Sudan
4. Sudan’s geographical location dominates some routes taken by Moroccan pilgrims, traders and students coming to the Holy Land. There is a road that passes by the City of Gus in South Egypt going east to Ezab Port on The Red Sea Coast, and there is another road coming from west Africa, Senegal crossing Mali, Niger, Chad and Sudan. In Medieval Age, pilgrims going to Hijaz passed ports of Eizab, Badie and Suakin until they reach Holy Land . Moroccans loved to travel for education which was the priority for the students and the scholars who exerted considerable effort to maintain and propagate Islam.. One of these migrations was the migration of Moroccans to Sudan and lead to the intellectual cross- fertilization and social intercommunication as Sudan was the closest and the more secure and most populated crossing point which provided its inhabitants with the chances to establish a contact with the learned Moroccans . Relations between Sudan and Morocco during the age of Islam has been ascertained by Dr, Abdul Gader Osman who said ( there is no document or indication of any kind of relations between Sudan and Morocco before Islam. After the arrival of Islam, Moroccans knew Sudan by Pilgrimage because the pilgrims’ routes passed through Sudan to the Holy Lands.
There were random individual and group migrations of Moroccans to Sudan and many of them settled in Sudan, in this way: the father of Sheikh Hassan Wad Hassuna immigrated to Sudan and settled in Karkuje , south of Khartoum and east of Sinja. He got married in Sudan and his son Sheikh Hassan who adopted Sufism orders was born to him in Sudan, also, Sheikh Abdullah Ibn Abdul Rahman whose linage goes back to Sharif Ahmed Abil Abbas Ahmed Ibn Ahmed Ibn Eisa El Fasy . When Ibn Batuta came to Eizab, he met the Sheikh of Morocco, Mohamed Ibn Al Khalifa Al Murtada and a group of his followers and family. He played a major role in the propagation of the Maliki Doctrine in East of Sudan . Also, groups from Beni Hilal settled in Sudan. They came originally from Mudar in Hijaz. They were displaced to Sudan at the time of Abbaside State because they looted and robbed, and some of them immigrated to Morocco and some individuals of them arrived in Sudan on their way to pilgrimage or trade. They met some Sudanese who convinced them to stay in Sudan. They liked the environment in Sudan and brought the rest of their families and friends in Africa and Morocco. Most of them settled in the west of Sudan in the area that forms today Kordofan and Darfur. Some the most famous of these tribes are Hilalya, Habbanya, Rezigat, Beni Hilba and Huazma.
These tribes played a significant role in Arabicisation of the areas they occupied and in emergence of Kingdom of Darfur through intermarriage and assuming power with the ruling families, thanks to the system of the daughter’s son’s inheritance which was recognized at that time. The first king of Bani Hilal was Sulaiman Sulong, or the Arab. Therefore, these tribes played and effective role in the propagation of the Maliki Doctrine culture by assuming power . The Sufi Orders played a direct role in the propagation of the Maliki Doctrine in Sudan. These Orders included:
Founded by Imam Abul Hassan Ali Abdulla Abdul Gabbar El Shazly, but the one who laid its rules and determined the locations of its assembly and method of its teaching is Sheikh Mohamed Abu Donana El Shazly, the Moroccan who came to Sudan from Marrakesh in 849h- 1445. He settled at the village of Sugadi which is located west of Mahmia. It was said that he got married in Dongola and had one son - Sharif Hassan Al Bainy, and seven daughters who got married to influential characters in Sudan, such as Sheikh Abdulla Gammaa, Shikh of Abdullab Sheikhdom and as Sheikh Idris Wadel Arbab, one of the polars of Sufism .
Founded by Ahmed Ibn Idris Ibn Mohamed El Arabi whose linage ends with Hussain Ibn Ali Ibn Abu Talib. He came from Fas and settled in Hijaz and lived thirty years in Hijaz. His student, Mohamed Osman Mirghani paved the road for this order in Sudan.
Ordered by Sheikh Abul Abbas Ahmed Ibn Mohamed Ibn Mukhtar Ibn Ahmed Al- Tigani from Algeria. This order entered Sudan by the Tunisian traveler, Sayed Al-Bishr Sidy Mohamed, but the biggest step was made by the Preacher, Mohamed Al-Mukhtar Ibn Abdul Rahman Al- Shigiety . One of the most famous scholars of the Maliki Doctrine is Sheikh Ahmed Baba El Tumbuti, who became famous because he was born for a learned Sudanese family - Agait Family. He was taught by Sheikh Mohamed Bagie and accompanied him for more than twenty years and learned a lot of knowledge. He studied Al Muwatta, understood it and completed it, also, Osul Al-Sabki and other and many other books . The Maliki Doctrine has been the main doctrine in Sudan since the sixteenth century and there was no equivalence with other doctrines. The Maliki Doctrine was naturally, most privileged because it came to Sudan from Morocco and became established in the Higry first century. The emergence of the state in Sudan came later in the tenth Higry century, in addition to the implementation of the Maliki Doctrine culture in Sudan in most of their issues of life, such as marriage contracts requiring guardian and two witnesses and the Imam holding a stick on Friday ceremony speech and Eids, wearing white clothes in mourning and dressing down at the prayer. The Sudanese, specifically, adopted the Maliki Doctrine and students used to travel to Madina Al Minuwara to be taught by Imam Malik and returned to their countries , whether Sudanese or Africans most of them crossing Sudan. Therefore, the Maliki Doctrine characterized life in Sudan, regarding both peoples or rulers , in addition, all scholars and scientists who came to Sudan embracing the Maliki Doctrine, such as Sheikh Ghulam Allah Ibn Aied from Yemen. He did not come to Sudan crossing Egypt, but came from Ethiopia, Somalia and Eritrea, and Sheikh Haj Balul Al Afriki Al Hgarbawi, at the village of (Ghaba). The influence of Sheikh Haj Balul on that area was great. The Maliki jurisprudence with Warch reading spread in all kingdoms of Sudan, and we find that the first to come from Egypt was Sheikh Mamoud Al Arry who studied at Azhar and taught by two learned Maliki sheikhs – Shams Eldin Allugani and his brother, Nasr Eldin. Also, Mohamed El Ginnawi, Egyptian Malki taught the Malki Doctrine in Sinnar and Arbegi. Also, Jaber , the Shekh of Bolad, the first to teach Mukhatsar Khalil in Maliki Doctrine in the Lands of Shigeyah. From hence, his students spread in the Land of Gezira .
Thirdly: Examples of the Most Famous Mesgids and Khalwas in Sudan:
Firstly: Definition of Mesgid:
Mesgid (Mosque) linguistically is the place of prostration or they say, places of prostration in human and ground. Mesgid is every spot on the ground as the Prophet said: (the ground made for me a Mesgid and tahur) .
Previous nations did not pray except in a place sought out for its purity, but the Islamic nation was permitted to pray at any place where there is no impurity. This is exceptionally given to the Prophet PBUH among the prophets. But the Masgid as a house of Islamic worship was mentioned in the Holy Quran ” O Children of Adam! Put on your adornment (decent proper dress) when you attend your Masgid at the time of every prayer. Eat and drink, but do not be extravagant; surely He does not love the extravagant” ..
Secondly: Missions of Masgid:
The building of Masgid or mosque was as simple as the people of that time. It was built of straw, wood and mud. Then, the building materials progressed and Masgids were built of red brick and stone, observing the Sharia point of view without exaggeration of decoration and ornamentation. Their floors are usually covered with mats of palm fronds, and if they wanted them to be more luxurious, they would be covered with carpets of camels or sheep wool .
Classes were held in the Masgids to teach Muslims the affairs of their religion, as it was usual since the Prophet (PBUH). Besides the prayer, it provided great services: classes of lessons, a courthouse and a place to receive delegates from different countries and an assembly area of armies for the Islamic battles. The Masgid at the time of the Prophet (PBUH) assumed all the state functions and played a significant role in the propagation of the Islamic belief. They established a Masgid in any place reached by traders or an Islamic group as a nucleus for a new Islamic group. The Masgid is the first school where all issues of the Muslim’s public life are centered, with its religious, cultural, political and social aspects . After the victory of Islam, thank to the great companion, Abdullah Ibn Sad Ibn Abi Al- Sarh, the foster brother of Caliph Osman Ibn Affan who arrived in Sudan after the conclusion of Baqt agreement in (31h- 655) with the Nubian king, the road was paved for Islam to enter Sudan in a smooth streamline method after the great confrontation on the battlefield where no side won. Then, Abdullah Ibn Sad Ibn Abi Al- Sarh built his old Masgid in Dongola. Then, Masgids spread in Sudan .
Oldest and Most Famous Masgids in Sudan
1/ Abdullah Ibn Abi Sarh’s Masgid: The first and oldest Masgid in Sudan. Its importance was included in the provisions of the treaty, as a symbol of Islamic presence, whatever its size, and provisions require from the Nubians to clean it and light it and that they shall not prevent anyone who wanted to pray. This Masgid was an Islamic territory, although it was on a non-Muslim land. It was nebulous of the development of the first Islamic community. The Baqt Agreement guaranteed for the Nubians freedom of religious belief. It stipulated (you shall protect the Masgid which was built by the Muslims in your city square (Dongola, the capital of the Christian Nuba) and you shall not prevent anyone who wants to pray and you shall not try to stop anyone who intends to enter it and stay there until he goes out, and you shall sweep it and light it) . This mosque is located at the village of Nawa (Athar Al Nabi) about 25 kilometers from Old Dongola. The area of the mosque is about 13 meters length and 11 meters width. The thickness of the wall is about 70 cm. The niche was built of stones of length ranging between one meter and two meters. They said that Abulla Ibn Abi Al Sarh camped in this area taking advantage of the rise for observation of the enemies. There is no other mosque throughout the area. The way it was built shows a great resemblance to the first mosques in Islam in Mecca and Madina with regard to the windows and the niche .
There is a shrine near the mosque in the name of Mohamed Miknas Tod, believed to have come from Morocco- Maknas city, and Nubian called him Maknas Tod, meaning the son of Maknas, in their language. He taught them the Quran and Fiqh. From this area came the first judge in Sudan, the great grandfather of the inhabitants of this village, Al Badry Sati Mohamed who was a learned scholar and taught a number of sheiks. This is a reference to the old mosque of Dongola, and there is another view that asserts it was built by the Muslims who were left behind after Amr Ibn Al-As invaded Nubia. It is probable that lessons were held at the mosque of Dongola to teach the natives the affairs of their religion and performance of prayer. It was a shelter for foreigners and a trade center wherefrom they get off to clear their transactions. Its walls of stones, black pieces of rock and limestone are still remaining .
2/ the second mosque is located south of the City of Dongola and built of two stories. They said that it was a church and was changed into mosque and some people say it was a palace for the Nubian ruler and the lower floor was used as guesthouse and the upper floor was the palace of the government. It was changed to mosque in (717h-1317) . Benu Kenz managed to take over the throne of Dongola under the command of the Nubian Muslim Prince, Abdulla Bershambu, the first Muslim ruler in the Lands of Nubia. Thus, the rule went from the Nubians to Benu Kenz among whom were Arabs from Rabia who intermingled with Nubians, married to them and learned their language . Benu Kenz took the throne of Dongola over and most of the Christian Nubians converted to Islam. It suffices to highlight this change that Kenz Al Dawla Ibn Shgaa Eldin changed in the early higry eighth century the second floor of the church of Dongola to a mosque and the ground floor remained as a guesthouse for foreigners, and that was in (718h-1318).
By changing the church of Dongola to a mosque, the last feature of Christianity in the Land of Nubia ended .
3/ one of the most famous mosques in the Islam, also, is the mosque of Eizab, one of the most important ports on The Red Sea. It is visited by traders from China, India , Yemen, Hijaz and Europe and a transit station for pilgrims from Islamic Maghrib, and Sub-Saharan Africa to and from Hijaz. The location of Eizab on the route of Pilgrimage made it an important center to listening to Hadith, and many scholars resided constantly there.
The Mosque of Eizab was first mentioned when the Persian traveler, Abu Maeen Naser Khisru, Eizab between (434-444h-1045-1052), and spent three months. When people heard of him, they asked him to lecture them at the mosque and he responded to their request and lectured them . Ibn Batuta says: Eizab has a mosque thought to be belonging to Gastlan, famous for blessing and visited by Sheikh Al Saleh Musa and Sheikh Al Hassan Mohamed Marrakishi . This mosque appears to be the only religious institution in Eizab, because the travelers and historians did not mention except this mosque, although they were many, as associations and others. Therefore, the mosque of Eizab was the only circle of the religious activity, including listening to Hadith and teaching etc..
There are treaties concluded by Abdullah Ibn Al Gahm with Kenun Ibn Abdul Aziz, the great man of Bija for a number of mosques that will be considered an indication of the power of the Islamic presence on the land of Bija. The treaty stipulates (You shall not destroy a mosque built by the Muslims at Saiha and Hagar and all parts of your country, in length and width, and if you do so, you will not have neither covenant nor honesty ). Also, Abdullah Ibn Al Gahm commanded Kenon Ibn Abdul Aziz to allow the officials of the Caliph access to the Land of Bija to collect the charities from those who converted to Islam. Regarding the mosques in Funge Sultanate, Sheikh Ageeb Al Manglik supervised the construction of many mosques. He built a mosque for Sheikh Ali Wad Ageeb who was taught by Sheikh Mohamed Al Balawi at Azhar and gave him many houses in charity, and also, a mosque for Sheikh Al Awadabi Al Jamuwi at Islang . In the eighth higry century, the second half of the fourteenth century, Ghulam Aldin Ibn Ayed came from Yemen from a village called (Al Hilaila) and lived on an island in The Red Sea called (Sakia) . then, he left for Dongola and decided to live there because the people there were very puzzled and misguided. He constructed mosques, taught Quran and tutored his sons and the sons of the Muslims. His sons later, built mosques. He also, built a mosque at (Ahmar Mugy) near Rusairis and some mosques on the Ethiopian border, Gazira and North of Khartoum . Mosques where Quran, sciences of Quran, Fiqh and Tawhid (Monotheism) were taught spread and they were frequented by people, such as the mosque of Awlad Jaber, in the land od Shaigeya, Masgid Al-Ghubush in Barber and Katranje mosque, and Arakyeen in Gezira. In the early tenth higry century, came the scholar Eisa Ibn Bushara Al Ansary Al Khazragi who was born in Madina Al Minowara, and was taught by instructors of Islam in Egypt. He was brilliant at the Malki Doctrine and Shafie Doctrine at Katranje village, east of Khartoum. He established a mosque to teach Quran and sciences of Quran .
The religious education expanded, thank to mosques, and also, to the arrival large numbers of scholars and Sufis from outside Sudan, such as Sheikh Mohamed Al Ginawi El Maliki the Egyptian, who entered Sinnar and Arbigy. He stayed in Baber and built a mosque and taught Quran, doctrines and all sciences. His students are Mohamed Ibn Suar El Dahab from Dongola who studied Logic and Quran, and Shekh Mohamed Ibn Ali Ibn Gadam. Also, one of his students is the Judge Deshin, the judge of Arbigy who assumed judiciary at the time of Sheikh Ageeb Al Mangelik by the order of King Dakeen (985h) . Thus, we find that mosques spread all over Sudan and their numbers differ according to the density of population. Rules encouraged scholars who built several mosques. They allocated gifts for the scholars and gave them lands and exempted them from taxes and tithes .
Secondly: Examples of the Most Famous Khalwas in Sudan:
Firstly: Definition of Khalwa: (Harmet)
Khalwa is a Sufi term meaning isolating oneself from people for the purpose of worshipping and reaching the truth. It means removal of the rust and the impurities from the heart and in dealing with people. Khalwa, also, means self-jihad (self-strife) until one gets to khalwa (purity and freedom)
Khalwa in Sudan has a significance specified by a certain place where the functions of the religious instruction are performed: teaching writing, reading and memorizing Quran.
Secondly: The Role of Khalwa:
Stages of Education at the Khalwa:
1/ teaching writing, reading and memorizing Quran and knowing some obligations and optional (Sunnas)
2. Receiving education; at this stage, there are several sheikhs (teachers), each sheikh teaches a branch of the religious science
3. Specialization: this is the aspiration of every learner. At this stage, the student studies the manners of Sufism, methods and times of Awrad (supplications) learning self-training, entering into seclusions, until the sheikh is convinced that the student has absorbed all these and followed the Sufi path .
No doubt, Kalwas played a significant role in the propagation of Islam and Arabic culture, being the primary educational unit in Sudan which is specialized in teaching Holy Quran and memorizing its verses, and in this was, Khalwa provided a kind of education that suits the situations in the country in a developing society. It seems that Khalwas emerged with the arrival of the Arab Muslims in centuries prior to the rise of the Funje Islamic Kingdom in early tenth Higry century, but they multiplied and became organized after the emergence of Funje State.
Mohamed Wad Daif Allah says: (Know that Funje conquered the Land of Nubia and Omara Dongus designed the City of Sinnar. No school of science or Quran was known in these regions until the arrival of Sheikh Mahmoud Al Araki and teaching people in the second half of the tenth century. Ageeb Al mangelik assumed the rule and at the beginning of his rule, Ibrahim Al Bulad arrived from Egypt to the land of Shigaaya and taught “ Khalil and Resala ).
Then, came Talmasani the Moroccan to Sheikh Mohamed Eisa Suar Al Dahab and taught him theology, sciences of Quran, including tajweed (a special manner of reciting the Qur'an according to prescribed rules of pronunciation and intonation) , rewayat ( narrations) and Grammar. Teaching Tawheed (Monotheism) and Tajweed widely spread in Gazira and Abu Seneta in Arbegi. Then, came Esheikh Al Misry to the land of barber and taught Tajweed, grammar and Resala (Message).
Al Shekh Talmasani came to Sheikh Mahmed Eisa Suar Al Dahab in Old Dongola and taught him sciences of Quran . There is a place at the Khalea, also, called (Tugaba) fireplace which is a common custom that reminds of the fire of the old villages to draw the travelers and offer them food. Khalwas were, also, places for wayfarers and travelers who found in them shelter, food and entertainment. They were lighted by the fire of wood or Masraga ( a lamp fueled by gas and used only inside rooms because wind puts it out)
Thirdly: Most Famous Khalwas:
Rukabia Khalwas: the grandfather of Rukabia, Sayed Ahmed Ibn Aied, well known as Ghulam Alla Al Rukabi, arrived in Sudan in early thenth Higry century and settled at old Dongola. He established the first Khalwa to teach Holy Quran . He lived there until he died and was buried at Old Dongola and people visit his burial place. His descendants spread his teachings all over Sudan.
2. Bidareyah Khalwas: their chief was Mohamed Eisa Suar Al Dahab and they spread learning along the area of Maraui. He had ten sons and one hundred grandsons, so, he was called (Father of ten and grandfather of one hundred ).
3. Wadel Faki Ibrahim’s Khalwa: at Massawy Island. He was taught Sufism by Shekh Hassan at Nory- Jarra Island- and Sheikh Hassan from Bedareyah Dahmashetah.
But, the most famous and oldest Khalwas is the Khalwa of Old Dongola (Al Ghaddar), Khalwa of Akked and Khalwas of Manaseer, Kendimur, Sheikh Ismael Wad Jaber in the land of Shaygeyah and Khalwas of Ghubush in Barber, Al Sheikh Gasem Ibn Al Haj Ibrahim’s Khalwa whose students are estimated by five hundred students. Fagih Mohamed Ibn Adla torched the fire of Quran at his Khalwa. Famous Khalwas include the Khalwas of Arakyeen and Yagubab in Gazira, Khalwas of Sheikh Khugali Wad Hamad Wad Um Marium in Tuty and some outskirts of Khartoum, Khalwas of Magazeeb in Damaer and Khalwas of Awlad Jaber at Guz Al Alam in Shandy .
Some Khalwas in Sudan lately won a great fame, such as Khalwas of Sheikh Wad Badur at Um Dowan Ban, Khalwas of Hemishkuraib in East of Sudan built by Ali Bitay, Khalwas of Sheikh Abu Azza and Khalwa of Kabkabeyah in west of Sudan.
We find in the above that Arab races knew the land of Nubians and Bija and they arrived there several centuries before Islam. They entered Sudan by many routes including: via Egypt across the Nile toward the Lands Of Nubians and Bija. There are several factors that made Arabs migrate to Sudan from Egypt by the route of the Nile southward represented in abundance of water and agricultural lands and, also, the trade was one of the most important reasons of migration, especially, the presence of gold in Wadi El _Alagi. This intermingling resulted in Nubians and Bija being influenced by the Arab and Islamic culture. The strife of the Islamic government in Egypt to secure its southern borders helped in Arabicisation and Islamicisation of the Nubians and Bija, so, it concluded agreements with the Nubians, the fact which facilitated the smooth entry of Islam to the land of Nubia and Bija due to prevalence of security for Muslims and secured mosques in such areas. Migrations of Arabs multiplied and Arab races intermarried with the Nubians until they assumed power through the inheritance of the son of sister or son of daughter. Also, migration across The Red Sea was facilitated by the geographic nearness, in addition to the narrowness of The Red Sea at that areas. Consequently, the trade was active. Migration from the west was on a lesser scale towards Kordofan and Darfur. By the fall of the Nubian dynasty, emerged Islamic kingdoms and sheikhdoms in Sudan and large numbers of scholars and jurists immigrated to Sudan. Islam became deeply rooted by the grace of Almighty and then by the efforts of the Islamic kingdoms. In order to firm establish the Islamic teachings, mosques and Khalwas were built. The importance of the mosques lies in that they were established before the establishment of the Islamic government in Nubia, after the Baqt agreement concluded by the great Companion, Abdullah Ibn Sad Ibn Abi Sarh, and that was a symbol of the presence of Islam on the Nubian Land. Also, Khalwas were sources of knowledge and religious teachings. The Maliki Doctrine spread in Sudan, despite the prevalence of the Shafee Doctrine in Egypt, the neighbor of Sudan. It grew powerful with the help of the Moroccan Scholars and it is the doctrine of the State up to this day.
The study concluded that the entry of Islam in Sudan was associated with Islamic Arab migrations during varied periods and they intermingled with the local population who were influenced by them and acquired from them the Islamic practices and rituals as habits and not as worship in the beginning. After that Sudan went through new developments. That is, the demise of the Nubian Christian kingdoms and emergence of Islamic kingdoms that played, subsequently, an effective role in the Islamicisation of Sudan and spread of Islamic sciences and culture. Among the conclusions of the study:
1/ Sudan was Islamicised by traders, scholars and scientists in peaceful and amicable way and not by sword and tribute.
2/ the spread of Islam in Sudan came as a result of Arab Islamic migrations
3/ Some Islamic bodies which emerged in Sudan, such as mosques and Khalwas, played a major role in the Islamicisation of Sudan.
4/ Leaders of Sufi orders played a significant role in the propagation of Islam in Sudan.
5/ the rise of the Funje Islamic Rule and encouragement of scholars by their kings had a great impact on the Islamicisation of Sudan.
1. The first person who used the name (Nubia) was the Greek historian, Autosenios in 2nd century B.C. and it is a geographic expression misrepresented to become a name of Arabicised tribes : Musad Mohamed, Islam and Nubia in Medieval Ages , Anglo Egyptian Bookshop, 1960, P. 3
2. Same, P.4.
3. Napata: the old capital of Kushite State, located on the top of Barkal Mountain close to the 4th cataract, but Maraui is different from today’s Maraui which is near Napata City. Ditto, P.3.
4. Mohamed (Mohamed Awad) Northern Sudan- Its Population and Tribes, Egypt, 1951.
5. Ditto, P.384.
6. Sulaiman, Mohamed Nur, The Role of Azhar in Sudan, Egypt, 1985, P.11.
7. Awad, Mohamed Awad, Sudan and Nile Valley, Egypt, 1951,P. 28.
8. Badie: First Arab port after the dawn of Islam on the western coast of the Red Sea, the researcher.
9. Eizab: The most important city of Hadarba and a port for export of gold and iron, El Masudi, Murug Al Zahab Wa Maaden El Jouwhar, Cairo, 1964, P. 51.
10. El Sadig, Salah Omer, Situations of Islamic Relics in Sudan, International Conference for Islam in Africa, Africa International University, 2006, P. 89.
11. Dahlik: a foreign name Arabicised for an island in Yemen’s Sea and anchorage for Ethiopia. When Benu Omeya got angry with a man, banished him to it after Islam., Yagut Al Hamawi (Shihab Eldin Abdullah Al Hamawi Al – Rumawi) Mugam Al – Buldan, part 2, Cairo, 1907, P. 205.
12. Hmrytes: a Yemeni tribe since the time of Sabaeyeen which had a great influence in late years of Sabba State, Simplified Arabic Encyclopedia, edition 2, Dar Al Gabal, Beirut 2001, P. 222.
13. Musad, Mustafa Mohamed, Ditto, P. 108.
14. El Busaily, El Shater, Landmarks of Nile Valley History, Cairo, 1955,P. 8.
15. Ibn Khaldun, Al- Ebar Wa diwan El Mubtada Wal Khabar Fi Ayyam Al Arab wal Agam wal barbar waman Asarahum min zwil sultan al akbar, 1284, P. 176/
16. Musad, Mustafa Mohamed, ditto, P. 108
17. Paul, A.A History of Binaries of Sudan PP.64-67. 18. Quoted from Mustafa Musad, P. 118.
18. Ibrahim, Abdul Hafiz, Researches of the Forum of the Custodian of the two Holy Mosques, Johannesburg, South Africa 1432h, P. 51.
19. Elhaj, Rabie Mohamed, Arab Migrations to The Lands of Nubia, with no edition date, P. 5.
20. Elsadig, Salah Omer, Ditto, P. 900
21. Eltabary, Mohamed Ibn Jareer, History of Messengers and Kings, Dar Elmaarif, 1962, P. 28.
22. Awad, Ditto, P. 150, 160
23. Musad, Mustafa, Ditto, P. 191
24. El Balazry (Ahmed Ibn Yahia Ibn Jaber Al Baghdady Abul Abbas, Conquest of Countries, Lyon, 1866, P. 336.
25. Baqt: what was taken from Arabs every year at the Village of Aqeed Ali, five miles south of Aswan. Baqt, according to some researchers, is derived from two origins of the word, one of them Greek, pactum, meaning agreement or friendliness and the other is old Egyptian, meaning tax paid in-kind , Magrizy, Takieddin Ahmed, Al Muaez wal ekhtibar, Bulak 1270, P.182.
26. Al Balazry, Ditto, P. 336
27. Magrizy, Ditto P. 195
28. Ibn Hugal (Abul Gasem Ibn Hugal) Picture of Earth, Leiden 1938, P. 50-53
29. The same, P. 53
30. Al Balazry, Ditto, P. 239
31. Musad, Mustafa, Ditto, P. 131
32. Al Magrizy, Ditto, P. 167
33. Abdeen , Abdul Majeed, History of Arab Culture in Sudan, Publications of “ Khartoum the Capital of Culture”, Khartoum, Tamadon Printing Press 2005, P. 3
34. El Tunisy, Mohameds Ibn Omer, Tashiz Al Azhan Bi sirat bilad al arab wal sudan, survey by Mustafa Sad, Cairo, Egyptian House for Insurance and Translation 1965, P. 170
35. Fadl, Yusef, Studies in the History of Sudan, Khartoum, 1975, P. 37
36. Musad< Musatafa, Ditto , P. 194
37. Same, P. 165
38. Busaily, Ditto, P. 8
39. Ayyad, Abul Fadl Ibn Musa El Sabty, tarteeb elmadarik wa tareeb almasalik limarifat aayan masalik, survey by Dr. Ahmed Mahmoud, Publications of El hayat Bookshop – Lebanon, Beirut 1967, P. 92-103
40. Hilal, Guda Abdul Rahman, Introduction of the Will of Judge Abul waleed Elbagee, El Mahdi El Misry Magazine for Islamic Studies, Madrid, fifth issue 1995, P. 136.
41. Abbas Elgadi, Ditto, part2, P. 72
42. Magry, nafhal yeeb minghusn elandolos alrateeb, survey by Abbas, Ehsan, Beirut 1968, part 3, P. 230
43. Judge Abul Waleed El Bagee, Sulaiman Ibn Khalaf Ibn Sad Ibn Ayub, Ibn Warith El Bagee. Their origin is Ptolemy and moved to Baga
44. Imam, Mohamed Abu Mohamed, Maliki Doctrine in Sub-Saharan Africa under Islamic Kingdoms 2006. P. 103.
45. Same, P.104
46. Jad Al Raub< Abdul Gasder Osman Mohamed, Sudanese Moroccan Relations- Vision Through the Maliki Doctrine 1885-1038/1403-430, Omdurman Islamic University, 2014, P. 9
47. Same, P.9-10
48. Same, P. 10-12
49. Ibn Batuta ( Omer Ibn Abdullah Al Luati) Tuhfat Al Nuzzar fi ghraeb Al amsar wa agaeb al as afar (Ibn Batuta’s Journey) Cairo, 1966, P. 23.
50. Jad Al Rub, Ditto, P. 12-14
51. Same P. 15.
52. Ibn Daif Allah (Mohamed El Nur) Book of Tabagat for Godly Men, Righteous, Scholars and Poets in Sudan, Surveyed by Hassan, Yusef Fadl, Khartoum University Printing and Publishing House 1992, P. 41
53. Imam, Mohamed Abu Mohamed, Ditto, P. 110
54. Jad Al Rub, Ditto, P. 19
55. Simplified Arabia Encyclopedia, edition 2, Dar Al Gabal, Beirut, Egyptian Association for Knowledge Dissemination, with no date, P. 223.
56. Holy Quranm surat al araaf , P. 249, verse 31.
57. Gasem (Own Al sheriff Gasem) Islam and Arabism in Sudan, Dar Al Gabal- Beirut , Dar Al Mamun Limited, Khartoum, P. 87.
58. Shalabi, Ahmed , History of Islamic Education- System, Philosophy, edition 6, Cairo 1978, P. 67
59. Musad, Mustafa, Ditto, P. 256, Addendum No. 6, P. 256
60. Sulaiman, Mohamed Nur, the Rule of Azharian in Sudan, Egypt 1985, P. 7
61. Al Haj, Al Mutasim Ahmed ( Khalawin Sudan, Systems and Planns), Theses of Master Degree 1402h- 1982, P. 77
62. Al Gusy, Atteya, History of Kenz Islamic State, Cairo 1967, P.
63. Al Haj< Al Mutasem, Ditto P. 79
64. Musad, Mustafa Ahmed, Sudanese Arab Liberary, Cairo University Publications, Khartoum 1972, P. 119
65. Ibn Batuta, Ditto, P. 42-43
66. Basheer, Basheer Ibrahim (Eizab- its Religious and Literary life) Sudanese Studies Magazine, Second Issue, part 5, 1979, P. 54-65
67. Same, P. 84
68. Musad, Nustfa, Ditto, 264
69. Al Haj, Al Mutasem Ahmed, Ditto, P. 88
70. Muhiel Din (Mohamed Saleh) Abdallab Sheikhdom and its influence on Sudan’s Political Life, El Dar El Sudania 1972, P. 263
71. Same, P. 265
72. Alsarraj, Ershad El sary litragim Aal Eisa Ibn Bushara al ansary, Al Nahada Al Sudania Printing Press, Khartoum, 1955, P,8-11
73. Same, P. 72
74. Same, P. 82
75. Al Haj, Al Mutasem, Ditto, P. 105
76. Hassan, Yusef Fadl, Ditto, P. 83
77. Ibrahim, Abdul Magid, March of Scholars of Sudan from Tumbutu to Omdurman. Al Resala Corporation for Printing and Publishing, no date, P.
78. Wad Daif Allah, Ditto, P. 5
79. Wad Daif Allah, Ditto, P. 7
80. Ali, Fatima Ahmed, Maraui Area, Appearance and Essence, Hayat Al Gadida Printing Press, edition2, 2001, P. 157
81. Same, P. 160