History of Sudanese press: Genesis and development

Tue, 27 Mar 2018



Dr. Abdal RaÊmān Gorashi A'bdallah

Abstract:

This research contains the origin and development of Sudanese press, starting with (Gazette) and Sudan newspaper and the historical periods that the Sudanese press went through until it reached where it is now.

In this research we used the historical method that is based on detailing according to the historical sequence, and that’s through referring to many references and sources and documents, of which the most important is (Sudanese press in half a century) and some books, documents and unpublished reports.We divided the research into five chapters; the first was about the beginnings, genesis and development of the Sudanese press. The second part was about party press, and the third was about provincial press in Sudan, the forth about political press and the fifth was about specialized newspapers and the last chapter was dedicated to a number of newspapers that were characterized by their continuity until today.And we arrived at the end of the research to a number of results and recommendations of which:

1- The Sudanese press originated on the hands of foreigners and opened its doors to many Sudanese journalistic writers.

2- When national press appeared, it used to be loyal to the British government but the Sudanese intellectuals relied on literal press to express their opposition to the foreign rule.

3- Partisan press appeared after the emergence of parties.

4- Sudanese newspapers dealt with many issues, political, economical, cultural and social.

5- Sudanese press suffered and is still suffering from stopping for varying periods during military rule and did not survive that during the democratic rule.

In spite of that we see that the Sudanese press has developed somewhat through its keeping up with technical development.

The research provided recommendations, of which:

1- The exemption of the inputs of press industry from import taxes and any other tax.

2- The exemption of the press and publications council from the expensive fees, to pay only symbolic fees.

3- Reforming the legal environment of press.

4- Elevating the abilities of journalists through constant training on the forms of the journalistic and technical work.

 

Sudanese press, geneses and development :

In the year 1898 Sudan became a British colony and the condominium rule treaty was signed between Egypt and Britain. According to this treaty Britain controlled Sudan and became the actual ruler of the country, and Kitchener the first Governor General started setting up a new system to administer the country according to the British system. The British authorities started controlling life in Sudan and control extended to the first newspapers that were published with the encouragement of the British authorities to achieve certain goals the colonials were aiming to accomplish…(1)

The press genesis differs in Sudan from other African and Arabian countries, so if the press started on the hands of foreigners in Africa and on the hands of educated nationals in the Arabian countries, in Sudan it started on the hands of foreigners loyal to the British in Sudan, and that’s if we considered “Sudan” newspaper the first newspaper to be released in Sudan. Its owners were the owners of al Mujtam’newspaper that was publishing in Egypt, and before the publication of Sudan newspaper there was another formof journals that we cannot literally categorize as newspapers, if the concept of newspaper means papers and press and readers, then the journalistic forms that appeared before Sudan cannot be considered as papers.Of theseare the MahdÌya publications in the year 1885 which cannot be considered papers because they were a form of pamphlets that contained statements promoting the ideals of alMahdÌyaat its beginning, and then it became the tool of the MahdÌyagovernment to issue orders and to spread the opinions of MuÊammadAÊmad al Mahdi the leader of the MahdÌyarevolution, and these were collected later in what became known as (al MahdiPublications). ([1])

Sudan since the era of Khedive Ismail relied on Egyptian press which was paying special attention to the news of Sudan, and the first news paper was when the Sudanese government established (Sudanese Gazette) newspaper, the formal newspaper, and published in its first issue the articles of the treaty of 1899, the Military Gazette used to be printed in Khartoum where the army is, afterwards the administration of (alMujtam’) newspaper sought to publish a newspaper in Khartoum, so it sent two of its editors, KhalÌlThābit and LabÌb Gredeny to establish the news paper, so the newspaper of 1904 was published in two pages, English and Arabic, and it was a second copy of alMujtam’ in its editorial and a continuation of its political theory, washed by the local form and have a regional stamp, and it was interested in spreading the Arabic culture and opened the way for the a number of immigrant and national scholars to write in it and to publish their work and ideas. It also dealt in economical issues which was the subject of the government attention. It was published twice weekly and the government of Sudan made it semi-formal later on ([2])

And of the publications that was before Sudan newspaper in the year 1896, the English colonial’s publications which included the army news of which were Dongula News and alfa journal.

On the seventh of March 1899 appeared the issue of “Gazette” newspaper containing the articles of the treaty between Egypt and Britain about the administration of Sudan, and Sudan “Gazette” was in (4) small size pages, and in the first issue was the following:” Issued by the government of Sudan to publish the laws and  regulations and the announcements that come from it, to guide the people of Sudan and lead them through the good government system, the price of the issue is five MalÌms and it is ready to publish commercials in the first year and it was twice a month and then once a month).

Before the newspaper of Sudan appeared other journalistic forms for the lack of newspapers, although some of the researchers associate the beginning of journalism in Sudan with the Gazette, and those rely on that it was issued regularly and printed and distributed to the government employees, and if we take this opinion, which means that the beginning of press in Sudan was with the beginning of the British colonialism in 1899 we can argue that the Gazette was just a tool of the occupation and that the British weren't convinced with its importance in spreading their ideas and policies and to promote Britain and attract Sudan to its objectives and policies, which prompted  lord Cromer to tell the owners of  Ìnewspaper FārisNimr, Ya’gŪbîarŪf and ShāhÌn Mcariñs to issue a biweekly newspaper issued in Monday and Thursday of every week which was (Sudan) newspaper, and the first issue was published in 28 September 1903 and the goals of this newspaper were set to be the work on enabling the government  and publishing the movements of the governors and recording the most important events and then promoting for Britain during world war I and spreading what is supposed to make the people of Sudan relived by the news of the British victories and the forthcoming happy life to the Sudanese .([3])

          We could consider the birth of press in Sudan among a group of new systems in the economical, social, administrative, and political fields that were introduced by the condominium government.

And since that time the government control of press continued, and the press through the first half of the twentieth century reflected sequencing periods were the direction of education and training intertwined with the flavor of secularism and sectarianism with a lean towards literature and politics and the balanced biased processing, but during all these years prevailed over the journalistic work split and political fragmentation in one hand and governmental control in the other([4]).

And we find that (Sudan) newspaper started a few years after the fall of the national government and the breakdown of the Sudanese revolution.It was a time of a deteriorating economical situation and the budget was suffering and education almost unavailable to the people of the country and foreign trade was in the hands of foreigners from British to Syrians to Greeks, and the paper since its start was connected to the government circles, expressing the policies of Lord Cromer and the policies of the British occupation. It was no wander as the owners were foreigners loyal to Britain.They were the ones who established the house of al Mujatam’and al Mugðaðaf in Egypt as well as the helpers of the occupation in Egypt and Sudan. Actually, some of the pioneer journalists believe that Lord Cromer was behind the establishment of this newspaper so as to express the English policies and to give interest to trade and Nile water. During all this period no Sudanese journalist worked, it used to bring news from the British newspapers and the Western news agencies like Hafas agency and Roiters. It was considered an evidence of the connection of the Sudanese press to the Egyptian press since its beginning, and the Sudanese scholars considered the Sudan newspaper press as the first modern press in Sudan. The paper determined its policies since the beginning that it will take the researches and news that concern Sudan and that it’s a connection between the governing body and the people, and after a year it announced that it was successful in gaining the trust of the rulers and the merchants because it was providing public services. It used to be sold through subscriptions. It was characterized on the technical side by the fact it was issued in the size of daily newspapers with its big size, and it had the characteristics of modern press in size and printing, and it contained news, essays and commercials, and it lacked other arts like journalistic interviews and investigation, it had several reporters in the states and it relied in production on the simple style and the big font size, and it contained pictures, where the first picture was of Lord Kitchener, it also published translated novel(5).

"Sudan" came with foreign rule and in which its policies were supported but limited press services were presented, if the "Sudan" didn’t find in the first years of its life a Sudanese public opinion, and if it was the only newspaper to be issued, the first decade of this century has witnessed many developments in which the number of educated people raised and some progress hit the economy. Also the contact with the Arab world particularly with Egypt began to increase slowly; it was natural that the field shouldn’t remain a stand occupied by Sudan alone, therefore the second attempt came nine years after the birth of the "Sudan" newspaper by the issuance of "Pioneer of the Sudan" where a number of Sudanese graduates from various schools who had  joined the service of the  government and their perception expanded by reading books and newspapers imported from Egypt, reflected their ideas in this newspaper Pioneer of "Sudan", which was issued as supplement to the Sudan newspaper (Herald English Greek)[5]. This was established by two members of the Greek community who wereSawlo and Khresto. It was a semi-weekly newspaper in two languages English and Greek in and has started in 1911. In 1913 it issued supplement in the name of "Pioneer of Sudan" in Arabic. It has played a role in the history of the Sudanese press and also played an important role in the literary and intellectual renaissance where it opened the door for the first time for the Sudanese to write in it. The name of usayinSharÌf appeared, who later the first editor of a national newspaper became. The first issue was published on January 4th 1913 which was semi-weekly and its editor-in-chief was A'bdal RaÊÌm MuîðafaGalylāt Syrian. He was an employee at the department of Mechanical Transport in Khartoum. Also in 1918 the first issue of "Sudan" magazine was published in messages and blogs, it was a quarterly magazine that dealt with research in history, folklore, customs and traditions of the Sudanese societies. It was funded and supervised by a committee of senior British officials headed by the Governor General and was intended to provide English administrators, policy makers and those interested in Sudan affairs with information and data about the country until the year of 1956[6].

Sudan Civilization Newspaper alHa¼ārah:

The first edition of the alHa¼ārah newspaper appeared on 28 February 1919 after the disappearance of Pioneer of Sudan, whose editor-in-chief was usayinSharÌf, who called for the establishment of a national press that filled the void left by the Pioneer and expressed the views of the Sudanese intellectuals and aspirations of the Sudanese people.

  The researchers all agreed that the Sudan Civilization newspaper "al-Ha¼ārah"   is the first Sudanese national newspaper and that its editor is the first Sudanese journalist, but it appeared to be a national journal and its purpose and content to serve the British occupation[7].

The events of the First World War showed an increasing importance for the communication media, even in remote areas such as Sudan. Egypt was emboldened by an escalating tide of nationalism and the popular revolution in 1919. The people of the Sudanese capital were hit by the unrest and hence the emergence of political awareness against the foreign rule. Sudan Civilization newspaper ala¼ārah was born in that atmosphere and it was normal to be consistent with the policies of the owners and to support them in their policy in line with the British[8].

In his research on the press and politics in Sudan, MaÊjŪbAbdal MalikBābikirsaid that al a¼ārahnewspaper passed through three stages in its development. The first stage was when it was called "Pioneer of Sudan", the Arabic version of the Sudan Daily Herald, "Pioneer of Sudan" was under the ownership of Abd al RaÊmānalMahdiwho has seen it as a means to achieve his own political goals, and statured the second phase of May 1928 by developing the ownership of al a¼ārahto become a trilogy of property distributed between A'lial Mirghani, leader of the sect of Khatmiyah andSharÌf al Hindi and Abd al RaÊmān al Mahdi,the share capital of the joint stock company was three thousand pounds, then the journal received financial support from the government in the form of government announcements and salaries for editors and workers.

In 1934 the newspaper entered its third and final stage when the three owners signed a contract with SulaimānDawŪdand merged the newspaper of Multaga al NÌlain with al a¼ārahand this helped them to reduce their dependence on the government. The newspaper distribution at that time reached 1,700 copies, it ceased publication in 1938 and began to utter the last breath; because of the lack of confidence of the government and the readers, hence the news were late and needed to be frank about what it was presenting also in its general features it was a conservative journal expressing the government views.

Al a¼ārahhas been preoccupied responding to the Egyptian press attack on the visit of those religious leadersHindi, Mirghani and SayidAbdal RaÊmān to Britain to congratulate the British government on winning the war[9]. The newspaper was issued twice a week as a political set for the leaders and also to promote and propagate the idea of a separate Sudan from Egypt under British commandment[10].

In 1928, the merchant SulaymānDāwñd MandÌlestablishedal JarÌda al Tijāriyawhich was issued weekly and changed its name in 1931 to "Moltaga alnÌlain" and was integrated since 1934 with newspaper al a¼ārahfor some years.

AlNah¼ah Newspaper: 

The first license application was submitted after the promulgation of the Press and Publications Law in 1930 by MuÊamadA'bbāsAbual RÌsh to issue the Nah¼at al Sudan magazine on March 21, 1931. He explained his desire to issue a weekly literary magazine printed in the commercial printing press in Khartoum and requested by the authorities to fill out a form according to the press law, explaining the name of the magazine and the name of its owner.

After payment of the insurance value of one pound it was granted the license issued each morning carrying literary and social topics and all topics that do not fall within the circle prohibited.

The first issue was released on Sunday the fourth of October 1931.

The magazine's first page bore its name and administrative information with the editorial in the box to the right of the magazine's name after the name of the concessionaire, publisher and editor-in-chief (MuÊammadA'bbāsAbual RÌsh).It was sold for fifteen maims and the annual subscription was sixty piasters for Egypt and Sudan and forty pilasters for half a year. It was one pound per year for other countries. It was issued in twenty four pages and declared itself an ethical journal[11].

The magazine continued to address many literary and social issues for six months until it began to suffer poor economic conditions, weak purchasing power and lack of advertising in addition to the ill health of the owner of the magazine, who required went to hospital shortly after the issuing the publication, A'rafāt and MuÊammad AÊmed MaÊjñb supervised the magazine in the absence of its owner but could not continue beyond seven months. It was published again after it had obtained its own printing press. The owner, MuÊammadA'bbāsAbualRÌsh, returned to writing but did not last long. The disease got the best of him and he died at the end of the year. The magazine ceased publication after being publishing thirty three issues and that covered 457 articles,

including 145 poem, and 33 correspondentstories and 100 on the subject of social issues.

alNah¼a magazine opened the door to intellectuals despite the short period in which it was issued but it was the beginning of a new flow of literary magazines such as the Mirror of Sudan issued by SulaimānKāsha in 1933 and the "Gordon College" magazine, which was edited by lecturers and students of the College in 1933. Also appeared specialized magazines such as (Scouts) in 1931 and the religious magazines such as the (True Path and the Christian). A weekly newspaper was published in 1934 by Abd al RaÊmān AÊmad and MuÊammad al Sayid in the name of Sudan. The seven-year commercial magazine of 1928-1930 continued its literary weekly, SulaimānQandil.

These magazines are characterized by the fact that they have moved away from politics and entered the arena of social and cultural life, thus creating a political movement later[12].

AlFajr Newspaper 1934 – 1937:

It was produced and managed by a group of young Sudanese graduates of the College of Gordon and consists mainly of A’rafāt MuÊammad Abdullah, MuÊammad AÊmed MaÊjoub, Dr. Abd al alim MuÊammad, AÊmad YñsufHāshim, Ismail alA’tabāni, YñsufMuîðafaalTennay, Abdullah A’shri alîi¼¼iq (the first editor of the daily newspaper îawðalSudan) and others. This group was called the Fajr Group. This group had reasonable experience in journalism, as some members of the group contributed in the editing of alNah¼a Journal of Sudan, after it ceased publication on the death of its concessionaire and editor-in-chief, MuÊammadAbbāsAbualRÌshin 1933. At that time, al Fajr moved to issue the semi-monthly Fajr Magazine). Its owner and editor, Arafat Muhammad Abdullah, he was from a Coptic family converted to Islam in the 40s during MahdÌya.

AlFajr went through two phases, the first stage when it was published as a purely literary magazine in June 1934 and the second stage when it became a political-social newspaper in May 1935 when it saw that pure literature is not very useful in a country like Sudan needs to change in each field. The magazine began with 200 subscribers and in August 1935 The number of subscribers rose to 1,500 and a few ads were published.

For three years, alFajr was published on regular dates, and its owner, A’rafāt MoÊammadA’bdullah, died on Thursday, July 23, 1936. AÊmad Yñsuff Hāshimcame and took office until it was finally stopped in 1937

(Al-Sudan) newspaper 1934 – 1940:

Is the newspaper that was issued weekly by the late Professor A’bdal RaÊmān AÊmad MuÊammad and has been issued since 25 May 1934 until the end of 1940 and the        editor in chief died in February 1969 (in Khartoum).

The circumstances surrounding the emergence of this newspaper are a living example of the press's association with politics and vice versa. The owner of this newspaper is A’bd al RaÊmānAÊmad MuÊammad.

In June 1927, he applied to the Director of Knowledge to issue a bi-monthly biographical journal issued on 24 pages. The Director of Knowledge approved and turned it over to the Director of Intelligence. He was then transferred to the director of the Khartoum Directorate, who approved the request on July 25, 1927, provided that all that was to be published before publication Two weeks ago, the intelligence director was summoned and the request was rejected. On May 24, 1930, Abdurrahman Ahmed filed a new application for ratification by issuing the proposed newspaper. Again, the authorities refused, based on administrative law that prohibited government employees from entering commercial adventures. On 25 May 1934, was finally ratified seven years after the submission of his first application.

In any case, the political controversy raised by the British colonial authorities in Khartoum on this issue led to the issuance of the first law of the press in Sudan, the law issued in September 1930 followed by the publication of the first list of the press on 15 March 1931 to fill the gaps that emerged through the application of Law of 1930[13].

Partisan press beginning and evolving:

alNñr Dafa' Allah AÊmad sees in his research on the Sudanese partisan press argued that it was the political parties in Sudan that created newspapers other than the partisan newspapers in Egypt as a phenomenon in which the partisan life of the Sudan was independent under the British occupation. In the Sudan, we find that the party is formed and composed and then newspapers are issued in the sense that the party preceded the emergence of the newspaper in Sudan except for the Nile newspaper, which appeared in 1935 for an economic goal and later became a partisan newspaper expressing the Ansārsect[14]. In 1935, Sudan witnessed the birth of the first daily newspaper, the Nile newspaper, which was issued by the printing and publishing company and the contribution in Sudan, which was financed by Imam Abdal RaÊmān alMahdi, ContoMakhlous and Moîðafa AbuA’laila[15].

The Nile (Al-Neel) newspaper 1st August 1935 – 1958:

The first issue of the newspaper was published on Thursday, August 1, 1935, as a daily newspaper. The idea of ​​establishing the (Nile newspaper) came from ContoMikhalos, a Greek merchant in Khartoum, to serve his economic interests with A’bdal RaÊmānal Mahdi. usayn SubÊi alMaîriwas chosen as the first editor of the Nile newspaper [16]. In another novel, Hassan SobÊi, who came to Khartoum in February 1935 as an archaeologist, was the main driver of the establishment of the newspaper, but his main aim was to enter a new press experience in Khartoum. He contacted A’bd al RaÊmānAÊmad MuÊammad, the editor of the Sudan newspaper, and SulaymānMandÌl editor of MultagaalNahrainand A’rafāt met to try to persuade each of them individually to turn his newspaper into a daily newspaper. The three of them apologized butasanîubÊi did not despair when hecontacted the administrative secretary Angus Ghilān. And he agreed on one condition the newspaper is not exposed to the English-Egyptian relations and the bilateral agreement. Immediately, the secretary formed a board of directors for the newspaper and determined the contribution of each member of the board of directors to the capital of the newspaper at the sum of five thousand Egyptian pounds[17].

At the beginning, the (Nile newspaper) was the newspaper of all Sudanese, calling for cooperation with Egypt. However, after the emergence of the political parties turned into a newspaper that speaks for the Ansār sect, the newspaper adopted the policy of the sectarian Umma Party, a policy that demanded exploitation away from Egypt since the issue of January 22, 1949. The newspaper has stopped publishing, the period from November 1949 to July 1950, attributed the reasons for the cessation to the desire to improve its performance and did not stop the physical deficit evidence that it has been paid the wages of editing and management.

The Nile has continued to be issued since that date in its new party dress and continued to be issued after independence until February 24, 1958 when it was suspended during the first military rule[18]. In Sudan, when the coup d'état stopped publishing newspapers except for the only (revolution) newspaper that was issued by that government at that time, we find that after the resignation of asanîubÊiin 1936 due to his illness and his return to Cairo, AÊmad Yñsuff Hāshimbecame theeditor in chief of the Nile newspaper while Sheikh āj Amin Abd alGādir For editing[19].

KhatmÌya sect and the Unionists newspapers:

The Voice of Sudan:

Established in May 1940 as a daily newspaper in the size of tabloid, owned byalSalām for printing and publishing company, contributed to it  Ali alMirghani  the leader of al KhtmÌya sect, AÊmadSuwār al Dahab merchant, DirdÌriU’thmānGhādi, AÊmadSayid al FÌl,MuftyUmar IsÊāg and others, with a capital of five thousand pounds distributed over the contributors and MuÊammadU’shāri was chosen as the head of editors and he is not part of al KhtmÌyasect who resigned due to the deterioration in the financial situation of the newspaper and took his place asanBadri who was his assistant temporarily until Ismā’Ìl al A'tbāny was appointed in the first of January 1942 as head of editors and he continued until 1945 then Ali āmid. The problems of Voice of Sudan were big because of the stance of the government against it because of its policies such as sympathizing with Egypt, and its head of editors was sued and paid several fines and the newspaper continued as a paper that expresses the directions of the Democratic People’s  Party which was led by Ali alMirghani until it permanently stopped in the first of January 1966 after it continued for  26 years and it excelled in distribution where the average in its last years was around 5000 copies per day. It was a popular newspaper that opposed the government in lively political issues and stayed fighting against the policies of the English alone and against the Ummaparty and its conceder one of the prominent newspapers in the history of Sudanese press.

Al A’lam newspaper:

Established in 24 November 1953 as a daily newspaper that showed the stances of the National Unionist Party in four pages of big size then it changed its size to tabloid until it stopped in May 1968. The price of a copy was 10 MalÌms, AÊmad al Sayidāmid was chosen as chief of editors, and the printer was the National Unionist party, and used to be printed in al IttiÊād press in Khartoum.

It stopped producing in 17 November 1958 when the regime of colonel A'bñd stopped the parties work then it continued in October 1964 after the annihilation of the first military regime and the resume of the parties work, its second production was in the first of January 1965 and when the National Unionist was merged with the People’s Democratic under the name of the Democratic Unionist the production halted and joined The Masses newspaper  of the People’s Democratic party, and that was in 26 May 1968.

AlRāy al A'am newspaper:

It appeared in the mid of march 1945 as an independent, neutral newspaper in the beginning and soon it abandoned its neutrality and turned into a Unionist newspaper that stood against Umma party and the English policies, its owner Ismā’Ìl al A'tbānywho was one of the establishers of the Unionist party and used to be the editor-in-chief of Sudan’s Voice and started it with small capital accompanied by his colleagues MuÊammadAbdalalÌm, AÊmad Khair, and Ibrahim AnÌs and they are of the intellectuals of the Unionists.

He printed his paper in the beginning in Macro Coddle’s press and after five years he started his own press and the paper continued until after the independence.

It was in the size of tabloid and subscription was 340 Cents per year and 120 Cents per six months and 60 Cents per three months, the editor-in-chief was Ismā’Ìl al A'tbāny, and the administrator was AbdÌn MaÊjñb as a daily political newspaper, with those words the first page used to be issued daily and the first page was dedicated to the opening articles and news and publish small photos for Sudanese personalities, so you find in the first page the main article while the second page was dedicated for promotions and meetings while the third page was for the south message and also some promotions while the forth page was dedicated for sports and the fifth for essays by Sudanese intellectuals like MakkiShibaika and government promotions and in the last page we find the completion of the first page subjects and promotions, the newspaper used many journalistic styles (news- journalistic talk- essays- reports- and pictures drawings and character)

AlMaidān newspaper:

Al Maidān newspaper the main source for the Anti-colonialism Front news was released in 2 September 1954, a biweekly newspaper in four paged of the small size, the price of the copy was 20 MelÌms, its editor-in-chief was asan al £āhirZarñg, the paper owned a press of its own in the year 1957, the paper determined its policies and goals in one goal which is the evacuation of the colonials from the country in addition to calling for Marxism. It stopped during the military regime in December 1958 because it published an article in which it criticized the acceptance of the military regime for the American aid to Sudan, and then it returned to releasing once again in 19 December 1964 after the return of the parties life in October 1964 sand in 23 February 1965 it became a daily newspaper and it announced for the first time that it’s the communist party’s paper but it stopped in 10 December 1965 after the nullification of the communist party through a decision by the founding council.

The Muslim Brotherhood newspaper:

Released by the Muslim Brotherhood in Sudan in the year 1952 and shed a light on the activities of the Brotherhood in Egypt and promoted the ideas of the late Sheikh asanal Banna and called for fighting the Marxist ideals as well as to establish a religious political party. It was the starter for another newspaper released after the independence called (al Meethag al Islami) in the year 1964.

The Southern Parties Newspapers:

The release of papers from southern parties was late, MuîðafaBayaung one of the southerner journalists says that the first paper to appear in the south in the year 1947 in the language of Dinka was called alMutargim and then started to appear school newspapers like the generation magazine which used to be released from U'tārid school, while the first party newspaper was (VICLANT) which was released in April 1965 in English language, it was a weekly newspaper in the size of tabloid, its editor-in-chief was BaunaMulwāl and although it did promote that its independent, but many evidence refer to the fact that it was The South Front’s newspaper[20].

The Provincial Press in Sudan:

We find that Sudan knew provincial press early, where experimenting started before the establishment of national newspapers when Aljazeera newspaper was released in the year 1942 which is owned by Aljazeera project and it reflects its activities and direct and guide the farmers, and afterwards the publication of provincial newspapers continued in all the regions of Sudan.

Kordufān newspaper 1945:

The publisher and editor-in-chief was alFatiÊ al Nñr, half monthly and comprehensive, it was released in November 1945 in al Ubayi¼ the capital of Kordufān, its considered the pioneer of provincial press, and it had an active role in the national movement and the movement of society in Kordufān and it continued in issuance from 1945 until its stopping decision through nationalization in 1970[21]

When the first issue was released the paper was in the size of monthly magazine and contained 24 pages then after two years it turned a weekly paper publishing 8 pages in the year 1955, and it was released biweekly every Friday morning and Monday evening in the year 1968, and its establisher al FatiÊ al Nñrobtained authorization to release it daily, and when the nationalization order was issued in the year 1972 it became released from ElsaÊāfa house and stayed like that until 1978 and in the year 1980 it became owned by the province government until it stopped in 1986.

And we find that alFātiÊal Nour was born in the city of al Ubayi¼in 1922, he grew up religiously in al ShuwaiÊātKhalwa, then Suwāral Dahab Khalwa, then al Ubayi¼school and he received lessons in Arabic and Islamic studies on the hands of the most prominent sheikhs like Sheikh al SammāniYñsuf, and MuÊammad al AmÌn alGurashi in the year 1952, and then was chosen for English language scholarship in England, he died at Soba hospital on Friday the 15th of July 2000 and his body was transferred to al Ubayi¼[22].

Aljazeera newspaper:

Released in Wad Madani with the start of aljazÌra agricultural project and it was released in four pages in small size and started bimonthly then became weekly, it was printed in a half size then it became big size and the colors were introduced and it had reporters in many of the provinces. It used to be sold by ten MelÌms, it had several prominent editors the first was SulaymānBakhÌt, then MuÊammadKhairBadawi, then AÊmadDafa'allahalkabbāshi.

Al Gharb News newspaper 1957:

Its editor-in-chief was IdrÌs A'bdalla alBanna, it’s a political daily newspaper. It was authorized to publish in 12/1/1958 in al Ubayi¼and was released in19/2/1957. Financial problems stopped it from publishing and it was halted in October 1957.

NahrA'tbara 1957:

Published in the size and shape of medium magazine on journal paper, was published by the members of Atbara river friends, it was literature magazine and contained several subjects, released in September 1957 but it couldn’t continue publishing so it stopped in a short period.

Al JarÌda Magazine 1965:

The editor-in-chief was MuÊammadA'wad alKarÌm alGurashi, a weekly magazine in the size of tabloid printed on journal papers, cultural and political released in alUbayi¼ and stopped after fourteen issues due to health problems that effected its owner, it was printed in al Gurashi press in al Ubayi¼.

îawat al Sharg 1965:

Released in Port Sudan, its owners and publishers Abdal RahÌm UthmānSāliÊ and MuÊammadUthmānKudi, its editor-in-chief was Uthmān al Nñr, it used to be issued weekly and stopped in September of the same year.

Nile Mirror 1977:

It was in English language in the southern province, released by the ministry of culture and media in Juba, and continued until 1982 then stopped.

Unity 1980

Released by the ministry of culture and media of Juba, a political, cultural and social newspaper issued weekly. Its editor-in-chief was SholKwāng Ding. Later it turned into a magazine and then stopped.

Red sea 1982:

Issued by the office of culture and media in association with the youth and sport office in Port Sudan, a bimonthly news paper that is interested in sport and social life, its editor-in-chief was MāhirMakki it didn’t continue for long and stopped after a while.

Blue Nile 1984:

A social newspaper that was issued monthly, its owner and editor-in-chief was AÊmad U’marMuÊammadIshāg, and its editing secretary was A’lamMuÊammadalasan AbdulkarÌm, released in Sinja in May 1985 and the ministers council stopped it with other papers in 12/2/1986, the owner and editor-in-chief was I’zzal DÌn MoîðafaIdrÌs.

The East 1988:

It was released in Port Sudan, a political and social independent newspaper which was authorized in December 1988 its concessionaire and editor-in-chief was Abd al A'zÌm alKāfi, and editing secretary was Abdul Muni'mAbd al MajÌd and its Editors administrator was A’bd al Muððalibîi¼¼Ìg, its first issue was released in October 1988 and stopped in February 1989 because of the lack in papers, it issues were eighteen issues.

Wad Madani 1989:

Released in Wad Madani in the mid province, it was authorized in the beginning of June 1989 its concessionaire and editor-in-chief was U’mar MuÊammadalāj. It was a social, cultural weekly newspaper, but it wasn’t released because of the Ingāz revolution in 30 June 1989 and its owner presented a request to it reissuance and was accepted but stopped in1994.

The White Nile newspaper 1990:

Released by the district of the White Nile, a political governmental newspaper that was authorized in 24/6/1990 its editor-in-chief was Yñsuf Fa¼l Allah asanbut it stopped.

Change 1991:

Released by the ministry of culture and media in the mid state, a weekly that was interested in the issues of the state, it was authorized in July 1991 but it stopped in July 1992.

Al NÌlain 1992:

Released by the ministry of culture and media in the mid state, a weekly that was interested in the issues of the state, it was authorized in September 1992, its editor-in-chief was YñsufU’mar Abdallah, it issued only three issues and then stopped.

The Voice of Aā'lial NÌl 1992:

It was a bimonthly that was released from Aā'li al NÌlstate to reflect the activities of the government and its policies. Its editor-in-chief was Nyāk James Daik and it was authorized in May 1992 but it stopped.

Sports News 1992:

Its concessionaire and editor-in-chief was afi§MusnadAbd al RaÊmān, a weekly sport and arts newspaper that was released from Port Sudan, it was authorized in February 1992 and started bimonthly until it stopped in 1994.

New Darfur 1992:

The first issue was released in June 30 1992 a weekly political and comprehensive that was issued in eight pages, the editors team was consists of the head of administration council AÊmad Kamāl al DÌn and head of editors was MuÊammadal FātiÊ AÊmad alasan and its editors administrator was îalāÊ al Taum Min Allah, and the editing secretary was HāshimU'thmān. It was printed on journal paper in big size; its price was one Sudanese Dinars.

Al MuÊāfidh newspaper 1993:

Issued by the ministry of culture and media in al IglÌm al Awsað; it was about cultural, economical, sport and social news. Bimonthly released in 29/8/1993 its editor-in-chief was Sātti Ismail and its Editing administrator was U’thmānAbd al RaÊmān and the editing secretary was Abd alA'āl Ibrahim and it was issued in Wad Madani and stopped in the beginnings of 1994.

Kordufān al JiÊād 1993:

Released in Kordufān and was authorized in 4/5/1993 its concessionaire and editor-in-chief was al RashÌd Yñsuf BashÌr, it’s a weekly sport, art, and social newspaper, it stopped in 1994. It’s considered the first specialized news paper in the province of Kordufān. In spite of the popularity it received and its distribution locally and in the outside but it was stopped by the decision of the council of the revolution leadership at the time that journals should be released by companies in addition to other conditions that stopped the newspaper from issuing.

AlShamālÌya 1993:

Released by the ministry of culture and media in ShamālÌyaState, a comprehensive weekly that was authorized in 9/5/1993 and its editor-in-chief was MuÊyi al DÌn Titāwi. It stopped issuing.

The Palms 1993:

Issued by the ministry of culture and media in ShamālÌya state, it was about the issues of alShamālÌya and it was bimonthly its editor-in-chief was MuÊyi al DÌn Titāwiand Abdul RaÊmān Ibrahim and Abdul Muni'mGuðbi and MuÊammad£āhaMuÊammad AÊmad, released in 1993 and didn’t continue for long.

Al A’aîima 1991:

The concessionaire and publisher was the state of Khartoum, a weekly that was authorized in 14/11/1991, its first issue was issued in 13/1/1993 editor-in-chief was Sa’adal DÌn JalālalBadawi and the administrator was ZakrÌyaKhamÌs and alWalÌd Muîðafa, Uthmān BashÌr and îi¼¼ÌgA’wa¼.

AlZargā’ 1992:

It was published by the state of Sinnār the concessionaire. It was authorized in 15/12/1992, editor-in-chief was NabÌl Ghāli; It not issuing now.

Al£urfa 1993:

The concessionaire and publisher is the city of al Ga¼ārif, a comprehensive weekly that was authorized in 21/7/1993 and was headed by MuÊammadA'bdalla alKhalÌfa £āha al RÌfÌ and it did not continue for long, it stopped in December 1993[23].

Political press:

AlRāyalA’am 1945:

Publisher and editor-in-chief was IsmāÌl alAtābni, a daily independent political newspaper, the first issue was in 15 March 1945, it’s the first Sudanese newspaper to be issued in the evening and that was only in its beginning, it was in the size of tabloid, it continued until 1970 at that time the law of newspapers nationalization was issued and was confiscated from its owner. Afterwards it turned into a magazine and was headed by MuÊammadSa’Ìdasan then stopped, and after several years it returned again as a newspaper and was headed by îalāÊ MuÊammadIbrahim and that was in 15/9/1996 and after a year it stopped, then again it returned and was headed by several journalists, consequently MaÊjñb I’rwa, IdrÌsasan, KamālasanBakhÌt and A’adilalBāz and its headed now by MuÊammadA’bd alGādir.

AlAyām newspaper 1953:

Publisher and editor-in-chief BashÌr MuÊammad SaÌ’d, established it with him as a joint stock company, MaÊjñbMuÊammadîāliÊ,MaÊjñbUthmān, AmÌnMuÊammadSaÌ’d, AbdallaMuÊammadSaÌ’d and Fahmi SalÌb.

It was released as a daily independent political newspaper, its first issue was in 3/10/1953 and started publishing in the evening then it turned to a morning newspaper, it was stopped in 1961 and returned until it was stopped by the nationalization law in 1970 and was confiscated from its owners and Musa Mubarak was appointed as Head of the administration council and al FātiÊ al Tijani as a editor-in-chief, it continued issuing until the revolution of April 1985 and was headed by MaÊjñbMuÊammadîāliÊ, then Murta¼a alGhāli, then it was stopped again after alIngā§ revolution 1989, and in the year 200 was rereleased and was headed by MaÊjñbMuÊammadîāliÊand MuÊammadLaðÌf as his deputy.

Al îaÊāfa Newspaper 1961:

Publisher and editor-in-chief Abdul RaÊmānMukhtār, political daily independent, its first issue was released in 13/ 7/1961 but then was stopped in17/10/1962 and returned in June 1963 and then returned but the council of ministers stopped it once more in20/1/1965 and the halt was for six months. The third halt was in 1969 when the May government halted all the newspaper and then returned under the supervision of the Social Union but was returned to its owner after the up rise of 1985 and continued until the revolution of Ingā§ which also stopped newspapers, it returned to release in 2000 and consequence several editor-in-chief’s and now it’s headed by Ibrahim alîi¼¼ig Ali.

Al Sudāni Newspaper 1984:

Publisher MaÊjñbI’rwa, started as a weekly political newspaper, its editor-in-chief was Abdul RaÊmānIbrahim , published in the first by the name WāÊatal MughtarbÌn in the year 1979 in Saudi Arabia and in 1985 by the name al Sudāni  and then was turned into three times per week, then to daily in the year 1986 and continued in publishing until the revolution of Ingā§ 1989, and in the year 1994 rereleased in the name al SudanialDuwali and its editor-in-chief was MaÊjñbI’rwaand in the year 2010 was sold to Jamāl al Wāli and now ˆiyaa al DdÌn Bilāl.

Publisher and editor-in-chief was usyainKhaujali, a daily political newspaper that was authorized in 24/8/1984, it started in the beginning as art and sports weekly newspaper, and its first issue was 24/8/1984 and its editor-in-chief was Farrāj al £ayyib then it was halted in 18/3/1984 after the arrest of its owner by the authorities of Ga’farNimairi but it was only stopped for one month and then continued until the government of Ingā§ stopped all newspapers and then continued.

Alwān newspaper 1984:

Al JarÌda newspaper:

The publisher and editor-in-chief is Kamālāmid MuÊammad, an independent political daily at the beginning it was weekly it was authorized in 26/10/1986 and its first issue was in 31/8/1987. Its editor-in-chief at the time was HāshimKarrār, it stopped by the decision of the government of Ingā§to halt all newspapers, then rereleased in august 2010 and now its editor-in-chief is Ashraf A'bd al A'zÌz.

AlWaðan newspaper:

The publisher and editor-in-chief was Sayid AÊmad alkhalÌfa, an independent political daily that authorized in 2/2/1988 but after the establishment of the Ingā§ regime it was halted and in 4/4/2001 it was granted an authorization to publish and was headed by Sayid AÊmad al khalÌfa and after his death his son Sayid AÊmadSayid AÊmad took over and now it’s headed by BakriMadani.

Modern Sudan newspaper (1989-1997):

The decision to establish the Modern Sudan house was in 16/8/1989, it’s a daily political newspaper and its first issue was in 30/8/1989 its editor-in-chief was MuÊammadSaÌ’d Marñf. It continued until it was halted in 26/4/1997 after its house was merged with alIngā§ house in one house by the name (The National House for Media) which produced The News newspaper.

AlIngā§alWaðani newspaper 1989-1997:

It first issue was released in 28/9/1989. A political governmental daily speaks in the name of the government of Ingā§, its editor-in-chief was MuÊyial DÌn TÌtāwi and it had several editor-in-chiefs the last was Ali Abdul Kareem. It continued until its halt in17/3/1997 (its house was merged with the Modern Sudan house in one house and released The News newspaper.

AlTayyār newspaper:

The publisher and editor-in-chief was U’thmānMairghni, it was first issued in July 2009 then it was stopped several times by the authorities and it still releasing with the same editor-in-chief.

Al Magar alSiyāsi newspaper 2011:

The publisher is al HindiI’zz al DÌn, it was authorized in 21/6/2011. It was and still headed by îalāhMuÊammadAÊmad Daf’allah. Its first issue was in 16 April 2011. It was stopped for 15 days and then rereleased[24].

Specialized newspapers:

Social press:

AlDārnewspaper 1992:

Publisher AÊmadBallālal£ayyib, a cultural social daily newspaper that was authorized in 8/2/1992and was headed by MuîðafaSanad but he resigned after six months, and then was headed by AÊmada lBallal. In the beginning it was biweekly until 14/1/1993 and then four times a week then daily in 17/9/1992, in its beginning it was more about sports then the social specialization was added and then the artistic, now it became interested in accidents and crimes along the above mentioned specializations.

Its successive editor-in-chiefs were Mairghani AbuShanab, Abdul Muðalibal FaÊal then Sa’adal DÌn Ibrahim, its current editor-in-chief is Abdul RāzigalHarig, it’s still issuing.

GalbalShāri’ newspaper 1994:

The publisher was alBalad house for press, printing, publishing, and distributing, and its CEO was MuÊammadAÊmadKarrār, a social daily newspaper that was authorized in 20/9/1994 and its editor-in-chief was U’thmānSināda, it’s not publishing any more[25].

Women press:

îautal Marah newspaper (1955-1970):

The publisher and editor-in-chief was Fatima Ahmed Ibrahim, a monthly women magazine that was interested in women and cultural issues, released in July 1955 then was halted in 1962 then rereleased then stopped again after two years, and was rereleased in 1967 but in the year 1970 was confiscated by the nationalization of newspaper decision, and in the year 1985 was released again in the name of the Women Union where its editor-in-chief was Fatima Ahmed Ibrahim, it’s now discontinued..

My Family newspaper 1996:

The publisher was Sudanese Women Union, a cultural women magazine, its CEO was SumiyaAbuKashawwa, its first issue was in July 1996 and its editor-in-chief was A’fāfBukhāri, it stopped after the sixth issue, and was rereleased in the year 1997 and its editor-in-chief was NabÌla Abdul Muððalib until 2000, its now discontinued [26].

Entertainment and comedy press:

Nab¼alKaraktair 1994:

The publisher was alBalad house for press, printing and distributing, its editor-in-chief is MuÊammadAÊmadKarrār, its issued three time a week, a comedy and character newspaper that was authorized in 10/12/1994 and succeeded in its editor-in-chief position I’zz al DÌnU’thmān, A’ðif Ibrahim, and Ibrahim Wad alaj and its editor-in-chief now is IbrahimMuÊammadAÊmad, it’s still issuing.

AlAwal newspaper 1997:

The publisher is alYaum for printing and distributing, its CEO is AÊmadBallāl al £ayyib, a daily entertainment and competitions newspaper that was authorized in 30/12/1996 and its editor-in-chief U’thmānMubārakîi¼¼Ìg, who is replaced now by alJaylāniI’sa and its still issuing.

Sport press:

Al MarrÌkh newspaper:

Its considered the first sport newspaper in Sudan, it was granted the authorization in 28/6/1965 and was under the supervision of Al MarrÌkh Sport Club, its establishing idea was asanAbuA’ela’s. its editor-in-chief was £āhaMuÊammadAÊmad, it was halted in 19/8/1968 because the club’s council fired the administration in December of the same year it was rereleased and its editor-in-chief was asanMuÊammadAbdallah, then it was halted again in 1969 by the decision that included all newspaper at the time, then rereleased again and its editor-in-chief was asanMuÊammadAbdallah, then was halted for the third time and that was in 15/2/1990 and after one year it was rereleased again and its editor-in-chief was AÊmadMuÊammadalasan then his successor was U’mar MaÊmñd Khālid and was succeeded by āfi§Khaugali and in 23/8/2005 and was granted another and now its editor-in-chief is Ahmed MuÊammadalasan.

Goon newspaper 1990:

Established by Rama¼ānAÊmadalSayid and U’mar£ayfñr, its editor-in-chief was Rama¼ānAÊmadalSayid and was headed by him until he sold his share and established alJawhar sport newspaper, it was authorized in 8/5/1990 it started as a weekly sport newspaper and then the art specialization was added and started issuance three times a week instead of once, it became daily in 31/7/1993 and succeeded on its editor-in-chief position a number of journalists, and now it’s KhālidI’zzal DÌn.

Religious press:

AlQāri’a magazine (1953-1955):

The publishers were the graduates of Omdurman scientific Institute, a monthly religious, social, and cultural magazine. Its editor-in-chief was al SheikhIbrahim Zain alA’abidÌn, it was granted authorization in 22/2/1953 and continued until it was halted in15/5/1955

Light magazine (1954-1970):

The publisher was the American missionary in Malakāl, a religious educational monthly magazine that was released in 20/11/1954 and its editor-in-chief was Alexander Wilson and was printed s in the a press owned by the American missionary in Malakāl, it was discontinued after the decision of the nationalization decision that was issued in 1970 [27].

Children affairs magazine.

Alîubyān magazine:

Released in the year 1947 in mid size 6 inch x 9 inch as a weekly magazine until the twenty fourth issue, then it became a bimonthly until 1970 to return releasing weekly once again aimed to children between 9-14 years and used to be 36 uncolored pages, its price used to be one cent and to be distributed through schools to insure its arrival to far regions.

The goal of its release was to make it an issue to follow up with the curriculum and to fill the shortage in it, with taking into consideration the educational sides and the necessarily need for every age, it was issued by the department of teaching the elderly in BakhtalRi¼a which was supervised by MakkiAbbās, and its editor-in-chief was A’wa¼Sāty, and its distributing administrator was Ho Hodgkin. Of the first pioneers who worked in it: IsmāÌ’l MuÊammadal AmÌn (Wad alsheikh) Bābikir Abdul Rahmān, Sir alkhatimKhalÌfa, and U’thmān WagÌ Allah.

Al îubyānmagazine stopped in the year 1995 by the issuance of December, and it became in the few years afterwards only released occasionally, as on the occasion of Khartoum Capital of Arabic Culture 2005 and in December 2014 on the occasion of the school tournament that was held in Sinnār.

Marñd magazine:

Released in the first of November 1981 from alîaÊāfa house for printing and distribution, in 32 pages medium size on journal papers even the cover a strengthened journal papers, its editor-in-chief was BakhÌta AmÌn.

It was released according to studied planning that conceders balancing between educational and financial returns. It included characters of commitment which caused its discontinuance and caused depts., especially that it was distributed freely, as well as distributed directly to the institutes that we referred to its issues, and to many schools, three thousand copies from the first issue.

AðfālalSa’d 2012:

It was released along with GÌl alGhad in December 2012 as a supplementary from MarawiDam magazine from the unified media administration in the dam’s construction unit that affiliated to the ministry of water and electricity resources. Its under the care of the minister of electricity and dams Usāma Abdallah and general supervisor MuÊammadalasanala¼ari the chairman of editorial board alFātiÊKhalaf Allah and editor-in-chief KhālidU’thmān, and it’s a specialized in children affairs magazine.

The magazine took subjects and comics about the occasion of raising al Ruîairiî Dam and immigration to the settlement regions, the first issue contained chapters for competition, entertainment and coloring.

It was released in 16 colored pages added to it the cover pages in fine paper by the size 27 x 20.5 cm and a hard cover.

National, historical heroism, pages in English on occasions like Christmas, adventures, comics series, puzzles…etc and quotes from children magazine around the world, in bright colors, with good content and production according to certain philosophy. And it relies in its editing on people from publishing office. It accepts promotions about kid’s needs only, and getting out to the children of Sudanese expatriates and their parents, in addition to early preparation by creating coming issues early to guarantee the regular issuance and delivering to the shops before two days of the actual issuance, while insisting on the Sudanese touch.

The magazine was prepared and printed in alShafa house and produced regularly every 15 days, its distribution was so high that it couldn’t response to the requests due to lack in printing papers (at that time). The first issue copied twenty five thousand copies that were distributed according to a plan to deliver it to all the schools in the provinces, also the magazine used to achieve a distribution ratio up to 88%.

The price of Mariñd magazine was 25 cents and until it stopped its price never increased but in the provinces due to transporting costs and it also increased outside Sudan, also the magazine was bimonthly, and distributed in the provinces at the same time, it was also distributed in KSA and UAE.

The magazine halted and then was under the decision of canceling the authorization after the establishment of the government of 30 June 1989, and it didn’t release an issue again even though the head of the media committee agree to its issuance in 13/9/1989.

Sabah magazine:

Released by Nizār Awa¼Abdul MagÌd in July 1986 and was its editor-in-chief in spite of the refusal of the press and prints council because he does not have an experience in journalistic work and he was too young, and that’s because of the intervention of the minister of culture and that’s because the arena was empty of such journals. It used to be produced monthly then weekly and was printed on Journal papers then a colored cover was added that continued for two years then it was canceled due to the costs of printing. It used to be printed and distributed for Omdurman Islamic University house, and with the development of the magazine Sabah house for publishing and distribution was established and became a representative for several Arab publications. The magazine was released monthly then weekly by the size of (28.5 x 20.5 cm) in 34 pages then it started in the beginning of the nineties in counting the pages of the cover, and the 15th issue was in 18 pages, and the shows the problem of papers that the newspapers and magazines suffered at the time .it issued 82 issues and discontinued in 1991 and stopped (3) there was promotions that it will return but it didn’t happen.

Al Shbāb2007:

Al Shbābmagazine was released in April 2007 as a free supplementary to Allewaa’magazine.That was released seasonally from the ministry of national defense. It general supervisor was the minister of defense and its chairman of editorial board was Abdul RaÊmānalkhalÌfa and contained several scientists and was drawn by ātimalasan and produced by MuÊammadAbdul WāÊid, YñnisSāmi, and HaythamU’mar. Its first issue was attractive with interesting chapters, the number of its pages was 36 colored pages in fine papers and its cover was harder than the inside paper. We notice that the characters were local creative and diverse.

Aðfālal Tagyees 2007:

Sudan kid’s magazine, it reflects the interest with the culture of measuring and standards, its editor-in-chief was HaythamasanA’bdulSalām. Its first issue was in 16 colored pages in refined papers by the size 24 x 17 cm while the last two issues were in 34 pages by the size 21 x 29.5 cm. in 2007 and discontinued.

AlSudānialîagÌr 2008:

It was released by the Youth Organization For development and health care in 2008 and its editor-in-chief was HaythamasanA’bdulSalām, it first issue was in October 2008 and its monthly children magazine, but it didn’t release any other issues, the first issue was in 48 pages 20x29.5 in deluxe colored print on Art papers 115 grams, in the size of page beside the cover which was thicker. It was printed at alMawi’d house for designing and printing in Khartoum[28].

Epilogue:

In this research we presented the genesis and evolution of Sudanese press, we benefited the most from (Sudanese press in half a century) book by MaÊjŪb MuÊammadîaliÊas well as Sudanese press-history and documentation by SalāÊ AbdulLatÌf in writing the two first chapters of this book.

We also benefited from the history of Sudanese press seminars series which was released by the national council for press and prints, as well several master and PhD researches which studied the history of Sudanese national and provincial and specialized press and the newspapers post independence until the mean time.

The prologue was a briefing about the beginnings of Sudanese press its geneses and development, starting with the Gazette and then Sudan’s newspaper in the year 1903 then the (Herald the Greek English ) newspaper in the 1911 and a¼aratal Sudan 1919   and al Nah¼a Newspaper 1932 then the Dawn (alFagr) 1934 and Sudan’s news paper 1934-1940.

In the second chapter we talked about partisan press, the beginning and the evolution which started with al NÌl (the Nile) 1935 then Sudan’s voice (îawðal Sudan) and the Flag (alA’lam) and alRāyalA’am which started as an independent newspaper then turned into the Unionist party newspaper and alMaidānnewspaper 1954 then The Muslim Brotherhood news paper.

In the third chapter we took the provincial press in Sudan which also didn’t continue for long times.

In the fourth chapter we took the political newspaper which is the prominent and was characterized by continuity long times in spite it halt from a time to time usually for political reasons and for violating the laws of press and publishing.

While in the fifth chapter we studied specialized newspapers, like social, women, entertainment and comedy press, as well as sport, religious and children newspapers.

While the last chapter was dedicated for a number of papers that were recently released and with them papers that appeared before the independence and after it and it’s continued until today.

We reached at the end of this research to several results and recommendations of which the following:

1. Sudanese press started at the hands of foreigners and it opened its doors for several Sudanese writers.

2. After the establishment of national press it was loyal to the British rule but the Sudanese intellectuals to literature to express their opposition to the forging rule.

3. party press appeared after the appetence of parties like al NÌl newspaper and alUmma of Umma party and Anîār and then more appeared especially after issuing the press law in 1930 like alA’lam (the Flag) newspaper and Rāyal A’amthat was loyal to the Unionists as well as al Maidānthat was loyal to the communist party and the Muslim Brotherhood newspaper.

4. Post independence the press dealt with many issues political, economical, social and cultural of which the most important is the case of the south.

5. Sudanese press suffered in many periods the discontinuation during military rule, of which some was permanent and some returned again, and even during the democracy periods it didn’t survive that, in addition to the economical issues like high cost of paper and its scarcity and the lack in the equipments of printing and electricity and the problems of distributing and other problems.

6. In spite of all that we see that the press has developed by keeping up with the technical development in the field of printing and communicating and the entrance of the computer as a major factor in its development.

And the research provides a number of recommendations that might help alleviating some of the problems and removing some of the obstacles that stand in the way of Sudanese press:

1. Exempting press printing paper and all its inputs from customs and other fees.

2. That the press and prints council exempts newspapers from the high fees and from the fees of importing papers and to suffice with symbolic fees and that requires that the council should have a budget from the state.

3. Solving the problem of bank finance through financing with bank loans of long term to those who wants to invest in the press sector and its development.

4. Performing reforms in legal environment in the country and making several changes and creating a press institute that is able to include the new and to keep up with the changes that the world is witnessing.

5.  from a professional point of view, the alleviation of the abilities of journalists by constant training in all the forms of journalistic work especially in modern technology to keep up and develop.

6. Caring with media curriculums in media colleges and departments, especially the journalism specialization and updating it every once in a while to keep up with the developments of the age, to graduate capable journalists.

References

[1]MaÊjŪb MuÊammadîālih, The Sudanese Press in Half a Century,Cairo - Second Edition, 1996.

[2]AdÌb Marwa, The Arab Press, Dāralayāt, Beirut, 1961.

(3)MaÊjŪb MuÊammadîaliÊ , op.cit, p 22

([4])FatÊ al RaÊmān MaÊjŪb,The Fourth Power Crisis,DārA'zza Publishing , Khartoum ,2003.

[5]MaÊjñb MuÊammadîāliÊ,The Sudanese Press in Half a Century, p 26.

 

[6]îalaÊ Abdul LaðÌf,  op.cit, Pp 29-30

[7]ibid p  32

[8]FatÊalRaÊmān MaÊjŪb : ibid p  66

[9]îalāhA'bd al LaðÌf, op.cit, Pp 32-33

[10]DÌna MuÊammad al FātiÊ, Sudanese Press under the law (1993 - 2009) , supplementary research to

[11]MaÊjŪb MuÊammadîāliÊ : op.cit, Pp. 82-8 3

[12]usaynAbd al Gādir,History of the Press in Sudan, Cairo , 1997, p 18

[13]Mahjñb Abd al Malik Bābikir,Series of Seminars of Sudanese Press History, National Council for Press and Publications , Khartoum, P p 14- 15

[14]al Nñr Dafa'allah Ahmed, Partisan Journalism in Sudan, unpublished doctoral thesis , Cairo University, 1986, p 14

[15]AdibMarwa, op.cit, p 375

[16]îalāhA'bd al LaðÌf, op.cit, p 48

[17]MahjoubAbdelmalekBabeker – ibid p 15

[18]SalāhAbd al Latif- ibid p 48-49

[19]MahjoubAbdelmalekBābikir- ibid p 16

[20]îalāÊAbdullatif , op.cit, Pp55 - 62

[21]Abdulla Ibrāhim al £āhir, Journalism of the Sudanese Press in the Century, 1898-1998, issued by the Committee for Documentation of the History of the Sudanese Press, National Press Council

[22]ManālYñsuf BashÌr, Regional Press in Sudan and its Role in Local Development,  Case Study of Kordufān Newspaper 1954 – 1970,  Master Thesis, University of Khartoum, 2012- p 93-98.

[22]Abdulla Ibrahim al £āhir, op.cit.

[23]ManālYñsuf BashÌr,op.cie, Pp 40 - 46

[24]Abdulla Ibrāhim al £āhir, op.cit, p 29-43

[25]Ibid, Pp73-74

[26]Ibid, p 78

[27]Ibid, p 98

[28]NasrÌn U’marAbd al KarÌm, The Reality of the child Journalism in Sudan and its future, unpublished PhD thesis , University of Khartoum, 2016- p 43 - 47

 

Add Comment

0 Comments