Camels in Sudan

Mon, 11 Sep 2017



Dr. Ahmed Hamad Ebraheem Al-Fayeg


Abstract:

This study deals through search and analysis with camels in Sudan including its entry date, geographic distribution of camels in Sudan besides the economical and social value, suitable environments for raising and breeding camels alongside with the barriers of breeding and developing the camels’ sector in Sudan. The paper mainly depended on the secondary published and unpublished data; this data was analyzed through the simple analytic methodology and the descriptive alongside the historical methodologies. The study concluded that camels entered Sudan during 2500-1500B.C. through the costs of the red sea from the Arabian Peninsula; these camels were single-hump camels including camels that are used for riding purposes, work purposes and race purposes that include (Al-Anafi), (Al-Bushari), (Al-Rashaidi) and the Arabian camels. Camels are spread between latitudes 12-16 North, widespread in the East up to the Egyptian boarders. The number of camels is estimated to be 3,100,000 distributed in the different states of Sudan; North Kurdofan, Kasala, North Darfur and South Kurdofan possess about 63.56% of the camels in Sudan. The study also indicated that camels possess and play a distinguished social rule especially regarding the social status of an individual and group as it grows as much as the owned number of camels grows. Economically camels are considered an important source of income and food. Camels provide mean and milk besides its skin and lint; furthermore, Sudan exports approximately 200,000 camels besides the meat exports. In order to develop the sector of camels, the study recommended correcting the perspectives that connects between breeding camels to underdevelopment and primitive life; furthermore, the study recommended providing social services for camel breeders especially education, health, water and veterinary services.

-    Introduction
-    Types of Camels in Sudan
-    Suitable Environments for Breeding Camels
-    Geographical Distribution of Camels in Sudan
-    Camels in the Different States of Sudan
-    Social and Economic Value of Camels
-    Main Markets of Camels in Sudan
-    References

 

Introduction
Arabs breaded and raised camels since 4000 years, they have given it special attention especially in their daily lives (Arabian organization of agricultural development et. el, 1990). The camel then was considered to be the most important animal for how he contributes to the daily exhausting life besides it is the preferred partner in travelling for long distances for its endurance of thirst, hunger and weights’ carriage; camels posses the ability to feed on poor weeds and somehow turn it into meat and protein. Camels are big-sized animals that are easily manageable, rise and kneel with heavy carriage and sometimes man acquires camels’ backs as homes in which he store food and water (Arabian organization of agricultural development et. el, 1990).
Camels posses a position within God as mentioned in (Surat Al-Ghasheya): [MEANING]: “Can’t they look at the camels and how they’re created?”, for it’s magnificent in its creation; recent studies upon these animals indicated the distinguished different features of this animal (Arabian organization of agricultural development et. el, 1990).
Date of Camels’ Entry to Sudan
Camels moved from the Arabian Island to the African continent through two ways:
-    The red sea costs to Egypt.
-    Through the red sea to Sudan.
It’s said that that happened between 2500-1500B.C. (Madani, 1996), it’s also said that camels moved from the Arabian Island to Levant and then to the Eastern Egypt then south to the Sudan and west to Libya and Tunis during the second century B.C. According to the spread of single-hump camels in the Arabian lands, it’s called Arabian camels (Madan, 1996). It is also said that the spread of camels in Sudan was during the second century B.C. (Al-Emam, 2002). (Field 1972) believes that the weak immunity against the fly’s diseases transmitted by the Tsetse prevented the camels from going further into Africa (Madani, 1996).
Generally we can say that camels entered Sudan from South West of Asia, these camels are loading, single-hump and large-sized camels (Al-Shami 2000). Camels used for riding are distinguished by being of light weight and fast mobility. Camels are generally spread in Sudan north of latitude 13 in dry and semi-dry environments, they feed on weeds and trees (Baleela 2012); camels endure thirst and lack of food for several days. The virgin female camel in Sudan produces at the age of 4-5 years and keeps on producing for 20 years, once every three years; the age of fertility is about 5 years old.

Types of Camels in Sudan

Camels of Sudan belong to the Arabian, single-hump type of camels; camel variants were divided in accordance to the breeding tribes or in accordance to the type of usage for these camels. This is the common partitioning for Arabian camels:
1-    Riding camels: light weight, large chest and small hump.
2-    Work camels: Big-sized, short legs, big head, carries loads, performs tilling and water extraction from wells.
3-    Racing camels: Graceful body, light weight, fast mobility and called the hybrid (Madani 1996)
As for camels’ partition/division in Sudan, (Madani 1996) pointed out that there are no major different in the opinions of (Masona and Meawol 1960, Benit et el 1948, Ebstean 1971, Akland 1932 and Mohamed AbdAllah Al-Sayegh 1983) about the division/partition of Sudanese camels:
Riding camels: located in North East of Sudan between the Nile and the Red Sea, it represents about 10% of camels in Sudan, some of the camel breeders in East of Sudan specializes in breeding racing camels 3.8%; taking much of care of them providing and creating masks, eye and chest covers and Khuffs; some of its important types are:
Al-Anafi, also known as Juhani, Shukri and Alosbs; it’s raised by the tribes of Rashayda,Shukreya, Bataheen, Lahaween in Al-Butana, Kenan and Rufaa; it is considered some of the good riding camels furthermore, it has a good reputation in the Arabian gulf.
Al-Bushari, spread in the east of the Nile river in Kasala and the Red Sea between latitudes 18-24, it is raised by the tribes of Bushareen, Hadandawa, Bani-Amir and Amrar, it is considered the best riding camels in Africa; some of its types are Al-Ameerab, the brown Bushari and the white Bushari
Load Camels: represents most of the camels of Sudan, approximately 90% (Al-Imam 2002), these camels are spread in most of the areas of camels especially in the west of the Nile; the types are:
Al-Rashaydi, raised by the tribe of Al-Rashayda, known as the camels of the Red Sea or Zibead which is the area that the tribe of  Al-Rashayda came from, it is an area located in Yemen. These camels are spread in the area from Tukar and Kasal to Caran. It is distinguished by its light weight and strength alongside its short legs and ability to carry heavy weights just like the Arabian type besides its color is red-pink (Madani 1996)
The Arabian, most important types are the Kabashi type which is raised by the Arabian tribes in North Kurdofan and Darfur (Al-Imam 2002); the Arabian type is divided into three types:
Light Type: located in the Red Sea area in the areas of Hadandawa, Bani-Amir and A-Amrar
Large Heavy Type: In the areas of Al-Butana in the areas of the tribes of Al-Shukreya, Al-Bataheen and Al-Lahaween. These camels are large-sized and can reach up to 450KG of weight; it has ability of growth especially the hump.
Large Massive Type: Located in deserts and semi-deserts in the areas of the tribes of Al-Kababeesh, Al-Hawaweer, Al-Shanabla in Kurdofan and Al-Maedob in Darfur; the most important one among these is the Kababeesh. The camel known by the name of Al-Kabashi is distinguished by its large massive size and well-formed high hump, it is the biggest camel in size in Sudan; it’s heavily exported into Egypt through the Fortieth Path. There is another type in Darfur named Al-Gharbawi or Al-Feyzani which are camels of meat exported to Libya (Madani 1996). Furthermore, (Ahmed and Altayeb 2007) clarified that the most important breeds in Sudan are Al-Bushari, Al-Shukri, Al-Hamari, Al-Kabashi, Al-Rashaydi and Al-Sahli; Photos (1-2-3-4-5).

Photo.1: Swahli Arabian Camel:
 
Source: Guide of Live Animals in Sudan, Sudan Organization of Standardization and Metrology 2007.
-    Photo.2 Al-Anafi Camel

 
Source: Guide of Live Animals in Sudan, Sudan Organization of Standardization and Metrology 2007.
-    Photo.3: Al-Bushari Camel

 
Source: Guide of Live Animals in Sudan, Sudan Organization of Standardization and Metrology 2007.
-    Photp.4: Al-Rahsaydi Camel

 
Source: Guide of Live Animals in Sudan, Sudan Organization of Standardization and Metrology 2007.
-    Photo.5: Kabashi Camel

 
Source: Guide of Live Animals in Sudan, Sudan Organization of Standardization and Metrology 2007.


Suitable Environments for Breeding Camels
Desert, semi-desert and poor-Savannah environments are considered the most suitable environments for breeding camels in North Sudan as mentioned in Map1, wherein camels endure the hard environmental conditions. It is found that camels do not get affected by thirst; apart from that, camel do not lose energy even if it loses water equivalent to one third of its weight besides its capable of enduring lack of water for two weeks during the summer and two to four months during the winter especially if it finds green plants to feed on for it gets its water from these green plants (Madani 1996). Trees and plants in the poor-Savannah areas are considered to be 77% of camels’ food (Khidir 2004); furthermore, camels benefit from wide vast grazing spaces for the nature of its movement and grazing pattern.
Camels possess a high ability to feed on a wide variety of desert plants of low nutritious value that other animals do not feed on (ZIyad et el 1991). Camels consumption of different plants in natural pastures differs from other animals’ consumption as demonstrated in the table (Jihad 1995). One of the habits of pastoral camels is to chew a small part of a certain plant and then move on for a while to chew from another plant; it doesn’t graze in a small area even if good grazing are available. It is known that camels can naturally feed on a grazing land estimated by 50KLM per day, this type has several features:
-    Preventing the occurrence of overgrazing.
-    Giving plants a chance to grow again.
In accordance, camels are considered to be animals that preserve natural pastures and vegetation compared to sheep and goats (Zayd et el 1991).
Table1: Camels’ consumption of vegetation compared to other animals:

Animal

Components of the vegetation

Weeds %

Shrubbery %

Trees %

Camels

3

56

34

Cows

96

4

10

Goats

38

21

18

Sheep

58

25

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Jehad, 1995.

Map1: Plants/vegetation regions in Sudan:
 
Map keys: 1. Desert, 2. Semi-desert, 3. Poor-Savannah and 4. Poor-Savannah of clay soil.
Source: Work of the researcher is built upon the maps of Sudanese Authority of Survey, 2015.

Geographical Distribution of Camels in Sudan
Camels are spread between 12-16 North latitudes in Sudan, from the East to the boarders with Egypt. Camels in the west of Sudan move from the autumn areas; Hamrat Al-Sheekh, Om Endraya, Al-Sayal, Al-Mazrob, Om Badir in North Kurdofan, and Malha, Kutom and Mileet in North Darfur, they move to Summer areas to the South until the start of Autumn. The most important summer areas are Al-Obaeed, Al-Rahad, Al-Khawi, Al-Nuhood in Kurdofan and Nyala and Al-Dhiaeen in Darfur. It starts moving to winter areas in north-west of Sudan in Wadi Hoor/Hoor Valley, Wadi Al-Malik/Al-Malik Valley and the Al-Juzo in early November and it stays for the rest of the winter (Madani 1996).
On the other hand, the movement are shorter in east of Sudan, tribes of Al-Rashayda and Al-Shukreya move from Al-Dindir River, Al-Rahad River and Atbara River in areas of Aroma, Khashm Al-Girba, Jibeet, Halayeb and Sinkat. During the summer camels are located north till Al-Dindir River and south of Al-Gadarif till Abu-Dileeg. Due to the spread of irrigated agricultural projects Al-Rahad project became a continuous source for drinking water and agricultural crops’ waste (Madani 1996)
Generally the geographical distribution of camels in Sudan is in two geographical areas:
-    East area, Al-Butana areas and heights of the Red Sea.
-    West area, north of the states of Kurdofan and Darfur; this area represents the geographical atmosphere north of latitude 14south and north 16 latitude ease.
Change in Number of Camels in Sudan
The numbers of camels in Sudan used to keep on rising, in 1991 it was estimated to be 2,700,000, in 1998 however the number was estimated to be 3,100,000 (League of Arab States 2000). Although these numbers didn’t match the numbers of the official ministerial numbers of Sudan government in 2014; the difference has no statistical value as per mentioned in Table2, wherein the number of Sudanese Camels in 2014 was 4,792,000 (Minister y of Livestock, Government of Sudan 2014), this number represents 21.3% of Africa’s camels and 25.7% of Arabian camels (League of Arab States).
The percentage of camels within the animal wealth in Sudan is estimated to be 4.21% as per mentioned in Table2 and Figure1, Sudan is at the top of the list regarding camels in the Arab world with percentage 26%; taking second place after Somalia in Africa (Khidir 2004).
Generally it is noted that there is a gradual decrease in the yearly increase rates of the numbers of camels in Sudan, this might be due to the droughts across the country and the decrease in the grazing areas and pastures due to the increase in agricultural activities of crops (Al-Imam 2002).

Table2

Year

Number of Camels

Total of Livestock in Sudan

Percentage of Camels in the Livestock

1991

2757

59764

4.61

1992

2787

66110

4.21

1993

2849

77150

3.69

1994

2886

89001

3.24

1995

2903

103445

2.81

1996

2915

107001

2.72

1997

2936

111910

2.62

1998

2974

116419

2.55

1999

3031

121004

2.55

2000

3108

124844

2.49

2001

3203

128523

2.49

2002

3342

132442

2.51

2003

3503

133642

2.62

2004

3724

134573

2.77

2005

3908

136699

2.86

2006

4078

138218

2.95

2007

4238

138965

3.05

2008

4406

140003

3.15

2009

4521

140909

3.21

2010

4623

141904

3.79

2011

4715

104911

4.49

2012

4751

104278

4.56

2013

4773

105335

4.53

2014

4792

10586

4.53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Ministry of Livestock, 2015.

Figure1: Camels in Sudan (as per thousands) during 1991 and 2013:


Source: Central Statistics Organization, Khartoum 2014.


Camels in the Different States of Sudan
Camels are breeded in all the different states of Sudan, but camels in large numbers are found in North Kurdofan State, wherein the environmental condition are suitable for camels breeding; this state contains 26.23% of the total number of camels in Sudan; then after it comes the states of Kasala, North Darfur and South Kurdofan in percentage 14.59%, 12.51 and 11.23% respectively as per mentioned in Table3 and Map2. As per the states of Khartoum and The Blue Nile, the percentage is located in very small percentage 0.14% in Khartoum and 0.30% in The Blue Nile State; apart from that very low percentages of camels are located in the states of The White Nile and North State.

Table3: Camels’ numbers in thousands in the different states of Sudan from the year 2000 to 2012:

Year

South Darfur

West Darfur

North Darfur

North Kurdofan

South Kurdofan

White Nile

Al-Jazeera

Sennar

2000

72727

278477

385392

587101

587101

22999

80497

76146

2001

74950

286989

397172

605047

162712

33702

82958

78474

2002

78203

299443

414408

631304

169774

24731

86558

81879

2003

81970

318369

434372

661717

177952

25922

90728

85824

2004

87142

87142

461776

703464

189179

27558

96452

91238

2005

91447

350157

484592

738221

198526

28919

101217

95746

2006

95425

365389

3638158

770334

207162

30177

105620

99911

2007

99169

379725

3657002

800558

215290

31361

109764

103831

2008

103100

394778

546344

1369825

252023

32604

114115

107947

2009

152358

408698

565577

1185858

507708

33908

117998

111669

2010

155795

417919

578337

1212613

519163

34673

120660

114188

2011

158896

426236

589847

1236745

529495

35363

123062

116461

2012

88060

236125

594350

1246187

533537

35633

124001

117350

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Central Statistics Organization, Khartoum 2014.
Table3: Camels’ numbers in thousands in the different states of Sudan from the year 2000 to 2012:

Year

Nile River State

North State

Red Sea

Kasala

Al-Gadarif

Blue Nile

Khartoum

2000

74592

32012

217871

418648

160994

139238

4351

2001

23702

32991

224530

431444

165915

143494

4484

2002

80208

34423

234274

450167

173116

149722

4679

2003

84072

36081

245560

471854

181455

156934

4904

2004

89376

38357

501623

501623

192903

166835

5214

2005

93792

40252

273951

526408

202434

175078

5471

2006

97872

42003

285868

549307

211240

182694

5709

2007

101712

43651

708477

570859

219528

189862

5933

2008

105744

45382

308861

593488

228231

197389

6168

2009

109408

74018

273973

659614

327320

13563

6329

2010

111877

48079

280154

674496

334705

13869

6472

2011

114103

49036

285729

687919

431366

14145

6601

2012

114974

49410

287911

693171

343972

14253

6651

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Central Statistics Organization, Khartoum 2014.


Map2: Camels in Sudan:
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Work of researcher based on Ministry of Livestock 2016.

Social and Economical Value of Camels
Camels play an important part in the lives of people in dry and semi-dry areas in terms of life, literature and tradition. One’s or tribe’s social status increases in accordance to the increase of the number of possessed camels especially when of high quality. Camels are used in a lot of rituals as a symbol of generosity and vow besides it is used as dowry, fines payments, blood money, and gifts.
 Local and Arabian national folklore is full of great traditions orbiting around camels as we can see it in Arabian poetry, novels, myths and stories such as stories of Hajana and Hambata in Al-Butana; apart from that camels were involved in arts also. It is worth mentioning that the famous most distinguished Sudanese female dance called (Al-Ragaba)/The Neck Dance is a symbol of the movement of the camel’s neck (Al-Imam 2002).
The economical value of camels decreased due to the technical and economical advancement in its traditional areas beside the widespread of cars, machines, roads and the seek for settlement for a better life by camel breeders; apart from that droughts played a big part in lowering the economical value of camels, some countries strived for the resettlement of camel breeders. It’s due also to the wrong perception that camel breeding doesn’t have economical value and that breeding camels is connected to underdevelopment and primitive life; although camels still play an important role in some of the poor areas (Al-Imam 2002).
Camel breeding in Sudan is considered a low-risks and low-cost investment for these animals are breeded for the purpose of its meat which is connected to the live weight especially during     7-9 years old which is the regular age for export. Economically it is considered to be one of the best sources of making a living and supplying food. Camels in a lot of Arabian countries are considered to be a national wealth, accordingly paying much attention to developing camels is considered to be one of the most important aspects of livestock development in terms meat production and milk production as means of establishing food security. Apart from production, camels contribute in the settlements of people and creating social and economical movements in dry and semi-dry areas alongside its affect of environmental balancing (Al-Khidir 2004).
Recent year have witnessed an increase in breeding and producing camels due to its economical value and its great ability to endure hard environmental conditions. Several Arabian and regional seminars indicated on the importance of camels and the importance of evacuating it in terms of predication and economically. Camels’ economical value orbits around supplying meat and milk, also its lint and skin are used for different purposes; camels are also used for transportation. These productivity elements are the most important factors in supporting camels development (Arab Organization for Agricutlutral Development et. el 1990) especially after camel milk and meat were manufactured in different ways and sold in some Arabian markets.
Single-Hump Camels provide approximately 3500 thousand tons of milk and about 425 thousand tons of red meat yearly alongside its lint and skin. Meat produced from camels represents 9% of the whole meat produced in the Arabian world; it contributes with the percent of 29-39% of meat in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Al-Khidir 2004).
Sudan exports to Egypt and 200,000 camels yearly through official and unofficial channels, thus Sudan loses great amounts of livestock during these processes of exporting alongside the large number of deaths in camels during these processes also due to health and environmental conditions of these processes. The average export of camels from Sudan to Egypt during the last years is estimated to be 130,000 (Al-Khidir).

Main Markets of Camels in Sudan
Camels markets in East Africa are distinguished by their lack of development and organization except for Sudan’s markets, male camels of 5-6 years are being marketed. The government of Sudan created a law prohibiting the export of female camels while meat of young age of females are preferred, expensive and consumed locally (Jihad 1995); the rest majority of male camels are preserved for export. The percentage withdraw from herds of Sudanese camels is estimated to be 6-12% which explains the decrease in herds’ growth; this percentage can include some producing female camels alongside a large number of racing camels that are preferred in KSA and countries of the Gulf. Export of Sudanese camels to Egypt, Libya and some of the countries of the Arabian Gulf represent an important source of hard currency (Al-Khidir 2004), accordingly exporters and traders of camels in Sudan are considered to people of riches (Al-Imam 2002).
Some of the most important internal markets of camels in Sudan (and Map3) are the following:
1.    Kurdofan state markets: Al-Obaedh, Al-Nudood, Ghibeesh, Om Santa, Humrat Al-Sheekh, Om Badir and Sudri.
2.    Darfur state markets: Al-Fashir, Kutum, Mileet, Al-Jinayna and Nyala.
3.    Markets of East, North and Central Sudan: includes: Kasala, Wad Al-Rakeen in Al-Gadarif, Al-Shwak, Portsudan, Halayeb, Al-Damr, Tambool, Rufa’a, Senja, Al-Dindir and Muweelih market in Om Dorman


Map3: Main camel markets in Sudan:


External Sudanese Camel Markets
Egypt is considered to be one of the most important external markets of Sudanes camels as exporting camels to Egypt started in the 19th century. Camel markets in Egypt include markets of Imbaba, Draaw and Asna; Imbaba is considered to be the biggest camel market in Egypt. Routes of Dungola, Al-Ebaedia and Halaeyb and Shalateen are the main export routes to Egypt. Egypt imports Sudanese camels either for further exporting or local consumption. These camels are exported alive to Egypt which lowers its economical value, cancels the economics of added value and encourages smuggling which in accordance causes losses in secondary productions of skin and lint.
Camel exports to Egypt
The first official trade of camels between Sudan, Egypt and KSA started in the year 1904; three veterinary facilities were created in Khartoum-Bahri, Wadi Halfa and Portsudan to organize this trade. This trade was conducting traditionally through agreements made between the camel traders in Sudan and Egypt until the year 1963 when the Ministry of Trade of Sudan applied the official system of camels export using the certificate of export.
Camels are moved to Egypt on foot, crossing far tiring distances till reaching the main camel markets in Egypt; camels through these journeys face health problems and lack in food, which in accordance causes the death of large numbers of camels. Egypt import of camels is estimated to be 200,000 camels a year while the number of smuggled camels is estimated to be 100,000 camels a year. In the year 2007 the Sudanese government gave Egypt 5000 camels as gift. During the period of 1977 and 1985 the number of exported camels to Egypt was estimated to be 66224 camels which is 5% of the yearly consumption of meat in Egypt for its considered one of the most important alternatives of red meat; wherein 29grams of animal protein is the average consumption of one person a day (Khidir 2004).
Table4

Year

No. of Camels

1990

260

1991

26350

1992

56957

1993

59423

1994

50583

1995

21463

1996

72071

1997

77714

1998

131570

1999

159439

2000

132009

2001

185500

2002

155710

2003

88423

2004

62297

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Al-Khidir 2004.


Camels Export to KSA
In 1975 Sudan started officially exporting camels to KSA; 13998 camels were exported during 1977-1985. Most of the camels exported to KSA from Sudan are racing camels (Al-Anagi), these camels accomplished great success in the racing fields in KSA and the rest of the countries of the gulf. KSA yearly imports about 70,000 live camels and about 1 to 6 thousand tons of camels’ meat from Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia (Khidir 2004).
Camels Export to Libya
Camel trading with Libya is conducted through smuggling wherein the Sudanese camel is used as a transportation mean between North Darfur (Mileet) and Al-Kufra in Libya. The first protocol to organize camel trade between Sudan and Libya was made in 1986; the number of exported camels from Sudan to Libya is estimated to be 20,000 a year (Khidir 2004).


Table5  

Year

Camels

1991

N.A

1992

N.A

1993

N.A

1994

3

1995

7.7

1996

31.9

1997

11.7

1998

22.6

1999

20.7

2000

9.5

2001

12.4

2002

6.6

2003

16.4

2004

57.4

2005

27

2006

10.2

2007

12.2

2008

0.7

2009

N.A

2010

0.498

2011

0.266

2012

0.82

2013

0.151

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Ministry of Livestock 2014.


It is fair to say that exports of live camels come in right after exports of live sheep as mentioned in Table6 wherein these exports kept on increasing since 1991.


Table 6

Year  

Camels

1991

158

1992

28365

1993

56957

1994

59423

1995

50583

1996

72071

1997

77714

1998

131670

1999

159438

2000

132009

2001

165500

2002

155710

2003

88423

2004

13260

2005

121158

2006

116184

2007

85862

2008

140757

2009

154477

2010

171971

2011

151208

2012

168240

2013

128847

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Ministry of Livestock 2014.


Obstacles of Camel Breeding
1.    Breeding of camels is connected to areas of hard environmental conditions and semi-desert areas besides the non-existence of programs of genetic improvement for the prevailing pastures in those areas.
2.    The lack of production requirements such as feeding and water programs wherein water and food are not located in the same place which requires constant moving.
3.    Cultural and prevailing perception that breeding camels is connected to underdevelopment.
Conclusion and Recommendations:
For several reasons the profession of breeding camels became not appealing for many tribes with much social and economical pressure although it is considered the ideal method of benefiting from desert-like pastures where there is a lack of food and water. This study concluded the following:
1.    The current situation of camels pastures especially pastures connected to herbal vegetation of weeds and trees can be affected by the instability of rain and its rate which leaded to lack in water resources and available pastures.
2.    Most of the areas of camels’ presence are fragile and instable which leads to desertification.
3.    Camels represent 4.6% of the Sudan’s livestock which is relatively a small number compared to sheep although the natural environments of camel breeding are available
4.    More than 90% of camel exports are live camels which results in losing the added value.
In order to develop and improve Sudanese camels, this study recommends:
1.    Searching for additional external markets for camels other than the markets of Egypt and the markets of countries of the Gulf, which can open great opportunities for Sudanese camels exporting; especially because Sudanese camels are being fattened in Egypt to be exported again. Alongside the importance of only exporting camels’ mean, not live camels.
2.    Improving veterinary services and other social services, especially providing water sources in one place alongside pasture sources.
3.    Camels should have a lot of studies in order to develop its production and improve it, these studies shall be accompanied with social and economical studies for the pastoralist communities and studies for the camel markets and production.


References:
Ahmed, Wisal Mahmoud Mohamed and Al-Taid, Aziza (2007): Animal Production Role in Accomplishing Food Security. Ministry of Agriculture, General Directorate of Planning and Agricultural Economy, Directorate of Food Security, Khartoum.
 Al-Imam. Mohamed Al-Ameed (2002): Camel Production, Al-Jazeera University Press, Wad Madani.
Al-Sahmi, Salah Al-Deen (2000): Sudan A Geographic Study. Al-Ma’arif Establishment, Jalal Hazi and Accompanies – Alexandria.
The Arab Organization for Agricultural Development and University of UAE alongside Zuhair Zanon Taha (1990): Camels and Livestock in the Arab World.
Balila, Omer Adam AbdAllah (2012): Agricultural Development and its Continuity Obstacles in Semi- Desert Enviroments. Wideyan – Sudan.
Jihad, Al-Sayed Ahmed (1995): Arabian Camels: Production and Tradition, Arabian Company for Publishing, first print.
Khidir, AbdAl-Rahmen Ahmed (2004): Care of Export Camels to Egypt,`Master Degree Thesis, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum.
Guide of Live Animals in Sudan (2007): Sudan Organization of Standardization and Metrology, University of Khartoum Press, Khartoum.
Zayed, AbdAllah et. el (1991): Camels in the Arab World, University of Omer Al-Mukhtar, Libya.
Madani, Mohamed AbuAl-Azayem (1996): Animal Production in Sudan, University of Khartoum Press, Khartoum.

 

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