The role of Sudan in teaching the Arabic language and Islamic sciences in Indonesia

Sun, 01 Oct 2017




Dr. Mohammed Shaikhoun Mohammed Suleiman


Abstract:
In the background of this research about the Sudanese center for teaching Arabic and Islamic Studies in Indonesia, this research shows how Islam was introduced and spread in Indonesia, because the spread of the Arabic language in Indonesia is closely related to or more accurately a reflection of the output of the spread of Islam. The research presented four opinions that were discussed by historians as means that carried Islam to Indonesia, the most important of these opinions is believed that the Arabs with their commercial links with the east as intermediaries between the east and west across Yemen, Mecca and the Levant in the winter and summer trips, they took Islam which they espoused wherever they settle down after the mission and their conversion to Islam. The second opinion attributed the spread of Islam in Indonesia for the Indians and the third opinion to the Persians and the fourth opinion for the Indonesians themselves. The research shows three factors have influenced the spread of Islam in Indonesia, this opinion differentiates between the introduction of Islam and its spread, considering that these influencing factors are related to the content and the essence of Islam, which was suitable to the aspirations of the Indonesians and the political factor that believes that rulers embraced Islam due to its popularity, the economic factor associated with the rulers and the public who looked to preachers traders for reasons of economic interests. The research believes that the role of the first factor is more likely. The research came across the role of the Sudanese teacher and preacher Ahmed Mohammed Alsorkati and his collaborators of the four Sudanese teachers, in teaching the Arabic language and Islamic sciences in Indonesia in recent history 1911-1943 and in reality where the spread of religion was separated from the knowledge of its jurisprudence rituals. So the effect of the teacher Sorkati was wide and deep in the history of Indonesia, represented in modern schools which he established and the Reform and Guidance Society which he founded where plenty of followers enrolled to on the path of enlightenment’s ideas and awareness and keep up with the time, which he taught to his students. Hence, we find that Sorkati with the four teachers whom were summoned has put imprints in the reality of cultural relations between Sudan and Indonesia. The activities of the Sudanese center for teaching Arabic and Islamic Studies in Indonesia that we came through in this research, shows a general picture that reflects the growing cultural role of Sudan in Indonesia qualitatively represented in the Centre's role in promoting the teaching of Arabic and Islamic sciences through training qualified teachers who are specialized in teaching these science at all levels, in all parts of Indonesia, through providing opportunities for students-in the stages of bachelor, master and doctoral-who aren’t entitled to move, study and live with native people in an Arab environment, in any country from the Arab countries where, they found the Arab environment has moved to them through the existence of this center.


•    Introduction
•    The correlation between spread of the Arabic language and spread of Islam in Indonesia
•    The role of Sheikh Ahmed Sorkati in the Islamic Call and teaching Arabic in Indonesia
•    The Sudanese center for teaching Arabic language and Islamic sciences in Indonesia
•    Conclusion
•    Proposals and recommendations
•    References

 

Introduction:
Indonesia is the largest Muslim country and home to currently about 240 million Muslims, the spread of Islam has been associated with the Arab trade relations with Indonesia since ancient and medieval-the first mission-this research focuses on the scope of the role of Sudan in teaching of the Arabic language and Islamic sciences in Indonesia, to introduce and evaluate the performance of the Sudanese center for teaching Arabic language and Islamic sciences in Indonesia. The research follows the case study method to the experience of the center, but the research background required to go deep in a descriptive analytical historical approach in:
First: the introduction and spread of Islam in Indonesia, because the spread of Arabic language in Indonesia was linked closely to spread of Islam, where there is a gap between the time Islam was introduced to Indonesia and its spread there. After accepting Islam, in the stage looking forward to knowing about religion, Khalawi, institutes and Islamic universities have been established. A governmental educational institutions linked administratively to the Ministry of Religious Affairs and has its distinct curricula-as well as modern science-liabilities of Islamic studies and Arabic language materials. It is worth mentioning that the number of Islamic educational institutions in all parts of Indonesia at all stages of education is much more than public educational institutions that are related to the Ministry of Education and Culture, besides it attracts high number of parents and students and because of the link between learning Arabic and learning the instructions of Islam, this research outlined the particularity of the peaceful spread of Islam in Indonesia.
Second: the research also required to indulge in a stage of history 1911-1943 where the roots of educational and Islamic preaching between Sudan and Indonesia go back to, where these links go back to the beginning of the second decade of the twentieth century 1911, when the preacher and teacher Ahmed Mohammed Sorkati moved for preaching and teaching in Indonesia and due to his highly capabilities he led a big role in education and the Islamic preaching and became an important figure in the reality of Islamic culture and the Arabic language in Indonesia, both in educational institutions which he established and developed its curricula or the Reform and Guidance Society which he founded and still active in Indonesia through its membership amounting to millions–in Islamic preaching, guidance and in the field of regular education and in all levels of education–till present.
Third: After above mentioned this research presented a review to the Sudanese center for teaching Arabic language and Islamic sciences, its origin, evolution, its objectives and tasks performed, in addition to the prospects for the perpetuation of its work and achieve its development in the recommendations made by the research after its conclusion.


1- The Correlation between Spread of the Arabic Language and the Spread of Islam in Indonesia:
(A) A reference to the history of Indonesia before Islam:
Indonesia which was called the islands of East Indies by Westerners and Java by some Arab, consist of tens of thousands of islands of varying size in the geographical area between Australia and Asia. The number of inhabited Indonesian islands are 6044 Islands, its total area is 1,919,317 square kilometers. Indonesia has a tropical climate on its various islands which located in a hot geographical area between latitude 6 north and 11 south. Some factors have led to the moderate climate, these are: the rising of Indonesian territories and breadth of the water bodies because of the sea water surrounds each of its islands from all directions and the frequent rain and wide forests as well as offshore wind. Also many mountain chains that consist of sedimentary rocks, and abundance of the raw materials for industry, energy, notably oil, lead, forests of timber, rubber and eucalyptus, coconut, bamboo and plenty of crops such as rice, spices, coffee, tea, sugar cane, cotton…etc.  
The population groups in Indonesia speak more than 300 languages and dialects, Malay language is the origin of the official Indonesian language which is the language of conversation between the population in the markets and the language of the written and visual media and the language of instruction at all levels, except some subspecialties using the English language. The Indonesian language was written in Arabic letters till the Dutch colonial authorities decided to write it in Latin letters, but sections of the clergymen are still using Arabic letters to write the Indonesian language. It’s characterized by a lot of vocabulary borrowed from various languages, such as Arabic, Indian, Chinese, Dutch and English. Most of the Indonesian communities that made up the Indonesian people are civilized, only that some primitive societies that have a presence in some areas, such as forests (Iran Jaya), the Islamic religion is among the different religions that have followers in Indonesia like Hinduism, Buddhism and others, it is the most widespread religion and espoused by the majority of the population where it is the state religion. The Indonesian people of all religious components are characterized by too much religious tolerance and are all interested in political thought and academic curriculum of comparative religions, where it was taught as a subject in secondary private schools. As well as interest in interfaith dialogue not the dialogue between religions in the sense of debate, according to the Minister of the Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia under the President Soehato, Ahmed Muti: “to give the opportunity for each one of those to apply his religion and his belief in his daily life and he can call others too, the interfaith dialogue also means to gather all hearts and ideas of religions’ believers to get to the truth and to cooperate in matters which they agree on and to resolve problems that occur with each other”.  So many parties have been preoccupied by the issue of interfaith dialogue in Indonesia such as scholars and social institutions as well as state’s efforts which organized 23 conferences in 21 cities during the period from 1972 to 1977.
(B) Arab-Indonesia Early Connection:
At the beginning, the relation of Arab countries with the Eastern Asian is as ancient as the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley, possibly dating back to the third millennium BC   when the Arabs rode the sea in order to trade across the Indian Ocean starting from Ras Al Khaimah currently in the Arabian Gulf. Later, successive migrations of Arabs of south Arabian Peninsula took place in this direction. The Hadhrami migration in the fourth century AD millennium, and specifically before the fall Himyarite state in Yemen, the greatest organized Arab immigration throughout the east, where those Arabs created in Kujarat a large community was called Arepetto by the Indians, from which they drove off towards the islands of East Indies.
Indonesia, the Philippines and China.  Great.  Some say they migrated due to political events experienced by the state Ahumairien in Yemen that have led to cracking the domestic front and the loss of security and fall of the country under the ambitions of Byzantines, the Ethiopians and finally the control of the Persians.  It’s better to put aside the idea that Islam entered Indonesia through the missionaries as alleged by some Western Historians because missionaries or expeditions does not exist in the Islamic religion as it exists in Christianity where in Islam there is no Church or presidency of the papacy, and even there in the first Islam the religion interferes with the state represented by the prophet or the caliph, which combines religious and secular authorities, and the spread of Islam was in two ways one of them is conquest imposed by military force in case peaceful means did not work, and then the population enter in the state religion which sponsored their interests and ensured their rights, not to mention the positivity displayed by the tolerant Islamic faith, and the limits of this pattern of spreading Islam did not exceed the coast of India due to being far away and the weakness of the state marine capabilities if not being frightened from the sea risks. Here the question arises: How did Islam entered Indonesia?
Certainly, the answer is clear; the only way to access is through peaceful way which is a key-based trade. The nature of this activity requires an openness to people and to get closer to them by demonstrating well manner and good treatment and provision and intermarriage that much end up with settlement. This what the Hadhrami Arabs who arrived to the East Indies (Indonesia) were used to since the early time back to three centuries prior to Islam.  And this, if the merchant was targeting trading as a mean of making living and profit only but in case he was a politicized one, calling for belief, in this case it there must be a certain amount of logic that can be used by the merchant to spread his ideas or beliefs; this is what happened to traders preachers who spread Islam in those areas by logic and argument and good advice and persuasion, relying on the say: {Invite to the way of the Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching and argue with them with the best}.
(C) The arrival of Islam to Indonesia:
And on how the Islam arrived Indonesia we present the following views:
First opinion: assumes that Arab traders and specially Hadhrami are the first to carry Islam to the land of India and Indonesia. After the advent of Islam in the seventh century with growing strength and crystallization of its concepts, most of these Arabs traders some of whom had settled turned into spreading Islam in Indonesia this way they secure their commercial interests and to keep their faith they believed in.
The Islam entered to Indonesia between multiple streams - Chinese, Indian, Arab and European, a current flowing peacefully and gradually by trade, but it is effective in its impact and spread due to the embrace of religion before learning its rituals and its specificity, because at some point it seemed to be tailored to the existed lifestyle as if the process in all its basics is an attempt to reconcile the newcomer Islam with the Indonesian-based model. This understanding explains the two phenomena escorted the introduction of Islam to these islands, first one: the overwhelming engagement in Islam until it became within the centuries that followed the religion of the mass majority; and second: Indonesian Islam, or in other words, the Indonesian specialty that imposed itself not in the essence of Islam laid down in the Qur'an and the Sunnah that left no room for misrepresentation and alteration, but in the overall shape of daily rituals and practices.
Second Opinion: assumes that the Indians preachers were the first to spread Islam in the Malay Archipelago  this view is based to the knowledge of ancient Indians about Indonesia that extends to the beginning of the first century AD. Within the centuries that followed, the Indians kept roaming along the shores of the archipelago for trading and spreading Hinduism. During that time, the Indonesian civilization was known as the Indo-Javanese civilization and the Sanskrit language which was carried by the Indians added vocabularies to the Malay language that contributed to the formation of Indonesia’s contemporary language; and there are widespread social signs in Sumatra back in its origins to the habits and Indian traditions such as dance, music, sculpture, literature, architecture and the system of distinct religious class or priests system and independent economic groupware.  Mentioning sectarian similarities prevailing in Indonesia representing in Shaafa'a which they reckon it came from the coast of Kromandl and Malabar in India, as well as to the form of the popular Islam in its Indonesian particularity and described Sufi has its entire similarity in the land of India. Finally, supporters of this opinion tend to the physical evidences, including the manuscript found in Smadrh village in the north-east coast of Sumatra, a death certificate testimonial written on the shrine of the Muslim ruling Sultan Malik Saleh who died in 696 AH / 1297 AD. Studies conducted on the manuscript proved that the stone had been brought from the coast of western India by Indians who converted to Islam and became advocates of Islam in Indonesia.
Third opinion: assumes that Islam came to Indonesia at the hands of Persians preachers. The proponents of this view base on arguments and evidences, including business experience that was known of the Persians and according to Hamza al-Isfahani, the Sassanid’s fleet on the time Khosrow Anushirwan had reached the coast of Serendib, before the emergence of the Islamic maritime influence and that there were two Persians among the King Aceh’s servants one of them in Siraz and the second one in Isfahan,  and that Maulana Malik Ibrahim, who is one of the first preachers who spread Islam in Java, had come from Iran although studies on his grave proved that he was a wealthy merchant, but not necessarily Persian.
Fourth opinion: assume that Islam was introduced to Indonesia by Indonesians traders themselves, some of them who arrived to the Persian Gulf since the seventh century and had friendships and reciprocal relations with Muslim traders from the Indian and Chinese and Arabs.  Indonesian traders contributed a secondary role but it was important to enter their own people in Islam, so that preaching traders of different nationalities came into contact with people, they in return transfer religion to members of their families and their friends and their customers and so on, so this what happened in Java and rest of the sides.
We can divide the preachers who formed the nucleus of the Islamic Call in Indonesia into: Arabs already settled the North West coast of Sumatra since the third Hijri century, the ninth century some of them converted to Islam while in the Diaspora or carry it back with him and to non-Arab traders from different nationalities who transferred Islam with their trade which reached out to the coast of the archipelago.
(D) Factors affecting the spread of Islam in Indonesia:
Factors that influenced the spread of Islam in Indonesia are divided into three sections:
First: The religious factor: represented in the doctrine of Islam and its principles, which called for the lifting of the individual and to achieve his goals and the elimination of the brahimi priests’ authority and the Hindu caste system, as well as Islam fed the spiritual tendencies of local population since it was represented in authority by the Muslim rulers and represented in the civilization by arrival traders as well as the Sufi Muslims' beliefs were compatible to some extent with the ancient Indonesian beliefs that tend to believe in metaphysical philosophy like three Gods of beauty: the beauty and the arts and skills which on most Hindu legacy, and the basis upon which these beliefs established is what known (dynamic) that form the basis of religious perceptions of Indonesians that based on the idea that all the vagaries of nature and its manifestations are the result of metaphysical forces (supernatural) and mostly evil spirits that you can please it and avoid its anger with the utmost caution and prudence and that the basic components of this Indonesian religion based on two beliefs: belief that every human being has a soul which is the power of his life and even if it the same as everyone else it might be stronger in one rather than other, or it's more concentrated in a part of the human body than in another part and a second belief that there is an individual soul that escort the living human being all his life and when he dies it remains inherent in the places in which he was and that this soul does not withdraw from the interest of the group but remains interested in them and participate in them and that this soul get angry if the children abandon their ancestral habits, or no longer perform duties to these spirits. Therefore, Indonesians are keen to maintain their values through appease ancestral spirits through adhering to their values which in their heritage, so Islam avoided particularities that locals used to clung to. More precisely the solution was to reconcile or adapt some of the customs and traditions to get along with the principles of the Islamic religion. Of course, the adaptation process was not at the expense of religious pillars of Islam, especially the five duties besides firm belief in the oneness of the God and the prophecy of Mohammed bin Abdullah and chanting declaration of faith and fulfilling the sacred worship duties, the first preachers were so flexible in passing inherited spiritualties not related to the essence of Islam.
Second: The political factor: it’s the conflict between Indonesian petty lands and principalities first, and its constant struggle against Hinduism’s authority second. This factor has contributed that some princes, leaders and nobles of this micro-states converted to Islam, as an effective and popular weapon against Hindok that we can see through overwhelming response of Islam among the local population, that ease their racist differences and nervousness and self-interest in national unity seeking freedom from foreign control and building the Muslim Indonesia.  Besides the successive victories of the Islamic Arab state as a rising force that defeated Khosrow Sasanian and conquered the Byzantine Empire, and freed the Arab lands that have suffered from its long control. This Islamist wave reflected positively not only on the Indonesian Islamic rulers of micro-states, but on all the governments of Southeast Asia and the Far East, these governments raced with each other to gain the trust of the Arab-Islamic caliphate, which was keen in turn to establish the best relations with these governments and the evidence is the large number of embassies and delegations exchanged between the two parties, which amounted to more than thirty embassies arrived to that remote land in the Umayyad and Abbasid’s era. These pros have facilitated the task of the preachers on the popular and official levels.
Third: The economic factor: One of the factors that contributed to the spread of Islam in Indonesia is the economic factor which represents the active trade between the islands of the archipelago or those adjacent to Indonesian water to China, India and the Arabian Gulf, and which relied on as a source of profit and to increase incomes through taxes imposed trades that that passes through their ports, as well as imported and exported goods. It is noted that most of those who practiced trade were provinces governors, princes and nobles. Since the trade across the Indian Ocean was controlled by the Arabs, Asian traders, particularly Indonesians sought to befriend Muslim traders which one way or another led to the acceptance of some traders from princes and nobles of the new religion. A story claims that the Muslim Sultan of Pasay opened his markets to the governor of Malacca on condition the second to convert to Islam in return.  In this regard, we must note that the establishment of the Abbasid state and the transmission of the center of caliphate to Iraq and building of Baghdad and extending the functions of the commercial Basra port and development of friendly relations between the caliphs of Bani Abbas and their contemporaries from Southeast Asia and China's rulers and the development and urbanization in the Islamic society, combined with the multiplicity of the needs and an increase in consumption rates of the individual and the community and the state, which became the greatest market for traders as ibn Khaldon says as well as pilgrimage that Islam imposed and it urges the trip and seek of knowledge and the interest of Bani Abbas in the East countries and their efforts in securing the maritime road that provide access to these countries, and so forth of factors that encouraged the flourishing of Islamist trade that took from the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean a scene of its activity, and from Baghdad and Basra a platform for this broad business.  The Indonesians, traders, industries and poor in general have found in Islam a religion that provide them with justice, equality and an outlet save them from the control of the exploiting classes, since what it brought to life, fueled the revolutionary process in Indonesia.
The view that the economic and political factors were the basis for the spread of Islam in Indonesia, and goes to confirm the role of the aristocracy and the ruling class in the spread of Islam, and overlooked-intentionally or unintentionally-the comprehensive reforming character of Islam in all aspects of life, and its persuasive style that appeared at some time appropriate to the Indonesian life style.


2- The role of Sheikh Ahmed Sorkati in the Islamic Call and teaching of the Arabic in Indonesia:
(A) The Islamic thought that Ahmed Sorkati grew up to:
The last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century witnessed signs of Islamic awakening advocating a return to the Quran and Sunnah, and open the door of Ijtihad to achieve compatibility and harmony between religious text (Quran and Sunnah) and real living life. This awakening came as a result of the movement of the interaction between external factors brought by the western colonial presence in most countries in the Muslim world, and self-motivated factors that derived its approach from the history rejecting heresies and superstitions imposed by the wisdom of the local heritage earning idiosyncratic visionary beliefs of people' heritage, their worships and interactions within the framework of Islamic law. The pioneers of this movement were prestigious scholars like Jamal Din al-Afghani (1838-1897), Mohammed Abdo (1849-1905) and Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935). Thanks to the contributions of these scholars the awakening circle included a number of Muslim countries, the degrees of vulnerability and giving varied proportional to the intellectual readiness and social and cultural values in each Muslim country. This research tries to reflect the cultural and intellectual impact of this awakening in Indonesia by focusing on the role of the reform and guidance movement founded by preacher Ahmed Sorkati (1876 -1943) in the city of Jakarta (Btafia) in 1914. That’s why we started with a brief history of the entry and spread of Islam in Indonesia in order to understand the political and environmental and social conditions in which the Arab reform and guidance movement grew up in, which formed its reform programs, then the intellectual and political conflict with the gentlemen Hadhrami who represented religious aristocratic class in that society.
(B) Ahmed Mohamed Sorkati, his birth and education:
Ahmed Mohammed Sorkati was born in Argo Island the Northern State in Sudan in 1876, from a family that well-known of piety and righteousness and science,  he memorized the Quran in Quranic schools of Dongola area, studied the principles of Fiqh (jurisprudence) upon the hands of his father, then migrated to the Hijaz in 1897 for the sake of science and knowledge with a desire to perform the Hajj. After performing the Hajj he resided in Medina for four and a half years, during which he studied the Quran, Hadith, Fiqh and Arabic upon the hand of qualified scholars of that era, such as the speaker Omar ibn Hamdan Al-Magribi, al-Faqih al-Maliki Ahmed ibn Al-Haj Ali Majzoub, the linguistic scholar Sheikh Ahmed Alborznge. Then lived in Mecca for ten years, where he refined his transformational and mental knowledge upon the hand of senior sheikhs of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, such as: scholar Asaad bin Abdul Rahman Aldahan, Sheikh Mohammed bin Yousef Al-Khayat, and Sheikh Shoaib ibn Musa Almagribi. After these fourteen and a half years of tourism in the science workshops and knowledge of the Two Holy Mosques, he got his Ijaza from the Hijaz scholars, and his name got registered in the record of scholars of the mother of villages, and then he was authorized to teach at the Grand Mosque in Mecca. In light of these scientific qualifications and practical experience have been contracted with Mr. Sorkati to work in schools of Khair of Btafia’s association (Jakarta), Sorkati arrived to the city of Jakarta, accompanied by Sheikh Mohammed Tayeb Almagarabi and Mohamed Abdel-Hamid Alsudani in Rbie Alawal 1329 AH/March 1911, then settled guest with the gentlemen of Alawin as the first scholars from the holy land to work in the schools of Khair charity. Upon his arrival, Mr. Sorkati appointed director of the School of Bakugan and inspector of education, and Sheikh Mohammed Tayeb appointed teacher at School of Crockett, and Sheikh Mohammed Abdel-Hamid in School of Bokor.
The gentlemen Hadhrami Alawiin the family of Alawi bin Obeid-Allah ibn Alimam Al-Muhajir who raise their lineage to the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, AlHussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib, a group of families well-known of scientific, political and social fame in Yemen, India, South East Asia and East Africa, including elite who served science and the communities in which integrated into the life affairs. Due to the particularity of their affiliation to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, they became an aristocratic religious class in Hadramout, India, Southeast Asia, East Africa, and gained their prestigious position superior than the pious worshipers and rulers, where their hands were being kissed upon shaking, gifts were offered to their livings, and domes were built on the graves of their dead, and vows were offered to them in order to gain their blessings and used to be begged for life purposes. Therefore, for this holy affiliation non Alawites are prohibited from getting married to their girls, under the pretext of lack of relative efficiency and maintenance of holy blood. Within this framework the Al Ba'alawy divided themselves into two lasses, first of them is the class of Alwain with positions those belong to Al Sheikh Abu Bakr and Al-Attas and Al-Aidaroos and Al Habashi, followed by the class of Alawin with no positions that belong to Al Saqqaf and Al-Jafari and Al Kaf and Al-Haddad and Belfkih.
Thus, the top of social pyramid of Hadrami community was formed in Indonesia as it was the case in other countries inhabited by Hadhrami, while the rest of the immigrants have gradually ranked among the families of Yafi and Kathir and the most vulnerable who belong to marginal professions. Based on this class structure the gentlemen of Alawites were able to maintain their spiritual influence and social power and reject the idea of legal equality, and rise above the rest of the Muslim people under the pretext of their relative highness and that they belong to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him subjectively not just adjectively. It’s shown in the explicit opposition to the marriage that took place in Singapore in 1905 between a young Muslim Indian a girl who belong to Alawin, and this opposition pushed a young Alawite to ask, Mr. Mohamed Rashid Rida, the owner of the Al-Manar magazine on the validity of this marriage according to Sharia, and he said that it is valid and accepted.  Not surprisingly, this fatwa has caused a backlash among gentlemen Alawites Hadhrami, then Mr. Omar bin Salim Al Attas prompted to issue a counter-fatwa that prohibited the marriage of honorable Alawi girl from the dishonorable man even if the meant wife accepted and was approved by her guardian, based on her self-efficiency highness which belong to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
According to Mr. Omar Suleiman Naji, the referendum Sheikh Rashid Rida has been a natural reflection of grumbling of enlightened young gentlemen Alawites, who continued to criticize openly the behavior of their leaders traditional and call for unity, fraternity and equality, far from the myths and fads imposed by the Alawi heritage over the fundamentals and the pillars of the Islamic religion. The origin of this movement was in Singapore, led by Hassan Bin Alawi Bin Shihab-Eldin (1852 -1912), Abu Bakr bin Abdul Rahman bin Shihab al-Din (1946 -1922), and Mohammed bin Aqeel bin Omar Al Yahya (1963 -1931 AD). All these have been known to their bold research, which were published in the Egyptian newspapers calling for social and educational reform, degrading down the heresies and superstitions that were common between the Alawites masters and followers, and calling for public to follow the teachings of the owner of Al-Manar Muhammad Rashid Rida, and Sheikh Muhammad Abduh, the preacher Jamal Afghan religion, and Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah.  
The center of this movement gradually moved from Singapore to Indonesia, where the movement began to take shape in the institutional "Khair Charity" created by a group of Alawites in Btafia in 1901, and it basically aimed to support poor people and to educate the children. In 1903 the members of the Executive Committee submitted a petition to the Office of the Dutch office of people’ affairs to recognize them formally, the decision approved in 1905, on condition that the activities of the association confined to the city of Btafia. In the same year, Mr. Ahmed bin Mohammed Shahabuddin was elected president of the Society. In April 1906 the organization submitted a request to approve the establishment of a junior high school for the sons of Hadrami community in Btafia. After three years of this date, the school of the Kahir charity opened its doors for free education, and also began to hold general lessons each week for those wishing from women and men. This way the work of the Kahir charity expanded, printed its foundation law in Singapore, then opened other junior high schools in most neighborhoods of Btafia. Then came the idea of the assignment of teachers from abroad to work in schools of the organization, so the organization sent Mr. Abdullah bin Abdul Mabod AlMusli to the Hijaz in 1911, to select qualified teachers. Then by Sheikh Yusuf Al-Khayat and Mr. Hassan bin Mohammed al-Habashi was contracted with Mr. Ahmed Mohammed Sorkat Alsudani, and his two companions Sheikh Mohammed Tayeb Almagrabi and Mohamed bin Hamid Alsudani to work in the schools of Kahir charity in Btafia.
(C) Ahmed Mohamed Sorkati in Indonesia, the teacher and preacher:
The social protest upon arrival of the scholars from Mecca does not prevent us to analyze the position of the Alawites gentlemen toward the movement of education and social reform, and classified them into three groups, each group according to its position from the education’s movement; because this approach enables us to understand the causes of the conflict, which broke out later on between them and the preachers.
First: The first group include the conservative Alawites gentlemen with positions who have inherited wealth from their parents, and representing the spiritual and social leadership for the people of Hadramout residing in Indonesia, they were scared from the educational movement, and thought it doesn’t serve their personal particular ambitions; but they believed in it.
Second: The second group represents the beating heart of the educational movement which was composed of local young youth for example Alawites non-positions, and some enlightened young gentlemen Alawites positions who were demonstrating freedom and calling for equality and stigmatizing prestigious people of " fraud and charlatanism and superstition". The best proof of this position is what said by the Head of the Kahir charity Mr. Mohammad Bin Abdul Rahman Bin Shihab valuing the professor Sorkati and his achievements in his first year: "We only got used to seeing those in green clothes and colored rosaries, those who color their beards and roam the country in length for only begging but now the God has blessed us with Sheikh Sorkati the good and scholar man who brought benefit of many and much grace", the magazine of the healing in its fifth edition of the first year backed up Ibn Shihab saying: "we all know that we didn’t receive in this age or the one before, not in Hadramut or Mihgar a man struggled to uplift and honor us like this man, due to his knowledge and effort we are now free conscience and faithful believers and adhering diligently to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him.
Third: The third group was made up of some young enlightened who weren’t affiliated to any party or doctrine and had no ideological bond to frame their ideas and ambitions, but they kept supporting reform wherever it came from.
Under these circumstances, the second group which was impressed by Sorkati and cheered for his achievements succeeded then authorized him to establish another two schools neighborhoods of Srabaya, Btanh and Boltferdn and to choose four qualified professors to work in the organization’s schools that educational activities have expanded and its reform role emerged.
(D) The name of Sudan appeared on horizon:
This time the Hijaz was not the source of knowledge inspiration, but the name of Sudan appeared on the horizon, where Sorkati contracted with professors Ahmed Aqub Shukrallah, Mohammed Noor Bin Mohammed Khair al-Ansari, Satie Mohamed Sorkati and Hassan Hamid Alansari to work in schools of the Kahir charity in Indonesia. These four professors arrived Btafia in 1913 and said they were all supporters of the teachings of Sheikh Mohammed Abdu, where some of them studied upon his hands in Al-Azhar and some others were aware of his scientific published books.  
The question arises: What is the educational approach that Professor Sorkati followed which made the Alawites praised his achievements and his effort? According to the literature of preachers, after Sorkati started working for the schools of the Kahir charity he established immediately an integrated educational program for teaching methods and science (the Arabic language and the principles of Fiqh and some mental science) that must be studied. It seems that this program has found acceptance among the best’s management the enlightened gentlemen who considered a unique leap in the education curricula and teaching methods. This hypothesis was confirmed by the performance of students in the final exam and the efficiency of the Sudanese professors to deliver information.
In addition to these academic things we note that Sorkati has paid special attention to the educational aspect to instill the spirit of equality among students and perseverance in acquiring science and knowledge. In this regard, he refused to take the opinion of some conservatives Alawites who asked him to ordered the students kiss the hands of the children of gentlemen Alawites, at the beginning of the school day, not only he rejected but he composed a song called "Mothers of ethics", and ordered the students to chant it at the beginning and end of the school day.
It’s indisputable that this educational trend left a bad impact on the hearts of some of the gentlemen Alawites conservatives; because the call for equality meant for them outright rejection of class constants, upon which they founded their social glory and religious power ; but they were not in a position to declare their explicit opposition against the professor Sorkati who was supported by the enlightened class, but they kept their anger till the right opportunity that will enable them to express their opinion openly toward libertarian ideas of Sorkati.
(E) Aalaloyen’s long-awaited opportunity and the favorable moment:
Having laid the foundations of his educational program in the schools of Kahir charity, he came out in the second year touring and calling in Central Java, and among the cities he visited is Alsolo City, where he stayed as a guest with Captain of Arabs Awad bin sinker Alarmi. In the period of his residence in the house of Alarmi he asked him a question about the ruling of Sharia over the "Marriage of honorable Alawi girl from the non-Alawi." It is said that Shaikh Sorkati stated that this marriage contract is valid, and denied any impediment. It seems that this fatwa has raised the ire of Alawites against him because they considered an insult and some of them began to reproach the professor that he is only a teacher so he must not intervene in such legal and social issues. In this cushion Sorkia says:
"The ignorant people scold me for being a part of the education industry, and they tell me: Be a teacher and you are only a teacher for underestimation. So the question is, if teaching the religion is a disgrace that left me despised accordingly, so which profession more respectful that will make me greatly respected if I stuck to it? If my answer for a religious issue that I have been asked about based on my knowledge deemed a mistake and curiosity and not of my business so what does it mean to be a teacher?”   As a result of their anger he promised that he would abide by silence and not to engage in such matters, but from the standpoint of Alawin gentlemen he should issue another fatwa denies what he said in the house of Alarami. However, this challenge forced him to submit his resignation on the sixth of September 1914 to the Khair charity’s administration, and which he said "as a prerequisite in case of travel you promised to pay the boat ticket for me and my brothers with travel expenses, could you please keep your promise so I could go back to Mecca that I came from." But the Charity responded with: "the charity see that you owe them nothing. Peace."
(F) The Guidance and Reform’s Society: Gain and Give:
It appears from the resignation that Sorkati was determined to return to Mecca without entering into open conflict with the Alawites gentlemen; however, some notables of the Hadhrami non-Alawites persuaded him to forget about this endeavor, and encouraged him to complete the educational and reforming journey, which he laid its foundations in Indonesia. In response to their appeal, Sorkati changed his mind and opened a private school in one of the houses of the Arabs Captain Omar bin Yousef Mangoush in Gatti quarter which he called the Islamic School of guidance.
Then some supporters of the Professor Sorkati suggested the need to establish an association that provides financial and moral support for the school, and also contribute to the organization of its educational activities. Hence it originated the idea of the Arab Reform and Guidance Society in the city of Jakarta.  Seemingly, the support of Captain Arab Omar bin Mangoush, Saleh Obaid Abdat, Said bin Salim Almoshabei to establishment of the Reform and Guidance Society was reflecting part of the hidden conflict between Alawites gentlemen and some notables of Hadrami community who have become closer to the home of the decision-making in Jakarta. And the best witness are the words of Omar Bin Sulaiman Naji about the guidance and its principles: ((Guidance is a liberal progressive movement emerged among Arab diaspora in Indonesia, aims to change the corrupt social and dogmatic situation, and dissemination of knowledge and to fight against illiteracy, and to set the thought free from the tradition restrictions and to fight against the racist privileges, then fads and myths that have entered the religion, and then enable the doctrine of unification to be a slave to God alone, and to establish an Islamic socialist co-operative society that dominated by justice and equality)). Perhaps, the one who reads attentively the words of Mr. Naji notice the hidden conflict between Alawites gentlemen and Hadhrami was the primary motive, which paved the way for Reform and Guidance Society and enabled Mr. Sorkati and his surroundings to formulate the principles of the Society in the light of the following indicators:
•    Pure Unification of God away from apparent and hidden polytheism in belief and deeds as well as words.
•    Maintain the Islamic ethics: that you love for your brother what you love for yourself and maintain the pride and honor of work and yield to none but Allah.
•    Maintain worships such as prayer, fasting, Zakah, pilgrimage and others and take them seriously.
•    Revive the righteous Sunnah and leave fads and never support it.
•    Cooperate in righteousness and piety and do not cooperate in sin and aggression.
•    Promotion of virtue and prevention of vice by wisdom and good advice.
•    Dissemination of modern and Arabic religious sciences.
The Arab Reform and Guidance Society has been established on these principles and began to herald the dawn of equality, fraternity and education, and as a result of the success achieved in this field, its headquarter in Jakarta has been receiving an overwhelming amount of applications to establish similar branches in other territories. In response to these calls, the branch of Togul city was opened in 1917 then another three branches in the cities of Pkalonqan, Cherbon and Bumi Ayu were opened in 1919 and in 1927 founded a branch of the guidance in the city of Surabaya then was followed in the same year with Baneewooanga City’s branch and in the following year and then opening two branches in Bndwoso and Bokor, and in the thirties the branches of Guidance appeared in Fmallang, Smarang, Shomal, For and Krto and Solow. Each one of these branches was attached to medium school to teach young Hadhrami kids the Qur'an and the Hadith and the Arabic language and doctrines and Fiqh and Tafsir besides some mental sciences, such as writing, arithmetic, history, geography, Engineering, body and logic and some foreign languages such as Dutch and English.  Preacher Rashid Rida Ali commented on this activity by saying: the purpose of the Reform and Guidance Society is to establish schools and the dissemination of religious and civic education required after of independence and the revival of the Quran and Sunnah, and resisting spread superstitions because of innovating in religion."  
In addition to this educational activity, the guidance focused in providing public lectures in mosques, cultural clubs so as to enlighten people about their religious matters, and some of the issues associated with their life affairs, and contributed to the development of the health work by establishing a number of health centers to provide preventive and curative services at nominal prices, and established a number of scouts, music and trekking teams in order to train the youths on patience and tender and to upgrade the technical and taste senses.
And we also find that it left a clear imprint in the history of political struggle against the Dutch and Japanese colonial. In this the former Indonesian president Sukarno says in the conference of Islam company’s party that held in Alsolo on April 19, 1951: "Indonesia is not and will not forget the role of associations that helped to revive chivalry, religious and national jealousy that precipitated the Great Revolution and get our freedom, such as the political party of Islam Company, the Guidance and Muhammadiyah religious societies."  
Historical sources tell us that some of the leaders of the guidance contribute in the establishment of Indonesia's Muslims Council Party (Mashomi), which is spearheaded by Dr. Mohammed Nasser. Since it was established this party represented an Islamic trend within the Indonesian Parliament and an antidote against communism in the political street, the thing that prompted the late President Sukrno to dismantle it in 1959.
(G) Disagreement between the Alawites and Guidance followers:
The Arab Reform and guidance Society didn’t evolve in an atmosphere of harmony and intimacy and cooperation, but each step was confronted with opposition of Alawites gentlemen, who were considered the call for equality and the fight against intercession and begging and visit the graves and open the door of ijtihad according to the values of Quran and Sunnah threatens their social legacy and mystic heritage of extinction, so they have to fight it with various ways they could afford it. From then the dispute between the Reform and Guidance Society and Khair Charity (or Alawi Association, which originated in 1927) became so intense, and takes Toura Last fill immorality in the first spark of the conflict was in October 1915, when a young Al Ba'alawy published an article in the Malay newspaper "Soloh Indian" about  equality among Muslims, and it seems that the author of this article had criticized the fatwa issued by Sorkati over the  marriage of honorable Alawi girl from the non-Alawi. In response to this article Sorkati issued another fatwa called "image of the answer", where he talked in details about the efficiency in marriage, then backed up his opinion with a number of arguments and evidence derived from the Quran and Sunnah, and the forefathers.  
There is no doubt that the release of the image of the answer has raised the ire of Alawites gentlemen and pushed them to bother the pioneer of the guidance movement and his workers, who they described him as a "heretic who shows Islam and hides disbelief," and instructed the Dutch that "he is one of the supporters of the Mahdi of Sudan, and he seeks to establish Mahdia against the Dutch reign," they reported to the British "that he is a supporter of the political refugee ... the Indian Rebel against the English Abdul Salam Kashmiri", who was a resident of Jakarta and connected with Mr. Sorkati, then filed a petition to the Sharif of Mecca, King Hussein stirring up the nerve of the Hashemites, and asking him to prevent the Guidance followers from performing the Hajj, on the grounds that they are supporters of subversive movement aimed at undermining people of the house.  
The newspaper of Alegbal described the situation between Alawites and the Guidance followers as:
(A group of those flippers who belong to Kathir family and Nahd in Java, they did not respect the sanctity of the neighborhood with the people of the house, and did not observe the sanctity of the Prophet, peace be upon him in his household, and uninterested at the University of Islam and the nation, [but] they began queuing up to aberrations of the Sudanese dervish, and renounce the household ... they divided Hadhrami and founded the Guidance Society, and mesmerized the nation and challenged the genealogical ... and they will not succeed, but to dip their hands in the hands of the people of the house and work with one hand, and leave them dervishes of Sudan, and the Negroes of Africa, they won’t be satisfied till they go deep in prostitution and fancy and replace what is the lowest with the best and those who went stray will be failed).
On the other hand a number of messages confounding (the image of the answer) were issued among them the message of Hassan Bin Zain Bisalamh, and the message of Abdullah Sadaga Dahlan, known as the "Sending meteor in the image of the answer," and the message of Alawi bin Mdihj in Singapore, and the message of Mohsin bin Salim Al Attas. These messages criticized Sorkati over the fatwa he issued regarding the question of efficiency in the marriage and validity of marriage between the Alawi girl and non-Alawi and tried to undermine him personally, and questioned his scientific efficiency.
The pleading of the Guidance followers came in a book published by Ahmad Alaqib Shukrtallah entitled separating speech in support of the image of answer, he criticized the message of Abdullah Sadaga Dahlan, which he described as superficial and lack objectivity and criticized its writer personally, the thing that prompted Alawi Bin Taher Al-Haddad to release his book the final say in the credit of Bani Hashim and Quraish and in this huge book, which exceed a thousand pages the author outlined the virtues of the people of the house and criticized what came in the image of the answer and describe its writer "ignorance of what is known of the religion," and then talked about separating speech in support of the image of answer critically and disapprovingly calling it lack objectivity and intellectual vacuity.
Then Sorkati issued a message in response to the book "the final say in the credit of Bani Hashim and Quraish and the Arabs" denying the arguments and evidence that Alhadad mourning on the self-efficacy of the people of the house and the withdrawal of that on efficiency in marriage. Finally, the conflict moved from the circle of mouth war and complaints to authorities in Indonesia and Hadramout to personal attacks and malicious reports in front of the Dutch authorities. We recall, just for example the Nour Mosque incident in Bndwoso, where more than fifty people from the Alawite supporters and their enemies from the Guidance followers clashed, and the incident ended with the assassination of two of the Alawites and six people from the Guidance followers were injured. As a result of these developments, the gap has widened between the people of Hadramout and divided between supporters of Alawites gentlemen and the Guidance workers, the circle of conflict expanded to include eminent personalities in the Islamic world such as preacher Mohammed Rashid Rida and Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Rasheed, the prince of statement Shakib Arslan, who showed some sort of empathy toward the issue of the Guidance workers.
It’s indisputable that the conflict between Alawites gentlemen and Sheikh Ahmed Sorkati has left negative and positive effects, in turn, contributed to reshaping the structure of the Indonesian society Hadrami, political, socially and intellectually, in this regard we can summarize the positive effects as follows:
First: improvement of the religious and civic education movement that led by Khair Charity and the Arab Reform and Guidance Society by all schools they established and curricula that led the educational work.
Second: the dawn of the Arab press in Indonesia by emergence of a group of Arab newspapers, estimated at fifty newspaper, most of them published and shut down in the period between the two world wars (1914-1945). Some active newspapers belong to Alawites gentlemen like the "Alegbal" and "Hadramout," and "association"; newspapers belong to the Guidance followers "guidance," and "Dahna," and "Islamic ammunition."
Third: the call to revive the principles of monotheism and devotion of worship to God and to use it in all matters and criticism of heresies and superstitions imposed by the wisdom of doctrinal tradition that has no insight to the fundamentals of the Quran and Sunnah, then the call to freedom, equality and open the door of ijtihad in religious matters and affairs of contemporary life. Sheikh Sorkati expressed his viewpoint in a number of publications including: Image of answer (1915), and routing efficiency (1917), and the Islamic ammunition (1923), and issues (1925) as well as other publications and published researches in all areas of the religion and life, some of his publications have been translated into Indonesian and Malay languages.
On the morning of 06/09/1943 Sorkati died at his residence in the road of Solan in Jakarta after 29 years of founding the Reform and Guidance Society, many senior Indonesian officials participated in his funeral among them his friend Ahmed Sukarno.
The negative effects of the conflict between the Guidance followers and Alawites were embodied in the conflict and hatred which they bequeathed to the Hadrami community, besides many preachers being preoccupied with superficial and debatable issues that are not related to the origins of religion, and to weaken the influence of the Arabs among the Indonesians, who saw them as a good example that can contribute to the reform of the religion, and empowerment of the bonds of affection and the Muslim brotherhood and the call to revive the Quran and Sunnah and biography of forefathers.
(H) Harbingers of the peace and frustrations of the failure:
We can’t generalize and describe all the Guidance followers and Alawites that they had locked the door of conciliation and dialogue between each other and entrenched; because such hypothesis block us to see and evaluate some of the initiatives carried out by a group of middlemen who set off from the principle of pro-brother to his brother wither he is oppressor or oppressed, and the principle of reconciling between enemies. There were much efforts for conciliation but the closer it comes to success the more it retreats for to failure. According to Bakri, the failure of these initiatives, which I referred to collectively pushed the half cast elements (or born for Arabs) to form a political entity known as the "unity of the Arab birth" in Jakarta, a number of branches for this unit have been established in some Indonesian cities, and defined its functions in the following points:
• Ask the government to adopt the political and civil rights of Arab births, as well as the rights of births of other communities.
• Establish Dutch Arab schools to enable emerging Arabs to pursue their higher studies in public schools.
• Strengthen ties between the Arabs births and the rest of Indonesian society.
• Overcome the conflict between the Guidance followers and Alawites.
Definitely, this unity was welcomed by the young Guidance followers and Alawites who were fed up with their parents struggle over issues that do not serve the contemporary reality, and they started their activities to establish a Dutch Arab school in Srabaya belong to the Ministry of Public Knowledge then issued a magazine in Malay to be a link between them and segments of the Indonesian society and to serve as a free platform to put forward their political ideas and to realize their civil claims. Despite the success of this unity in its early years; however, it disappeared gradually from the political and social arena and attributed the reason to the outbreak of World War II and the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in 1942.


3– The Sudanese Center for teaching Arabic language and Islamic Science in Indonesia:
(A) Reasons and Objectives of the Establishment of the Center:
During the visit of the Vice-President of the Republic of Sudan Mr. Ali Osman Mohamed Taha to Indonesia in 2001 and meeting with his Indonesian counterpart, they discussed cooperation in higher education between the two countries in cooperation ranges that have been agreed upon, where the Sudanese Minister of Higher Education and the Indonesian Minister of Religious Affairs to discuss in detail areas of cooperation in the education and religious Affairs. Activation of the memorandum of understanding that signed between the Republic of Indonesia and the Republic of Sudan on Education and Religious Affairs in 2001 and the eighth chapter in the final statement at the second session of the committee of supervising the scientific cooperation between the two countries was held in Jakarta 2 -7 July, decides to establish: the Sudan Centre for teaching Arabic language and Islamic sciences at the Islamic University in the city of Malang.  It has been developed the system of the Sudan Center for teaching Arabic and Islamic Studies at the Islamic University in Malang: in a document signed on July 6, 2005 from the Chairman of the committee and the Minister of Religious Affairs HH. Mohammed Bassiouni from the Indonesian side and the Minister of Higher Education and scientific research of the Republic of Sudan Dr. Mubarak Majzoub from the Sudanese side.  The proposal to establish the center that named after his name above came from the Sudanese side, so it was established under the agreement between the two ministries, which included the name and headquarter, where the Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim applied to host the center when the Chancellor of the university Dr. Imam Safaregu called the Sudanese Minister of Higher Education-at that time-Dr. Mubarak Majzoub and his visiting delegation. The document also included the objectives and competencies and obligations of the two parties (Sudanese and Indonesian) and work reference, outlining the purpose of the center in the convention development of joint scientific efforts in the field of teaching the Holy Quran and the Arabic language and Islamic economy and capacity development and assist in the implementation of scientific programs. Competencies of the center have been defined as follows:
A- Rehabilitation and training of faculty members at the Islamic University of Malang and other universities in its respective field of specialty.
B- Teaching, implementing and development of educational programs.
C- Contribute to the society in its respective field.
D- Provide university services in its respective fields of scientific supervision.
The document also stipulates that the Centre's work begins in September 2005.  Part of the plan of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Sudan in the future is to expand horizontally in the work of the Centre by establishing other  branches by continue dispatching lecturers to be enrolled at other universities-nearly six Islamic universities were a candidate-according to presence of the center which happened at the governmental Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim, but the recent developments in financing capabilities of the Sudan after the secession of the south may have reduced funding capacity of the Ministry of Higher Education and thus led to the inability to implement what has been planned in this mission.
(B) Management of the Center in Sudan and Indonesia:
First: the center was fully ready in 2008 after 5 dispatched Sudanese teacher were enrolled,  the Ministry of Higher Education in Sudan authorized three universities to dispatch them under contracts between those teachers and the Ministry of Higher Education and their universities (Omdurman Islamic University two teachers, the University of the Holy Quran two teachers and the international university of Africa one teacher) in several  disciplines such as teaching Arabic to non-native speakers, grammar, Quran sciences, Hadith sciences and the Islamic economy.
Second: a committee headed by Undersecretary of the Ministry of Higher Education  and the membership of the three mentioned universities’ managers  supervised the center in Sudan through regular contact between the Member of the center (coordinator) and member of the Committee Coordinator (Qur'an University’s director) as well as some of the members of the Committee who visit the center’s headquarter in Indonesia and meetings held upon return of the teachers to Sudan in the university holidays.
Third: according to the specific commitment (System of the Center-Item 6) the Sudanese side dispatch teachers to the center and ensure the salaries of teachers and annual travel tickets for each teacher and his wife and two children, the Sudanese side also provides each member of the center-upon request of the Indonesian side-an official passport issued by the Sudanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Indonesian Ministry of Religious affairs provides the members of the center and according to its commitment in the (system of the center-Item6) medical insurance and residency permit, while the university hosting the center provides a furnished house for each member with all work equipment and a mean of transport, one car for the center, as well as to facilitate connection between the center and the Ministry of religious Affairs in Indonesia.
(C) Tasks that the center used to fulfill:
First: teaching a number of subjects (the Arabic language and its subsidiaries besides Islamic sciences) in various colleges
• Some members of the center teach bachelor at Maulana Malik Ibrahim University, as well as at other universities and institutions close to the center headquarter.
• The entire center staff teach regularly departments of faculty of higher studies at the university of Maulana Malik Ibrahim, especially in the sections: (Islamic Studies, the department of training the Arabic language teachers, in the master and doctoral degrees) and the material they teach are: (Arabic language and its branches, in Islamic Science: Quran Science and Hadith Science, the Islamic economy in addition to scientific research methods and the Islamic civilization). We note that the number of divisions that are taught by staff of the center are almost about 16 divisions per academic year per two terms, about eight divisions in each class.
Second: participation in researches approval’ committees and supervising researches during the writing phase, participation in committees’ membership and approve researches. It is worth mentioning here that the average number of students graduating in the master of Arabic language studies phase and Islamic studies is about 90-100 per year, mostly teachers in the Islamic institutes or are preparing to work as lecturers in various Islamic universities throughout Indonesia and the Ministry of religious Affairs is keen to provide them with fund exclusively to the university that host the Sudanese center where the presence of the center-the Arab environment as the ministry thinks- in the College of Higher Studies at this university has encouraged the ministry on this deployment, as well as the number of admission from students on personal expense and those who aspire to work in the teaching profession is very high compared to the annual number of seats so the rate of supervision of each member of the center on Students researches is up to about 20 to 25 complementary researches per year, this number because the college administration is keen on having two supervisors on each research with pre-requisite one of them should be a member of the center, because administration is keen to expand the opportunities for students to communicate with teachers at the center during the period of study and then in the period of research writing.
Third: the faculty of higher studies opened in the academic year 2009-2010 in the Department of Arabic Language Education (division of doctorate), where some members of the center contributes to teaching and approve plans and supervise researches in this specialty.
Fourth: preparing research papers: Many universities have used to invite members of the center to give public lectures or to participate with research papers in specialized seminars, the center was keen to answer these calls and to assign the closest person to the subject of the required paper from among participants, especially these invitations are sent to the Centre by some lecturers and professors at these universities who learned about the center during their studies in the master degree or have already studied in Arab universities.
Fifth: contribute with special educational programs within the scope of the University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim and other universities, colleges and schools for example in this regard:
(1) The entire staff of the center participate in special program was introduced at the University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim since the academic year 2010-2011 where the entire first year students of the university were taught the subject of interpretation of judgments verses in the Quran and the center was assigned to determine the curriculum and lecturing at a rate of two lessons each week during two semesters.
(2) Because three members of the center were memorizing the Holy Quran they had an activity with the memorization of the Quran Society at the University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim and other Islamic institutions in which they participate in the committees of examination and panel of judges in the memorization and recitation contests.
(3) The entire staff of the center participate also in the schedule of Friday sermons in Arabic besides leading prayers at the university mosque.
(4) The members of the center supervise the researches of the university professors about to publish in Arabic in the university magazine and some colleges’ publications, especially in linguistic and to correct the grammatical mistakes.
(5) Upon request, some members of the center give lessons and teach Arabic language in a number of mosques.
(6) The Centre signed cooperation agreements and joint activities with a number of colleges and even high schools besides another activities that the center used to write down in its annual periodic reports.
Sixth: There were regular contacts between the coordinator of the center and coordinator of the organizing committee the director of the University of the Holy Quran during the school year, as well as annual report that includes all activities of the center. In regard to the objectives of the center in the letter of the deputy director of the University of the Holy Quran and State Minister of Education and Scientific Research dated 09/15/2009, that the objectives of the center are:
(1) Enable the Arabic Language teaching
(2) Serve Islamic Call in the largest Islamic country with the largest Muslim population.
(3) Rehabilitation of scholars and university professors in the field of Arabic Language and Islamic Studies.
(4) Maintain the message of Sheikh Sorkati and his colleagues in the service of Islam and calling on the continent of Asia.
(5) The impact of the Sudanese education in Indonesia.
(6) Enter Sudan's experience in Islamic economy to Indonesia.
The same message pointed out the most important achievements in the center during the academic year 2008-2009 as follows:
(1) The number of students enrolled in the master's stage is (108), where (45) of the students were graduated with master degree during the academic year (2007-2008).
(2) The number of students enrolled in the doctoral stage is (4).
(3) Teaching Islamic materials in Master degree of the faculty of higher studies and the Faculty of Humanitarian and Cultural Sciences and Faculty of Economics.
(4) Give 17 lectures at various universities and institutes and schools of the state of Indonesia in the Arabic language and Islamic Science.
(5) Present three scientific papers, the first one in Arabic language teaching strategies and the second one in the preparation of the Arabic language teachers and the third one in teaching of the Islamic economics in stages of diploma, bachelor, master and Ph.D.
(6) Preparation of course materials and subjects in higher studies of Islamic economics in diploma, master and Ph.D.
(7) Preparation of the book (Introduction to study of the principles of the Islamic economics) to be taught to the students of the second and the third level.
(8) Prepare a proposal for the list of Journal of studies and researches of the Islamic economics.
(D) Funding:
Besides its academic benefits the center is characterized as well with relatively limited budget that the Sudanese side is responsible for, especially because the host country provide treatment and also because the host university provides housing, headquarter and the mean of transportation, therefore, what remain of the funding requirements are as follows:
First: the monthly salary stipulated in the contract for each member of the center is 2250 $ (two thousand, two hundred and fifty US dollars). Due to the conditions of the funding capacity of the Ministry of Higher Education this amount is currently divided as follows:
-The Ministry of Higher Education transfers to each member of the center part of his monthly salary about (US $ 500 five hundred Dollars).
-The universities give each teacher among members of the center delegates namely their families in Sudan, with local currency and equivalent to customs dollar the remaining portion of their merits about (1750 thousand and seven hundred and fifty dollars), as well as providing each one of them with airline tickets for him and his wife and two children, the Ministry of Higher Education owes  these universities all expenses they spent on the center, according to what is stipulated in the contracts with each of the delegate teachers (members of the center), but the Ministry of Education for a period of five years following the founding didn’t reimburse the universities of this accumulated debt, which makes funding one of the most important obstacles that contributed to the instability of this center, we note here that the International University of Africa and due to accumulated debt withdrew its member from the membership of the center since the last academic year 2012-2013, therefore, four teachers only remain in the center since the academic year 2013-2014.
Second: Based of above information, the benefits of the member of the center is approximately about (3000 $ three thousand US dollars a month-including airline tickets for him and his family). The current amount is limited, however, proportional to the financing capabilities of the founding entities-supervising and beneficiaries-and even if salaries will be increased in the future, or even if will be paid in foreign currency so the merits of teachers delegates to be rewarding, funding will remain relatively limited and will never hinder the center and the experience from going forward.
E- The current Reality of the Center, its obstacles, proposed solutions and recommendations:
First: funding,
(1) When the Islamic University of Omdurman and the Quran University requested to extend the dispatch of three members of the center for a period of one year to complete what they started, and till conditions of dispatching improves to ensure the stability of the center till replacement, the ministry apologized that the three have completed five years. After the meeting of the directors of the two universities with the Minister who issued the ministerial decree of extension, the ministry notified the two universities to contract with teachers delegates and to spend on the center, which means that the ministry threw the burden of the center on the two universities, as well as perhaps implying that the ministry is moving to non-payment of previous debt to universities even though the budgets of the two universities as confirmed by two directors will not be able to sustain the center requirements within future term. Therefore, because the establishment of the center was made by sovereign entities and it’s a national responsibility and should be performed by the ministry, both universities agreed to take responsibility for spending and supervision of the Centre for one academic year 2013-2014, and to present the center functions and its current role on higher authorities that on charge in the state hopefully to solve the funding problem by determining who will provide annually the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of the proposed budget-later- on condition that the ministry will pay for the center, and supervision on the center as it was at the beginning of its establishment under the responsibility of the ministry and the three universities.
(2) Both universities expected and because the budget of the higher education did not enable it to pay off the debt accumulated by the three universities that spent on the center, that the higher authorities will name an entity to pay these amounts, especially that these universities spent this money which is beyond its capacity to contribute to success of the experience of the center. The universities have already sought to decide who will repay them, these debts include three items which are: salaries, travel tickets, the budget allocated for cashing on the center for the academic year 2013-2014 and the academic year 2014-2015.
(3) In regard to the teachers who have performed their duties efficiently and contributed to the center's success experience, our universities used to seeing that they had endured limited salaries and deficiencies in the way of dispensing them inside and outside Sudan. These universities sponsored delegate teachers-especially morally-to the maximum extent of their energies, so this research recommend in regard to those who will be dispatched in the future to increase their salary and dispensing them through the Sudanese embassy in Jakarta, as well as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs will continue to provide the members of the center with official travel passports because their stay in Indonesia is linked to official passport.

4– Conclusion:
(A) The Arabic language and Islamic Science in Indonesia:
This research illustrates the deep correlation between the Arabic language and spread of Islam in Indonesia, the trade relations and Arab migrations-especially from Hadramaut-played a major role in the call to Islam and teaching its sciences especially teaching Arabic. The role of Sudan has been linked to one man and the number of teachers who hired whom are four teachers but this preacher and teacher Ahmed Sorkati who was almost known across entire Indonesia and interested its people, had left for Sudan relations with Indonesia in the present and the future a cultural depth that worth to be invested in.
(B) The basic features of the concepts of teaching Islamic sciences and Arabic language of Sorkati:
This research brought the personal biography and scientific and practical one of Ahmed Mohammed Sorkati and it turned out within the course of this research the importance of his role in the Islamic Call and teaching its sciences and in the teaching Arabic and establishment of the modern Islamic school and dissemination of enlightenment –a preacher and a teacher-through founding the modern schools and developing its curricula that is up-to-date or through founding the Reform and Guidance Society.
(C) The Sudanese center for teaching Arabic language and Islamic sciences in Indonesia:
We can consider the establishment of the center of Sudan for teaching Arabic language and Islamic sciences a qualitative extension to the role of Sudan that Sorkati bequeathed him a worthy heritage that is rooted in the performance of these tasks that the center had been established for. The center had a remarkable efficiency in the performance of these tasks. Therefore, it earned a good reputation widely among Indonesian universities, and the best proof is the number of students who were dispatched and enrolled in graduate studies under the supervision of the center. A delegation including the directors of the largest six Islamic universities in Indonesia visited Sudan in August 2014 after obtaining the approval of the Indonesian authorities to the Ministry of Higher Education in Sudan in order to obtain the consent of Sudan to dispatch similar centers to the Sudanese center in their universities and with same conditions the Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim deals with the hosted Sudanese Center. But in fact the center suffered conditions and obstacles that require follow-up and a solution, as these obstacles have led to the freezing of the presence of the center in the current academic year 2016-2017.
The previous presentation for the activities of the center in various educational, academic  and research areas, this research shows a general picture outlined the role of the center for the promotion of Arabic and Islamic science education and in preparation of the specialists in education across all parts of Indonesia, by providing students who do not have the opportunity to move, study and cohabitation of people of the Arab language in the environment in any country of the Arab world, where they found in the existence of this center the Arab environment moved to them. So recommendation came at the end to preserve the experience of this center so that Sudan will be able to expand the number of similar centers in Indonesia and to transfer the experience to other countries and non-Arab Muslim communities in Asia.


5- Proposals and recommendations:
First: This research recommend to take the depth of the cultural relations into consideration, strategic relations which required to be planned and established carefully between Sudan and Indonesia. Especially that Indonesia is the largest Muslim country in terms of population, which includes about 20% of the Muslims with great economic and scientific potential to have bilateral interests with Sudan in various fields beneficial to both sides.
Second: the International University of Africa organized a big celebration on the occasion of the anniversary of the death Sorkati in Indonesia, where he has a big shrine and he is considered the founder of  the Reform and Guidance Society that have more than 130 educational institutions in various stages and some other health and charitable facilities that belong to the Society and its branches in Indonesia, and it is useful to establish a symbolic building that carry his name in Sudan and we suggest in this research a house for Indonesian students who study in the Sudanese universities, in fact most of them are studying at the International University of Africa, which provides them with annual grants as well as Omdurman Islamic University and the Holy Quran University where students study on their own expenses.
Third: recommendations over the Sudanese Center:
-Renew the agreement regarding the work of the center between the Ministry of Higher Education in Sudan and the Ministry of Endowments in Indonesia.
-Return to the System of Joint Management between the Ministry of Higher Education and the Universities of Omdurman Islamic and the Quran.
-Connecting the center in Indonesia with the cultural attach in the Sudanese embassy in Jakarta plus continue to provide the members of the center with diplomatic passports.
-Determining a special budget for the center that is paid through the Higher Education and in coordination with the Sudanese Foreign Ministry and the Sudanese embassy in Jakarta.
The research recommends the following estimated annual budget for the center as follows:
(1) Salaries of the five teachers 3,000 $ per month with total in year 180,000 $
(2) 4 airline tickets for each per year, nearly 30,000 $
(3) Benefits of the Center Coordinator (as administrative burden) per year 3,000 $
(4) Petty cash for the center, activities and hospitality expenses per year 3,000 $
(5) Meetings of supervisors from both sides in Sudan and Indonesia 15,000 $
(6) Estimated annual budget 231,000 $


References:
 - Khair Alnosaha and Mohamed Maarouf and Magdum Bahamad: Indonesian Islamic kingdoms in the era of Dutch colonialism, a research prepared to complete the requirements of the study of Islamic civilization, Master’s phase, Graduate School (preparing Arabic language teachers section), Governmental and Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim, 2011, P. 1.
2- Baharuddin Fanani: teaching comparative religion in Islamic educational institutions in Indonesia, Ph.D. thesis, Omdurman Islamic University - Research and Studies Institute of the Islamic world, 2013, p. 2.
3- Ibid: p. 3.
4- Hourani George Mgnlo, Arabs and navigation in the Indian Ocean in antiquity and the early Middle Ages, Egypt Book House, 1958, p. 23.
5- Salah al-Din al-Bakri, "Arab immigration to Indonesia", within the Egyptian Arab culture magazine, No. 386, 1946, p. 19.
6- Adil Mohiuddin Alusi, Iraq maritime trade with Indonesia until the late 7th century, Baghdad, Cultural Affairs, 1984, p. 127.
7- Mohammed Ismail Nadawi, the history of the links between India and the Arab countries, Alfath house, Beirut, D.t, p. 18.
8- Ibid: p. 20
9-  Salah al-Din al-Bakri, political Hadramout, Egypt 1935, p. 240.
10- Neewooantonidzh, "Indonesia", Islam's heritage, Trjh Hassan Ibrahim and Abdul Majeed Abidin, Egypt 1957, p.402
11- Sir Thomas Arnold, the call to Islam, Trjh Hassan Ibrahim and Abdul Majeed Abidin, Egypt 1957, p. 402
12- Khair Alnosaha and Others: ibid, P. 10.
13- Ibid: p.11.
14- Ibid: p.11.
15- Guijin Tjoan, the changing business situation of China in Southeast Asia, translated by Mohammad Lynch, within the International Journal of Social Sciences, No 8 second year July-September 1972, p. 57.
16- Khair Alnosaha and Others: ibid, P. 13.
17- Faisal Samer: Islam in Indonesia, Pens magazine, the fifth year, March 1969, p. 13.
18- Khair Alnosaha and Others: ibid, P. 14.
19- Ibid: p.15.
20- Adil Mohiuddin Alusi: Iraq's maritime trade with Indonesia till late seventeenth century, public cultural affairs house, Baghdad, p. 19.
21- Ibid: p. 39.
22- Abu Bakr Jassim Mohammed Abdullah Al-Ansari: at the site of the Ansar gate on the Internet- Ansar in Indonesia, mentions that Ahmed Mohammed Alsorkati from the tribe of Jawabra in Sudan, whom originally go back to Abi Abdullah Abdullah Bin Jaber Al-Ansari (Peace be upon him) 8 / 9 / 2016 24: 15.
23- Dr. Ahmed Ibrahim Abu Shouk: Shaikh Ahmed Mohammed Alsorkati – the pioneer of the reform and guidance movement in Indonesia, 10/18/2010, p. 1
24- Ibid. P. 4.
25- Ibid: Quoting:
* Manar magazine, 8 folder, part 15, Cairo, 1323 HJ, p. 580-588.
26- See Foto Alattas at Manar magazine, folder 8, part 15, Cairo, 1323 HJ, p. 580-588.
27- Ahmed Abdel Aal Okasha: Sheikh Ahmed Mohamed Alsorkati, the Sheikh of the call in Indonesia. Quoting: Dr.Ahmed Ibrahim Abu Shouk history of the reform and guidance movement, p. 16-21.
28- Abdul Rahman bin Mohammed bin Hussein al-Habashi: the midday sun, part 1, p. 166-167.
29- Dr. Ahmed Ibrahim Abu Shouk: Shaikh Ahmed Mohammed Alsorkati-the pioneer of the Arab reform and guidance movement in Indonesia, 18/10/2010, p. 6.
30- Ibid., P. 6. Also See:
  * Knowledge: Sheikh Ahmed Sorkati: p. 4.
31- Knowledge Ibid: p. 6.
32- Generations–the Sudanese community in Egypt - Sheikh Ahmed Alsorkati, the first Sudanese in Indonesia, the International Network on 04/22/2012  30: 10. P. 5.
33- Ibid: p. 5.
34- Ibid: p. 6.
35- Muhammad Rashid Rida: Al-Manar magazine, Vol 32, part 3, p. 239-240.
36- Salah al-Bakri: History of the Guidance, p. 216-217.
37- Dr. Ahmed Ibrahim Abu Shouk: Ibid, P. 8. according to :
     * Publications of the Guidance Society.
38- Ibid: p. 8, also see:
     * Omar Suleiman Naji: history of the Guidance revolution P. 122,131.
39- Dr. Ahmed Ibrahim Abu Shouk: History of the reform and Guidance movement, p. 302-312.
40- Ibid: See the text of the speech of the Alawites to Sharif Hussein in the book P. 339-341.
41- Omar Suleiman Naji, Ibid, P. 60-61.
42- Generations: Ibid, P. 9.
43- Ibid, P. 9.
44- Knowledge: 12 p.
45- Ibid: P.12.
46- Generations, Ibid: P.10.
47-  Sudan's center for teaching Arabic and Islamic studies at the Islamic University in Malang system: in a document signed on 6 / July 2005 from: HE Mohammed Bassiouni-Chairman of the committee from the Indonesian side, the Minister of Religious Affairs, and HE Dr. Mubarak Majzoub – Chairman of the committee from the Sudanese side, the Minister of Higher Education and Scientific research/Republic of Sudan.
48- Ibid: P. 1-2
49- Ibid: P. 1-2
50- Flocked to work in the center in period of 2005-2015, for different periods: from Omdurman Islamic University: Dr. Babikir Aljozoli, Dr. Mohammed Ahmed Omar, Dr. Mohammed Shaikhoun, Dr. Mohamed Ali Abdel-Halim, Dr. Gareballah Babikir Mustafa. From the University of the Holy Qur'an: Dr. Aljozoli Alamir Aljozoli, Dr. Faisal Mahmood Adam Ibrahim (center coordinator), Dr. Bakri Mohammed Bakhit, and from the International University of Africa: Dr. Said Hwaytallah Ahmed, and Dr. Mohammed Ali Alkamil.
51- supervising committee respectively headed by secretaries-general of the ministry: Dr. Omar Mohammad Tom, and Dr. Omar Ahmed Osman Almagli, with Mr. Abdul Qader Mohammed Hassan - Director of Training Department, and Dr. Mohammad Ismail, Executive Director of the General Secretariat of the Ministry.
52- Managers of Omdurman Islamic University: Dr. Mohamed Osman Saleh, and Dr. Hassan Abbas Hassan (assisted by: counselor. Dr. Musa Ahmed Adam, CEO Dr. Mohammed Abdul Ghaffar) University of the Holy Quran: a. Dr. Osman Mohamed Suleiman, and Dr. Ibrahim Noreen Ibrahim, and Dr. Ahmed Saeed assisted by (CEO Mohammed Hassan Radhi and Mr. Mohamed Abdel Azim). International University of Africa: Dr. Omar Alsmani, and Dr. Hassan Makki Mohammed Ahmed assisted by Dr. Mahdi Sati.
53- Letter of the deputy director of the University of the Holy Qur'an (Dr. Ahmad Said) to the Minister of the Ministry of Higher Education Dr. Fathi Mohamed Khalifa on 09/15/2015.

 

 

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