Social Journalism in Sudan and its Security Effects A Strategic Study (1995-2015)

Tue, 26 Sep 2017



 

Professor: Badr Aldeen Ahmed Ibraheem Mohamed

Abstract:

It is known that the society follows the media, if the media is decent then the society becomes decent and vice versa. The quality of the media reflects on the quality of the society, its influence is present in children of early age, young adults and elders[2]. Media and specifically social media applied several changes in social life of individuals and groups, making deep interactions between traditions, civilizations and culture the most distinguish theme of this current era; producing the clash of civilizations, the dialogue of civilizations, the integration of civilizations and the fusion of civilizations. During all of which, the media remained a major player in social change, accordingly the concept and theory of social responsibility was created as a result of misuse of the concept of freedom in the means of media which included disclaiming any responsibility or liability towards the society and its members; this theory was established as to create balance between personal freedom of individuals and the general interests of the society alongside with balance between freedom of speech and the interests and goals of society regarding the media which resulted in the necessity of the presence of a media abidance towards ethics. Accordingly the ethics of media are dictated by the elements of freedom and social responsibility; balance between the two represents the core element within the ethics of media.

Introduction

The Methodological Procedures of the Study

Results and recommendations

References

 

Introduction:

 As Sudan is considered as a country that preserved its costumes, traditions, religion and culture, and furthermore as Mahatma Gandhi mentioned; Sudan is country that allows change but no to the extent that these changes overthrow it. Thus, is Sudan still as it wishes? Or are there new variables that are enforced by the Globalization and its ever-changing hands? Wherein the voices of caution and fear are almost relatively less than those of reassurance and the state’s strategy aiming at reform based on the social methodology in order to accomplish social change; which involves the education and outreach. This is done through criticizing the prevailing values and illustrating the importance of returning to the Islamic values. The most ideal methodology to be taken into account for the strategy of ethics and social progress is the methodology which is built upon the constant integrated fixed ethical standards. The Inqaz which its rivals accuse it for using too much authority didn’t at all depend on the concept of “Social Engineering”, it always longed for the strategy of prioritizing the society before the state for the ideal society is the society that is genuinely civilized, takes initiative and independent from the authority regarding providing much of its needs; counting on its own resources, involving originality in its aims, renewed in its plans and performance and benefiting from the experiences of mankind. In accordance, the planning movement came first as an original plan to enable the abilities of the creativity powers of the society to bloom, furthermore; emphasizing on counting on one’s self regarding natural resources, spiritual abilities, knowledge and skill that God has given to us despite the pressures and troubles – secondly, the movement of the society itself in order to plan for its self instead of the state and its bureaucratic hands. The purpose of these strategies was social progress, as for Sudan to be the best developing society in the world in terms of religion, culture, environment, life standards, independence of society and non-reliance on the authority regarding most of its needs. The concept of media ethics orbits around two elements which are freedom and media responsibility; balance shall be crucial between these two elements. The concepts of freedom and media responsibility has been developing through long historical periods as communication was established from the beginning of human life and accordingly freedom of speech was known which is the base of media freedom; in this contexts two theories were established: freedom and social responsibility.[3]

The Theory of Social Responsibility:

This was a product of misuse of the concept of freedom in the media which included disclaiming any responsibility towards the society and its members. Then this theory was established in order to create balance between the personal freedom and the interests of the society alongside with the freedom of speech and the overall interests and goals of society regarding the media. These resulted in the necessity of establishing abidance towards treaties and ethics. Accordingly the ethics of media are to be dictated the two elements of freedom and social responsibility, balance between the two is what represents the core of media ethics.[4]

The theory of social responsibility longs to accomplish the following[5]:

  • The media shall agree to have certain obligation towards the society.
  • Establishing professional standards of honest, creditability, subjectivity, precession and balance.
  • All that leads to crime, violent, civil chaos or hate towards minorities in the society.
  • Journalists and professionals shall be responsible in front of the society alongside with their responsibility towards their establishments and the market.

The Ethical Codes of Conduct and Journalism Boards in the world which states[6]:

  • Assuring the creditability of the news covered by the media.
  • Working on lowering the legal cases against the media and solving the public’s problems.
  • Supporting creditability in the conducts of the media.
  • Allowing public’s feedback for improvement purposes in accordance to the public.
  • Making people aware of the role of the media in the society.
  • Supporting the freedom of journalism through justice and performance improvement.
  • Protecting the media from governmental supervision.
  • Humanitarian reasons for abiding to ethics.

Thirdly: Instruction Bylaws in the field of New Reporting, which requires[7]

  • News coverage to be creditable, just and neutral.
  • The presenter shall be good looking and accurate.
  • Pointing out commercial segments during the news as being not part of the news.
  • Avoiding the details of the news relating to crimes and sex.
  • Paying attention to the ethical aspects in conducting interviews.

In accordance to all that is mentioned, this field study titled Social Media in Sudan and its Security Effects is aimed at exploring the reality and predicting the feature in the light of the actual practice in Sudan.

The Methodological Procedures of the Study:

The researcher followed these steps:

1. Acquainting ten academic studies regarding social media and summarizing their conclusions and recommendations as launch platform from where others reached.

2. Taking statement from the workers of the National Press/Journalism and Publication Council:

  • A statistical report was found; conveying that there are facts and figures indicating that the committee of complaints and conflict resolution spends about 90% of its time conducting and dealing with breaches regarding scandalous/disgraceful publications which compromises the public decency and involves sex in detail, in addition to sickly speeches in social newspapers.
  • Content analysis study for social newspapers from Dec. 2009 till Dec. 2010; the report included published samples containing a combination of breaches of the professional code of conduct; breaches that negatively affects the society.
  • Reports proved that most of the social newspaper are adopting agnation through publishing material that are harmful and indecent in addition to sexual contents; apart from that there is some sort of exaggeration regarding publishing crimes’ news wherein most of the crime stories published are of crimes that are strange, odd and described in harming detail, besides they are depending on outside foreign sources.
  • Publishing the details of crimes might result in influencing others to commit the same crimes.
  •  

3. Acquaintance was made for the Report of Professional Practice of Sudanese Newspapers, first report Khartoum Feb. 2009, General Secretariat of the National Press/Journalism and Publication Council (8th chapter) a display of notes regarding the social newspapers in 2007, P.297; the following was mentioned: “Newspapers are not concerned with the sources of the information, no coherence between form and content, inexactitude in news and news reporting, no abidance towards the guidelines of headlines, failure to observe the guidelines of crimes’ stories publication and pictures, sexual suggestions, non-abidance towards intellectual property rights, promoting “voodoo” and quackery and the absence of subjectivity in journalist criticism. All these things were present in different levels in accordance to the report that evaluated the Al-Haya wa Al-Nas,Fatati,Qalb Al-Shari’e, Al-A’waiel and Al-Dar newspapers, Al-Dar being the only one remained regularly printed and distributed; furthermore, being the most circulated in 2016 according to the statement of  National Press/Journalism and Publication Council. The reports’ notes regarding Al-Dar newspaper conveyed that it “doesn’t contain journalist investigation in all its copies which shows non-coherence in its editorial plan, some of the copies contained a large amount of advertisements estimated to be about one third of the front page and the presence of sexual suggestions through female news presenters, female singers, actresses and models.

4. In order to conduct the study, three forms were designed and created. Specified for professionals in social media; first form was aimed at workers in social journalism and workers of the Journalism Council (10+10), second form was aimed at the journalists’ union and processionals and teachers of journalism (10+20) and the third form was given to the police and security entities, NGOs and sociologists (16+9+7). The forms were evaluated and tested in terms of honesty and statistical stability before being distributed, including four unified open questions. The extracted data was subject to analysis by the (SPSS) system in order to conclude the results and recommendations.

5. Monitoring and Analysis of Data: in accordance to data monitoring and extracted from the forms of the professional in different fields, the results were the following:

First: Form (1): The average of general performance in accordance to the main categories of the sample of workers in the National Press/Journalism and Publication Council alongside with workers of social media/journalism (10+10), the degree of form stability in accordance to Cronbach's alpha formula was 90.7%, analytic honesty 95.2% which confirms the stability and creditability of the form statistically. The main categories of the analysis were as follows:

Analysis categories

Percentage

Arithmetic mean

Standard deviation

1. The effect of ownership on the general performance of the newspaper

82

4.1

1.020

2. The editorial policy of the newspaper

69.7

3.57

.934

3. General goals of the newspaper

80.2

4.01

0.880

4. Work conditions in the newspaper and its effect on performance

58.2

2.91

1.070

5. Working team and its abilities

64.2

3.21

1.174

6. Funding sources of newspaper

56.8

3.14

.909

7. Employees’ satisfaction in newspaper

66.8

3.35

.878

8. Information which newspaper relay on

80.8

4.04

.99

9. Type of technology and how applied in newspaper

79.48

3.974

.954

10. Main sources of information in newspaper

69.2

3.46

1.166

 

General analysis:

1. Effect of ownership on the overall performance of the newspaper: According to the statements given by the professionals, they view the effect of ownership on the overall performance of the newspaper ranked at 82%, wherein ownership controls workers recruitment and promotion up to 88.6%, managing the newspaper as personal property up to 85.4% and considers profit as primary goal up to 81.2%. It furthermore lowers expenses up to 87.6% and influences the editorial policy to the extent of 76.2%.

2. Editorial policy of the news paper: In social journalism generally and Al-Dar newspaper specifically the percentage is 69.7%, they see that the editorial policy is been evaluated regularly by the percentage of 76.0%, workers in the newspaper are aware of the guidelines by the percentage of 71.4%, there are executive fixed plans by the percentage of 69.2%, there are standards and criteria in written prove up to 68.0% and in a less degree there are clear work strategies by the percentage of 63.6%.

3.  General goals of the newspaper: Throughout the answers of the sample it’s clear that the goals of the newspaper are clear by the percentage of 80.2%, wherein they agree that its goal is to accomplish the largest possible amount of profit 87.2%, accomplishing fame and constant excellence 86.6%, aimed at serving journalism and proving it 85.8% and last as working to serve Sudan 80.0%. On the other hand the sample didn’t agree that the newspaper is seeking to earn the amiability of the state by the percentage of 61.4%.

4. Work conditions in the newspaper and its effect on performance: The sample conveys that the work conditions in the newspaper are a humble at the percentage of 58.2%, the distribution was as follows: communication means for journalistic work are humble 69.4%, administrative and logistic funding are weak at the percentage of 85.6% and the bigger problem was that the offices are not well established and prepared for journalism work wherein the percentage was not of positive statistical value – ranked at 46% only.

5. Working team and its abilities: The sample believes that number of journalist cooperating with the newspaper is enough with the percentage 75%, trained at 70%, while the percentage of the overall settlement and financial status of the journalist were estimated to be low at 50% only which requires attention and care for the human resources.

6. Funding sources of newspaper: It is clear that the funding issue is the main issue in social journalism, ranked at a percentage of 56.8%; wherein social journalism/media counts primarily on the distribution returns and advertisements at percentages 76.8% and 72.4% respectively, while counting on the intervention of the owners at a percentage of 68.0% and there is no positive statistical value regarding the financial return coming from journalist services or other investment – coming at percentages of 51% and 45% respectively.

7. Employees’ satisfaction in newspaper: The employee satisfaction in social journalism/media is average at 66.8%, there are satisfied for belonging to their newspaper at a rate of 74%, working within their specialty at 70%, working as if they’re owners of the newspaper at a percentage of 68%, while they assure that the work environment is not good enough at a percentage of 62%, furthermore assuring that the contracts are not clear and fair at a percentage of 60%.

8. Information which the newspaper relay on: According to the data it’s clear that the newspaper is concerned about information from numerous sources at the percentage of 80.8%, concerned about information sources up to 84.8%, concerned about scoops at a percentage of 83.0%, concerned about the value of the information up to 81.2%, the newspaper insures that it is the source of the information at the percentage of 78.6% and it uses the subject information in accordance to its goals up to 76.6%.

9. Type of technology and how applied in newspaper: The newspaper is concerned about new technology at a percentage of 79.84%, these concerned are present and represented in the pages’ design, production and excellence up to 85.8%, followed by the quality of printing at 82.8%, furthermore benefited from technology in collecting and finding news and information at 78.6%, in editing and printing topics at 76.0% - the less appliance of technology came in the distribution of the newspaper at 74.2%.

10. Main sources of information in newspaper: General information sources at 69.2%, the newspaper benefited with its great relation with the official entities in collecting information at 80.0% as the highest source of information, while counting on its reporter at 76.0%, communication means at 70.6%, the internet at less than 63.4%, and the newspaper didn’t relay on the media as a source of information very much – which didn’t come as a statistical value at 56.0%.

Second: Form (2): The average of the overall general performance according to the main categories of the sample of Media/Journalism professor/professionals and the journalists from the journalists union, the total number is 30: (19+11), the degree of form stability in accordance to Cronbach's alpha formula was 91.2%, analytic honesty 95.5% which confirms the stability and creditability of the form statistically. The main categories of the analysis were as follows:

Analysis categories

Percentage

Arithmetic mean

Standard deviation

Performance standards in social journalism

83.7

4.19

1.041

Strength points of social journalism

75.3

3.77

.928

Weakness points of social journalism

77.5

3.88

1.003

Opportunities available for social journalism

77.4

3.87

.983

Troubles facing social journalism

82.0

4.10

.899

Your general evaluation about the performance of social journalism

57.9

2.89

1.122

Pros of the presence of social journalism

66.1

3.41

1.062

Negatives of the presence of social journalism

76.6

3.83

1.013

The future of social journalism

75.5

3.78

.975

The strategic visions of the future of social journalism

80.2

4.10

.845

 

General analysis:

  1. Performance standards in social journalism: The sample longs for standards for social journalism by 83.7%, and thinks that these standards shall be arranged respectively as follows: the need for professional honor carters by 84.8%, the importance of the presence of ethics and professional traditions in order to control journalism by 84.6%, activating the principles of social responsibility in order to control and steer journalism into creativity by 84.2%, professional standards as base for journalism success at 83.4% and finally comes the regulations and laws as the most important standard needed for the practice of journalism at 81.4%. Accordingly, the most needed is the carters of ethics and professional honor supporting social responsibility as a base for the practice of journalism.
  2. Strength points of social journalism: The sample believes that social journalism possesses remarkable strength points at 75.3%, strength points such as technical advancement, possession and functionality easiness and the audience that is special, following and one-sided for social journalism at 77.8%, and then the interactive social status and its complexity at 76.4%. One of the great examples of strength points is the ability of Al-Dar particularly to have accumulated experience and publishing stability at 74.0%; the weakest strength point is its distant stand from politics and its issues at 70.6%.
  3. Weakness points of social journalism: Social journalism has little more weakness points that strength points at 77.5%, the most important weakness points are the lack of funding and self accountability by the journal/newspaper itself at 87.6%, besides the external and internal brain-drain of qualified journalists at 81.4%. Apart from that, the distribution is concentrated in the capital and lack of distribution in other states came as a weakness point at 76.6%, weak procurement and the availability of social alternatives came at 74.8% and the last weakest weakness point of social journalism is the restraints of publishing and censorship at 67.2%.
  4. Opportunities available for social journalism: Notwithstanding the weakness points, there are opportunities available for social journalism at 77.4% such as the variety of information sources and availability at 83.3%, then comes the easiness and availability of technology at 82.8%, the opportunity of the society’s need for news and social information at 77.2%. Apart from that there is a chance for turning over to electronic journalism and publishing at 72.8% and lastly the opportunity of having typical loyal readers at 70.4%.
  5. Troubles facing social journalism: Despite the available opportunities, the troubles facing journalism according to the sample came at 82.0%; having the high taxes, customs duties and other fees at first place with 87.8%, followed by the rise of production, printing and paper expanses at 86.4% then coming in third place is the availability of social alternatives at (…)?% and then the reluctance by reader at 80.0%; lastly comes the censorship and freedom limiting laws at (…)?%.
  6. Professionals’ general evaluation about the performance of social journalism: Evaluation came in a low degree with no positive statistical value at 57.9%. Answers for all the units were without arithmetic mean which represents disagreement except for the unit of social journalism having important and positive effects at 69.6%, on the other hand the rest of units were as follows: social journalism has clear specific goals at 58.0%, excellent and beneficiary for the society at 56.6%, methods of journalism are great and consistent with tradition at 55.2% and finally social journalism practiced in accordance to professional and scientific standards  at only 50.0%.
  7. Pros of the presence of social journalism: The sample thinks that the importance of the presence of social journalism comes at 66.1%, the main reason of social journalism is entertainment at 71.4% as the sample believes then followed by increasing the knowledge and culture regarding getting familiarized with the surroundings at 70.4%, helping the public avoid crime at 64.2%, strengthening events follow up by the public at 63.2% and finally helping the public in solving their problems and issues at 61.4%.
  8. Negativities of the presence of social journalism: Generally the sample believes that the negativities of social journalism are more than the pros at 76.6%. The most important negativities are, respectively: Increasing fear and instability among the public by 81.4%, helping member of the society in copying the crimes by 77.4%, making criminals famous at 75.8%, helps criminals cooperate by 75.2% and finally becoming a reason of interrupting the course of justice at 73.2%.
  9. The future of social journalism: Almost clear and bright by 75.5%, in accordance to certain matters to be taken into account, including: performance shall be better through particularistic specialty and training at 86.8%, performance shall be controlled if the visions and goals are clear at 80.8%, as competition increases - professionalism and systematic approach shall increase at 74.2%, strategic partnerships are a necessity of being alive at 70.8% and lastly for those who consider it as a necessity shall result in increasing its daily publications, circulation and varieties at 65.0%.
  10. The strategic visions of the future of social journalism: The sample deems the subject matter at 80.2% as follows: success is bond to a well qualified, trained and conscious professionals at 90.4%, success is bond to strategic planning at 87.2%, funding and multiple hosting at 82.8%, no framework is better than smart partnerships 75.0% and lastly, the inevitability of turning into electronic journalism at 65.8%.

Third: Form (3): The average of the overall general performance according to the main categories of the sample of police and security entities, NGOs and sociologists (16+9+7), the degree of form stability in accordance to Cronbach's alpha formula was 91.7%, analytic honesty 95.8% which confirms the stability and creditability of the form statistically. The main categories of the analysis were as follows:

Analysis categories

Percentage

Arithmetic mean

Standard deviation

Social journalism and publics’ agenda arrangement

67.0

3.35

1.203

Social journalism and rumors

81.9

4.09

.889

Social journalism and crime spreading

65.0

3.25

1.245

Social journalism and society’s general frustration

58.7

2.94

1.106

Social journalism and the unknown future

54.6

2.53

1.081

Social journalism social phenomena

68.7

3.43

1.142

Social journalism and image functionality

67.4

3.27

1.157

Social journalism and impression

59.2

2.95

1.232

Social journalism and the partners of the social status

66.2

3.32

1.223

Social journalism evaluation requirements

82.4

4.12

1.142

Indicators of strengthening the positive role of social journalism

89.9

4.50

.733

Social journalism improvement requirements

93.5

4.67

.619

 

General analysis:

  1. Social Journalism and publics’ agenda arrangement: The sample believes that the social journalism arranges the agendas of the public at 67.0% in accordance to certain indicators, including: draws a negative image about the society by 74.0%, presents practical models of crimes and crimes’ execution methodologies by 70.4%, gives the impression of the weakness and sometimes absence of security by 68.2%, making life seem cheaper and unimportant by 61.4%, and lastly, supports the tyranny of evil over the good in the society by 60.8%.
  2. Social journalism and rumors: The sample believes that social journalism helps in spreading rumors by 81.9%, through different ways: the absence information sources increases the spread of rumors by 93.8%, amplifying the news strengthens the ability of rumors to spread among people by 87.8%, amplifying some news increase fear in the society by 84.8%, manipulating some information causes disorder in the society by 74.0% and finally the colored images increases the atrocity of some events by 69.0%. 
  3. Social journalism and crime spreading: The sample believes that social journalism helps spread crime less than rumors at 65.0%, as follows: influences the young ones with crime 70.6%, draws a negative image about the society at 66.4%, gives the impression of the absence of authority and security at 64.0%, makes the society more open about crime at 62.6% and finally strengthens the feeling of the lack of good in the society at 61.4%.
  4.  Social journalism and society’s general frustration: The sample doesn’t see that social journalism is responsible for the society’s general frustration at 58.7%, the sample thinks that social journalism is somehow responsible for the fact that addressing crimes strengthens the ability to copy these crimes and execute them again at 73.0%, it furthermore thinks that too much publishing about crime weakness the sense of belonging to home 60.6%, while didn’t see that social journalism is a reason for lack of marriage among the society at 57.8% nor that social journalism increased divorces at 52.2% and finally the sample do not think that social journalism is a reason for family breakdowns at 50.0%.
  5. Social journalism and the unknown future: According to 54.6% the sample do not think that there is any responsibility upon social journalism regarding the unknown future as no positive values were found in the units of the subject category, all answers were of negative statistical value; social journalism is one of the reasons of psychological disorder, social journalism’s approach weakness security, social journalism helps spread drugs and extremism; all the values of what’s mentioned were within 50%.
  6. Social journalism and social phenomena: The sample do not hold social journalism responsible for any of the negative phenomena at 68.7%, the units were as follows: social journalism is one of the reasons of lack of interest at 88.4%, resulted in lack of trust in the society at 69.0%, increased daring and ability to experience by 66.6%, increased public doubt by 64.0% and finally social journalism is one of the factors of virility in the society by 55.4% which is the lowest value and with negative statistical value.
  7. Social journalism and image functionality:  The sample thinks that images effect social journalism in different way by 67.4%, and its units are: images of knives and blood lets the sub-conscious be accepting by 79.4%, images of killing via guns makes society lose sense of security by 71.6%, images of car accidents creates fear from travelling at 66.8%, images of hanging ropes creates sympathy towards the criminal by 61.4%, while they don’t agree that images of killing via poison weakens trust between husbands and wives at 58.0%.
  8. Social journalism and impressions: The sample do not see a positive role of social journalism in forming an impression about the society at 58.2%, the units were as follows: social journalism created an image of uncertainty by 64.2%, social journalism gives the impression that the country is ruined by 62.6%, social journalism is one of the reason people say bad things about the country 60.4%, one of the reasons of lack of virility at 57.2%, social journalism is one of the reasons of weak patriotism/citizenship 51.4%, thus accordingly social journalism doesn’t bear anything of the negative mental image and members revolt on their societies.
  9. Social journalism and partners of the social status: The sample thinks that the relationship between social journalism and other similar institutions and establishments is less than the average by 66.2%, the units are as follows: it is a complementary relationship between social journalism and civil society organization at 71.6%, social journalism and social affairs at 68.6%, social journalism and the police at 68.0%, weak relationship with security at 64.0% and almost no relationship with the legislative body at 58.6%.
  10. Requirements of social journalism evaluation: the sample agreed with most of the stated hypotheses at 82.4%, the units were as follows: unifying the channels of official information sources from the state 85.2%, improvement and then cooperating with the organizations and the consumer protection organization at 83.4% followed by appointing instant monitoring and analysis centers at 82.8%, cooperating with universities to conduct researches and studies at 82.6% and finally the sample believes that it’s important to conduct periodical stage based evaluation of the actual performance.
  11. Indicators of strengthening the positive role of social journalism: The samples emphasized on strengthening the positive role of social journalism at 89.9%, these indicators are represented by agreeing upon the standards of publishing and posting by 92.0%, strengthening partnerships in the work of social journalism at 91.4% followed by providing direct support and efforts into uphold its role by 90.6%, creating aimed consultancy boards at 88.0% and finally putting work guidelines in accordance to the values of ethics at 87.6%.
  12. Social journalism improvement requirements: The sample emphasized strongly on the mentioned requirements by 93.5%, in the following order: acknowledging and validating the profession moral codes at 95.4%, training and qualifying the working staff periodically at 94.4%, activating the charters of journalism honor and setting the regulations by 94.0%, developing fund resources, its alternatives and investments by 91.8% and finally reviewing the workers as to make sure their positions are earned through professionalism and particularistic specialty at 91.6%.

Opened question: A combination of unified questions was asked to all the subject categories of the samples, the summary of the answers were as follows:

  1. What is the importance of having social journalism in Sudan?

The answers orbited around certain perspectives, according to contradictory in terms of importance gradient, that: social journalism helps in detecting crimes and implementing solutions and resolutions, reflecting the social activity and diversity, serving the society just like other specialized newspaper, explaining the negativity and positivity in society alongside strengthening moral values, spreading awareness among the society regarding social issues, strengthening bonds between the society and consistency and finally providing the reader with news and interesting information.

  1. What is the effect and security effect that social journalism represents in Sudan?

The sample agreed that this effect and role of social journalism is positive: helping security authorities perform their duties, increases the sense of security of the members of the society, alarms people about crimes as to be careful, strengthens security if worked in a professional way; on the other hand they view its negative risks as follows: plays a big role in familiarizing criminal with the different methods of crime and furthermore helps spreading crime in society, apart from that influence other whom are not criminal into committing crimes through demonstrating how crimes are conducted.

  1. How do you see the future of social journalism given the current technical advancement?

The sample agrees to some extent that the future of social journalism is not really bright in light of the advancement of new communication means and the rise of new media/journalism. No bright future can be seen unless coping mechanisms are adopted; technology shall force social journalism into developing and transforming in form and content. While few see that the future of social journalism is bright despite the advanced technology if it benefited from it and used it.

  1. Any further information to be added?

Paying attention to training regarding the staff and special training for specialists, qualifying, creditability, subjectivity, promoting high values in the society, acceptance of the other regardless of ideology, being updated regarding technology and developing into electronic journalism, unifying and integrating social journalism newspapers in order to support positive functionality, improving the live standards and work environment of journalists as to not count on young inexperienced journalists, have the presence of social journalism newspapers specialized in the issues of family, women and children, supporting and improving social journalism newspapers as for them not to use defamation and libel for the purpose of financial profit, facing the problem of lack of circulation and distribution through creating smart partnerships and furthermore working as big establishments, checking the creditability of information and avoiding rumors, analyzing social phenomena by specialists, avoiding real-time current editorial policy that is based and built upon pure agitation and finally the importance of studies and periodical evaluation.

Results and recommendations:

  1. The sample proved that it is following social journalism to be informed about news primarily at a high percentage, followed by the humanitarian perspective represented by sympathizing with others, entertainment and finally curiosity for strange news and adventure.
  2. The sample thinks positively about social journalism and what it could accomplish despite the negativities they acknowledge.
  3. Social journalism is influenced by the internet, has a great deal of followers and is concerned primarily with profit; furthermore, social journalism’s part is weak regarding strengthening the concept of social responsibility.
  4. The sample believes that     the biggest problems facing Sudanese social journalism is: the indistinct policies, lack in using technology resulting in poor final product; this accordingly weakens the professionalism of the working professionals and jeopardizes the stability of funding and its sources.
  5. Image as a form attraction stood out among other attraction factors, which is due to the image being one of most strong speech and journalism influence means.
  6. The sample believes that social journalism influences the society in a big way resulting in intellectual decay through the manner of topic presentation, apart from that it plays a big role in change the ways children are raised, conducts and looks.
  7. Without a doubt, it’s clear that the targets of the negativities of social journalism are the family, society, relationships and bonds, followed by religion, morals and culture; furthermore, it boldness changes the social conduct of the youth making them have weak patriotism resulting in revolt against the government and the political parties. Apart from that the most obvious negativities are seeking profit and advertisements regardless of purpose and motive.
  8.  The most attraction means used in social journalism are events amplifying and concentrating on strange bizarre information besides social journalism have created this image and impression about celebrities, artists and actors – an image that represents them as ideals and role models for the society.
  9. The sample believes that the lack of professionalism and training are what makes the practice instable and lacking academic bases alongside the weakness and difficulty of gaining and validating information.
  10.  The instability of funding, censorship, poor marketing and finally poor patriotism were the most relevant issues regarding social journalism in Sudan.
  11.  Delivering the news is the most function that is performed by social journalism alongside entertainment, apart from that, it contributes in changing and transforming the traditions of the public; lastly, coming at a lower degree, social journalism gives opportunity for the public to show their opinions and ideas and delivers necessary knowledge.
  12.  Most of the members of the sample think that the biggest negative stands taken by social journalism is their event amplifying alongside posting about crimes in details, libel and defamation, and lastly their threat to social security and its politics oriented editorial policies.
  13.  The most important methods to solve the problem and negativities of social journalism according to the sample are concentrating on awareness campaigns, strengthening moral codes, activating laws and regulation, offering more discussion and partnership opportunities and finally activating the censorship establishments.

References:

  1. Ibraheem Al-Agabawi, research titled: “Ethics of Journalism and Arabian Television Channels”, the book “Arabian TV Channels and the Variables of the Era” - The first conference of the International Academy of Journalism/Media, The Egyptian Lebanese Press, The Journalism/Media Library, first print Jan2005,
  2. Hasan Emad Makawi: The Ethics of Journalism, Comparative Study, the Egyptian Lebanese Publishing Press, first print, 1994.
  3. Hasan: The News Reporting Function of the Media, Cairo Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, 1991 P154.
  4. AbdAllah Zalta, Writing for Radio and Television.
  5. Suhair Abd Al-Ghani, the International Radio – Comparative Study of its Systems and Philosophy, Al-Tobagi Company for Publishing, Kuwait 1978 P177
  6. Moahmed Zain Al-Hadi Al-Armabi: Fi Fiqh Al-Mwajaha Al-E’lameya, Intellectual Studies series 32, Sudan Authority of Scientists/Hai’at Olama’a Al-Sudan, April 2008, Page 14.

[1] Professor of Media/Journalism in Sudanese universities (Omdorman Islamic University, Africa International University), specialized in Radio and Television, interested in the “language of the image”, worked as manager/director of several media establishments, interested in scientific research with numerous scientific papers published, took part in several scientific conferences inside and outside of Sudan, a professional Human Development trainer/coach, and published a book in Arabic about the Information Revolution titled (Al-Wagi wa Afaq Al-Mostaqbal).

[2] Moahmed Zain Al-Hadi Al-Armabi: Fi Fiqh Al-Mwajaha Al-Elameya, Intellectual Studies series 32, Sudan Authority of Scientists, April 2008, Page 14.

[3] (Arabian TV Channels and the Variables of the Era) - The first conference of the International Academy of Media, The Egyptian Lebanese Press, The Media Library, first print Jan2005, Ibraheem Al-Agabawi (The Ethics of Media and Arabian TV Channels) P.621.

[4] Ibid. P.621-622

[5] Dr. Hamdi Hasan: The News Reporting Function of the Media, Cairo Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, 1991 P154.

[6] Dr. Hasan Emad Makawi: The Ethics of Journalism, Comparative Study, the Egyptian Lebanese Publishing Press, first print, 1994, P144.

[7] Suhair Abd Al-Ghani, the International Radio – Comparative Study of its Systems and Philosophy, Al-Tobagi Company for Publishing, Kuwait 1978 P177

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