Creative Visual Expression – Between the Caves of the Ancestors and the Skies of the Grandchildren

Sat, 16 Sep 2017



 

 
 
 

Approaches in Creative Speech Through the Language of Image


Professor Badraldeen Ahmed Ibraheem Mohamed

 
 

Abstract:

Ever since God created mankind and made him the master on earth, God distinguished him from other creatures offering him some of the knowledge only he – God, knows. Mankind would understand, comprehend and share this knowledge through his sense of vision crossing limits of time and place; a visualized connection, carrying mental content constant with verbal content, all through the Theory of Transition which indicated the usage of signs and visual shapes of images of body language consisting of meaning under nonverbal communication. Since the crow of the son of Adam; “Then Allah sent a crow searching in the ground to show him how to hide the disgrace of his brother.” – Quran, the image came us a mean of learning. And then there was the people of The Cave, as stated in the Quran: “(17) Thou wouldst have seen the sun, when it rose, declining to the right from their Cave, and when it set, turning away from them to the left, while they lay in the open space in the midst of the Cave. Such are among the Signs of Allah: He whom Allah, guides is rightly guided; but he whom Allah leaves to stray, - for him wilt thou find no protector to lead him to the Right Way. (18) Thou wouldst have deemed them awake, whilst they were asleep, and We turned them on their right and on their left sides: their dog stretching forth his two fore-legs on the threshold: if thou hadst come up on to them, thou wouldst have certainly turned back from them in flight, and wouldst certainly have been filled with terror of them.”, through the Quran it was mentioned that they wrote the people of The Cave wrote their names in a stone called “Al-Raqeem”, “Al-Raqeem was mentioned as an image. Furthermore, the Pharaoh who escaped through his body in order to become an image for those coming after him alongside the earth and the sky to be an example for meditation and thinking; through all of that, the image was the language of knowledgeable communication and life documentation through its different events in different cultures, for the image, in its nature goes beyond the limits of time and place, being a document to preserve knowledge variant in its meanings in accordance to the variation of its expressions.
Introduction
• Image and the Philosophy of Beauty
• Image in History, Archeology and Caves
• Modern Image
• Factors of Attracting Attention in Images
• Controls of Image Usage
• Conclusion
• References

 

Introduction:

It is known that the image holds more creditability in delivering knowledge and facts, and of more understanding than verbal language, thus it’s more effective in delivering the message and reaching the goal of the receiving public. It only needs keys in reading the image and understanding its symbolic values within the receivers of the message and their characteristics. Expression through animated image contains an advanced integrated mental process in terms of intellectual, technological and artistic creativity, this creative process became a civilized indicator capable of determining the distinguished characteristics of a given society. The animated image expresses intellectuality through technological symbols connected to the very mean of technology and other symbols based on the cultural intellectuality called humanitarian symbols. As photography is (drawing through light), and the light gives the most realistic image of the materialistic reality; as the human eye feeds the brain with information far more than any other sense, our ability to comprehend pictured information developed massively, we became capable of knowing so much of the physical characteristics of our surroundings through the information we receive through light as it reveals color, shape, structure, three dimension, relative size, and physical status. Thus, the most important parts of the “visual text” – the image, are: “The combination of signs travelling in a certain atmosphere from a sender to a receiver via a certain code or a combination of codes, for the receiver to comprehend in accordance to his procession of relevant codes”, the ability to vision is limited to the subject knowledge about what is seen and knowledge is not just cognition through sense. Nowadays the image and the picture evolved and became the primary method of globalization, which through it time and place were irrelevant as some arts and drama productions are based solely on image which makes it easy for everyone to understand. Also the image benefited very much from the advanced technologies in mechanisms, arts, visuals, photography sizes, publishing and effects of images, apart from that; the easiness of the ability to share images and pictures changed the concepts professionalism and skills for armatures and members of the ordinary public; this increased the easiness and speed of capturing and publishing/posting alongside manipulating and deforming which required activating moral coded and codes of professional conduct. Furthermore, the image became a sort of primary evidence in the courts of law, making the ministry of justice and judiciary in need for experts regarding reading and analyzing images and pictures and determining their effect on certain cases; this requires much technical and legal reviewing regarding the analysis of images and pictures. It is as if we are returning to the times of our ancestors as they have used images as a mean of communication and documentation for their lives and cultures – today the image comes back as an effective tool of knowledgeable communication; this is the era of image!
The images and the drawings done by mankind are considered the first written language that developed into the alphabets that we use today; the evidence is that the first ever alphabets in the first human language took the shape of the image of the things, birds and animals surrounding the privative human in the languages of the old east. Today we live the same thing during the era of the image, in the same manner mankind continued using images in expressing to the extent that great artists developed great advanced skills in expressing through image. The image entered the world of mankind with the help of technological advancement which is the theme of the era regarding the development of communication means. Is using and effectively functionalizing image in this modern era considered as development from how image was used and effectively functionalized by our ancestors? Or is it a setback or some sort of relapse back to the times of our ancestors? As the image became the language of globalization and knowledgeable communication, which somehow went beyond the barriers of time and place and went further to become a way of political blackmailing, social constructing, and a way of communication and bonding between civilizations and culture around the globe.
Questions of the study: The study answers fundamental questions, which are:
1.    What is the image? And what is its importance in knowledgeable communication?
2.    What are the attractive techniques to be available in the image in order for the image to be attractive and effective?
3.    How was the image functionalized in the past and now?
4.    What are the creative arts connected to the image and its development?
To answer these questions and other, the focus of the paper will be taken and approached as follows:
 

Image and the Philosophy of Beauty

As mentioned in the Quran in Surat Yousuf: “(31) When she heard of their malicious talk, she sent for them and prepared a banquet for them: she gave each of them a knife: and she said (to Joseph), "Come out before them." When they saw him, they did extol him, and (in their amazement) cut their hands: they said, "Allah preserve us! no mortal is this! this is none other than a noble angel!"”. Through this phrase, we understand that the beauty of image when dazzling the viewer can make him/her unconsciously commit actions that he/she would not normally commit during normal circumstances even if these abnormal actions include cutting ones’ own hand given the consequences of this subject action. The message to be delivered is that sometimes the emotional effect can overcome and dismiss the physical effect totally; here is the importance of the image and the importance of concentrating on using it and functionalizing it in social contexts. This particular matter made the television with all its abilities regarding image and sound become the most dangerous mean and device of media in this modetn era, for visual expression through motion animated image contains a very advanced integrated mental process regarding outstanding intellectual, technological and artistic creativity, this creative process became an indicator of civilization capable of determining the main characteristics of a given society; for public video and audio means of media became the most positive and connected to the society regarding cultural, social, and political circumstances. It is impossible to imagine producing a cinematic film without the social, cultural, and economical factors which paved the way for this very form cultural production. “The animated image expresses intellectuality through technological symbols connected to the very mean of technology and other symbols based on the cultural intellectuality called humanitarian symbols” .
The simplest moves and gestures can express one’s psychological and emotional state, for instance gesturers of the eye can and looks can express compassion or deep love, hatred, or envy, also intentions, ideas, doubts, and concerns can be expressed through moves and gestures . Since the crow of the son of Adam; “Then Allah sent a crow searching in the ground to show him how to hide the disgrace of his brother.” – Quran, the image came us a mean of learning. And then there was the people of The Cave, as stated in the Quran: “(17) Thou wouldst have seen the sun, when it rose, declining to the right from their Cave, and when it set, turning away from them to the left, while they lay in the open space in the midst of the Cave. Such are among the Signs of Allah: He whom Allah, guides is rightly guided; but he whom Allah leaves to stray, - for him wilt thou find no protector to lead him to the Right Way. (18) Thou wouldst have deemed them awake, whilst they were asleep, and We turned them on their right and on their left sides: their dog stretching forth his two fore-legs on the threshold: if thou hadst come up on to them, thou wouldst have certainly turned back from them in flight, and wouldst certainly have been filled with terror of them.”, through the Quran it was mentioned that they wrote the people of The Cave wrote their names in a stone called “Al-Raqeem”, “Al-Raqeem was mentioned as an image. Furthermore, the Pharaoh who escaped through his body in order to become an image for those coming after him alongside the earth and the sky to be an example for meditation and thinking; through all of that, the image was the language of knowledgeable communication and life documentation through its different events in different cultures, for the image, in its nature goes beyond the limits of time and place, being a document to preserve knowledge variant in its meanings in accordance to the variation of its expressions and usage in the Holy Quran, one of the expressions is the word See used in subjects related to cosmic and beliefs: “(18) For truly did he see, of the Signs of his Lord, the Greatest!” Surat Al-Najm, “(9) Seest thou one who forbids-(10) A votary when he (turns) to pray?” Surat Al-Alaq, vision could be through the heart rather the eye: “(11) The (Prophet´s) (mind and) heart in no way falsified that which he saw.” Surat Al-Najm, alongside visions in dreams: “And when he reached with him [the age of] exertion, he said, “O my son, indeed I have seen in a dream that I [must] sacrifice you, so see what you think.” He said, “O my father, do as you are commanded. You will find me, if Allah wills, of the steadfast.” Surat Al-Saffat. Another expression is through the use of the word Glance, used in situations of using the eye without reaching the truth, used generally for reflection and consideration: “(87) Then did he cast a glance at the Stars. (88) and said, "Verily, I am sick [at heart]!"(89)” Surat Al-Saffat, “(193) If ye call them to guidance, they will not obey: For you it is the same whether ye call them or ye hold your peace” Surat Al-Araf, “(99) It is He Who sendeth down rain from the skies: with it We produce vegetation of all kinds: from some We produce green (crops), out of which We produce grain, heaped up (at harvest); out of the date-palm and its sheaths (or spathes) (come) clusters of dates hanging low and near: and (then there are) gardens of grapes, and olives, and pomegranates, each similar (in kind) yet different (in variety): when they begin to bear fruit, feast your eyes with the fruit and the ripeness thereof. Behold! in these things there are signs for people who believe.” Surat Al-Anam, “(21) As also in your own selves: Will ye not then see?” Surat Al-Zareyat, “(17) (His) sight never swerved, nor did it go wrong! (18) For truly did he see, of the Signs of his Lord, the Greatest!” Surat Al-Najm. Apart from that, the philosophy of beauty is demonstrated in several phrases: “Indeed, We have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment of stars. And as protection against every rebellious devil” Surat Al-Saffat, “(27) Seest thou not that Allah sends down rain from the sky? With it We then bring out produce of various colours. And in the mountains are tracts of white and red, of various shades of colour, and black intense in hue.” Surat Fatir. Furthermore, there was a clear call for beauty: “(6) And ye have a sense of pride and beauty in them as ye drive them home in the evening, and as ye lead them forth to pasture in the morning. (7) And they carry your heavy loads to lands that ye could not (otherwise) reach except with souls distressed: for your Lord is indeed Most Kind, Most Merciful,” Surat Al-Nahl.
 

Image in History, Archeology and Caves

Since millions of years ever since the presence of primitive humans, a complicated, sophisticated and effective communication system was established, this was the beginning of the Mien phase as defined as “the study of sign and codes – as in systems that allows humans to understand events as signs holding meaning.”
The era of codes and signs, as mentioned in the Quran: “(For) the sinners will be known by their marks: and they will be seized by their forelocks and their feet.(41)”
A symbol is defined as the indirect expression of the psychological hidden aspects, expressions that language cannot deliver directly. Symbolism contains intellectual and social concepts having internal and public communications, calling for emphasizing and using religious values; a mental imaging through codes or direct clear sign. Codes are also defined as a tool of simple or complex Silent Language aimed at delivering a visionary visible message and Physical Symbols including Action Language performed by parts and origins of the body, apart from that there is Objective Language which includes tools, outfit or natural environmental stage such as demonstrating sadness through a blue or black dress during the Nubian Civilization times.
It is possible to read the history and get familiar with former civilizations through these symbols through the knowledge each symbol in accordance to an interpretation method that it is used. As a model of those “Pens” we will be dealing with Hermes The Great’s “Pen” which is written in the Pyramids, stones, old skeletons and Sarcophagi for instance; this is dated back to the times of the Pharos. These symbols and signs are dictated by Hermes The Great, it is combined of never-ending drawings and shapes governed by certain rules – examples of these rules are for instance appointing and setting a certain image to be the dedicated name of God or adding a part from a certain symbol expressing qualities and adding it to a part of something else. View models  below:
Source: Abi Bakr Ahmed bin Ali bin Wahsheya Al-Nabaty

Through the comparison performed by the researcher Abbas Ahmed Al-Haj between the names of God in Islam and in the religion of the prophet Edress which is Hermes the Great, he found as a result of his comparison an almost-complete match. (Abbas Ahmed Al-Haj, the Role of Documentaries in Preserving, Documentation and Shedding Light on the History of Sudan, a Master’s degree research presented to the faculty of Journalism, International University of Africa, not published, 2016).
The image played a beauty role during the time of ancient Sudanese such as the Kings of Karama, Napta and Merawi and other old kingdoms of the old Sudan; through the architecture of the pyramids the visual creativity was apparent alongside these aesthetic images that represents creativity in design and crafting on gold, walls and pottery pots. All these facts confirm that the image and Aesthetics attracted great focus in knowledgeable communication and life documenting. The following images of drawings and crafts on gold shows great abilities and great civilization which distinguished Merawi kingdom. Furthermore, the Queen/Kandaka’s gold stolen from the Pyramids:
 
 

Modern Image:

It is known that the image holds more creditability in delivering knowledge and facts, and of more understanding than verbal language, thus it’s more effective in delivering the message and reaching the goal of the receiving public. It only needs keys in reading the image and understanding its symbolic values within the receivers of the message and their characteristics. Expression through animated image contains an advanced integrated mental process in terms of intellectual, technological and artistic creativity, this creative process became a civilized indicator capable of determining the distinguished characteristics of a given society. The animated image expresses intellectuality through technological symbols connected to the very mean of technology and other symbols based on the cultural intellectuality called humanitarian symbols. As photography is (drawing through light), and the light gives the most realistic image of the materialistic reality; as the human eye feeds the brain with information far more than any other sense, our ability to comprehend pictured information developed massively, we became capable of knowing so much of the physical characteristics of our surroundings through the information we receive through light as it reveals color, shape, structure, three dimension, relative size, and physical status. Thus, the most important parts of the “visual text” – the image, are: “The combination of signs travelling in a certain atmosphere from a sender to a receiver via a certain code or a combination of codes, for the receiver to comprehend in accordance to his procession of relevant codes”, the ability to vision is limited to the subject knowledge about what is seen and knowledge is not just cognition through sense. Nowadays the image and the picture evolved and became the primary method of globalization, which through it time and place were irrelevant as some arts and drama productions are based solely on image which makes it easy for everyone to understand. Also the image benefited very much from the advanced technologies in mechanisms, arts, visuals, photography sizes, publishing and effects of images, apart from that; the easiness of the ability to share images and pictures changed the concepts professionalism and skills for armatures and members of the ordinary public; this increased the easiness and speed of capturing and publishing/posting alongside manipulating and deforming which required activating moral coded and codes of professional conduct. Furthermore, the image became a sort of primary evidence in the courts of law, making the ministry of justice and judiciary in need for experts regarding reading and analyzing images and pictures and determining their effect on certain cases; this requires much technical and legal reviewing regarding the analysis of images and pictures. It is as if we are returning to the times of our ancestors as they have used images as a mean of communication and documentation for their lives and cultures – today the image comes back as an effective tool of knowledgeable communication; this is the era of image! We are living in the era and civilization of image, for the image is present everywhere around us and at any time to the extent that it become hard to imagine our lives without images.
Sign Language: sign language is considered one of the most important parts of journalism, performed by movements and gestures of the hands, face, head, and other body parts, conveying knowledgeable understandable expressions. That is why numerous televisions around the world use sign language in news and other programs in order to aim at those of special needs and include them within the audience. This doesn’t create complete cohesion and fusion between members of the society who don’t understand sign language.
Within the same context, the image is present within each and every field of our lives; communication and information, sociology and culture, education, and its effect in processes of motivating attention, remembrance, imagination, creativity, and symbolism; if the image is well used and fictionized – it shall represent, demonstrate and convey a thousand words! as mentioned in the Chinese famous proverb and imphasized by Burner “one only remembers 10% of what one hears, 30% of what one reads and 80% of what one sees or do.”
The beginnings of modern photography:
The Arabian, Al-Hassan ibn Al-Haytham in 1308 presented an experiment called the Darkened Room , a study of the phenomenon of light in accordance to the scientific methodologies through Inductive Reasoning, involving the sun rays during daytime penetrating a closed tent in the middle of the desert, in order to explain the mechanism of vision of the human being. He noticed that when the sun ray passes through a certain object moving outside, coming through holes in the tent; shadows will be created in the shape of these objects, these shadows of shapes are called Profiles. He recorded his work as The Action of the Darkened Room . Later on, the idea was developed by the Chinese.
    The idea of photography (has been with us for long time.  The knowledge, that images could be formed on a surface inside a darkened room – the camera Obscure - is believed to have originated in China, but it was many centuries before this theoretical knowledge could be put to any practical use.)  .
 

Factors of Attracting Attention in Images:

Despite the relatively small size of the television screen, the creative photographers/camera men and directors can attract the attention of the viewer and concentrate it on a specific point in the screen. Some of the methodologies of attracting the attention of the viewer are :
1.    Exclusion: capturing close snapshots and eliminating unnecessary unwanted ones alongside simplifying backgrounds.
2.    Visual Direction: performed via finger signs or pointers; insertion of arrows and circles.
3.    Aural Indication: the abilities of the speaker to indicate the attention towards the wanted subject.
4.    Lighting Treatment: concentrating the light on a certain specific subject and overlooking other subjects.
5.    Composition: through patterning, balancing, and foreground framing.
6.    Color: color variation attracts attention.
7.    Camera Work: via differential focusing, perspectives, view point, and camera movement.
8.    Subject Movement: movement effects in accordance to speed, power, and direction of the subject movement.
The effect of the image on understanding:
The image, or vision generally, are considered to be of more persuasion value than other means, providing trust, reassurance and creditability; “Seeing is Believing”
“The image is a record of the truth, rather the truth itself. It is different than the written or heard word, because the word is considered a symbol not containing any of the elements of the subject truth. The image on the other hand is a symbol containing shapes and spaces similar to the reality in its shape, therefore, it is easier to understand.”
Understanding is described as the process of which the outside word is discovered with consistency with the subject environment. Knowledge and conformation are two important results of understanding. Through understanding we understand the events and translate expressions around us into knowledge about things and events. This activity of understanding and comprehending is deeply connected to our mental life; therefore, things and events that we create are created through our senses. There are level of the ability of people to read images, four levels:
1.    Ability to differentiate between the image and the reality it represents.
2.    The ability to recognize the images of known things of there is uniformity.
3.    The ability to recognize things when their images are not similar to its visional reality.
4.    The ability to understand the image when wrongly representing a certain thing.
Features of the image as an information preserving document :
1.    The image is more subjective to record an event without being effected by carrier or the mediator.
2.    One of means of knowledge democracy wherein no discrimination is made between educated and not educated people regarding following a certain event.
3.    A mean that goes beyond language and cultural differences.
4.    The ability to in-depth recording of events, enabling the viewer to exceed the limits of preliminary information; as the viewer for instance could be able to receive information about the stage, cast, alongside the surrounding natural effects
5.    Historically, the image is considered the most accurate method of recording events, for it is difficult to manipulate it while copying it.
Notwithstanding that the researcher believes that image could possibly be manipulated during the copying process by the carrier or the mediator through the artistic and technical abilities of the advanced technologies connected to computer technology.
The language of the image is effectively used by modern journalism through the relevant meanings of the subject images held by the viewers; through colors, lights, photography techniques, and 3D effects such as Holograms and Star Gate.
One of the effects of image capturing angle, Turkey calling its ambassador in Israel because of a television snapshot that involved capturing from a top angle, which downgrades the ambassador; leading to drawing a disgraceful image about him for the viewers, that made Israel apologize. This shows how the image capturing angles are important.
Images such as the image of the Palestinian kid Mohamed Al-Durra, images of Abu-Gharib prison, Tsunami and war images shall remain alongside other similar ones; showcasing the professionalism of the photographer and the message of the institution, which disregards the neutrality of journalism. Furthermore, little children before gaining the ability to speak and be familiar with their internal community form an image inside their conscious which will later define their future; here is where the danger comes, wherein the image is considered a tool accomplishing the democracy of knowledge for it doesn’t discriminate in terms of age.
There are several factors determining the right suitable size for the image to be used, some of these factors are:
1.    Clarity and impact: clarity is considered to be more important than impact, for the viewer will not be able to comprehend the image’s details if the image is not clear, it is better not to post and publish images of low quality that are accordingly of low clarity, this is what bonds the director to set a minimum image size.
2.    Value and importance of the image: the important lively subject is to be having a great space within the image which indicates the importance of the image and relative effectiveness.
3.    Type of image: subjective images needs a bigger space, for it contains much details needed to be demonstrated and understood in order to fulfill the visional objective.
 

Controls of Image Usage:

It is possible to abide to some controls relevant to the content and form of the image before taking the decision to use the image in any news unit, according to the following:
1.    Consistency between the image and the news’ that is used to create this subject image in terms of nature and orientation.
2.    The image shall be adding something to the written content and shall also be a repetition to this subject content.
3.    The image shall have the quality of being able to be posted in term of technicality, especially regarding its colors, details, contrast and gradient shadow; the absence of these factors lowers the ability of the image to perform its part in the news.
4.    Keeping in mind some special considerations of image usage in editing news, for this functionality is performed through using several images not a large number of images.
5.    The image should draw the attention of the viewers towards the other units which it contributes in forming, as for the image to not be the only part that holds importance.
Below are recent images for some of the landmarks and beautiful sights in Sudan, captured by the researcher:

Conclusion:

Based on the researcher’s experience in photography and television production for more than twenty years, alongside working as university teacher/professor in the field of radio and television and his interest in communication technology and its effect on television production and the community; in accordance to this paper, it is assured the image and the especially the animated image possesses great abilities in attracting and knowledgeable influence on all the members of the society. It has been used by ancestors primarily to communicate, spread knowledge, document, and preserve tradition. As our scientist made efforts to decode its symbols in order to be understandable, the image today through its arts and technologies became primary tools in education and knowledgeable communication between nations regardless of time and place with complete freedom and cohesion in this life of ours which its limits/boundaries and languages possess no value compared to the language of the image.
Results and Recommendation
1.    The image has been the primary medium of communication in ancient eras, it was their language and their way to preserve their tradition, culture and civilization through different arts of drawing and crafting on caves’ walls, pottery, stone, and up to beautiful gold.
2.    The current era is considered the era of the image, every day the images exposed to us are increasing, which raises serious threat to the society if not well used.
3.    The image, and specially the television image possesses a great ability to influence the viewer, it holds more than we see which requires the technicians working on it to be dealing with it with caution.
4.    The images possess a great ability to influence comprehending and understanding processes which makes the images more than just a medium attraction through means of globalization.
5.    The comprehending and understanding of an image depends on the amount of visual culture possessed by the viewer, which enforces that all the members of the society shall have the ability to possess the keys of comprehending and understanding the image.
6.    The importance of specializing in the science of the image and the ability to use the image effectively makes our message a scientific message enabling the photo to cross time and place boundaries.
7.    The issue of image and its development influences and increases the importance of concentrating on documenting the civilization’s heritage and archiving it for the future generations.
8.    It is important to enable our kids to read images so that they shall not be a victim of cartoons and video games.
9.    It is important to alert regarding the risks of using images and their mediums alongside revealing the targeting schemes built upon the images and aimed at the youth, the kids and women; through awareness programs, conferences and workshops.
10.    Prepare and qualify teams to work in the field of photography in terms of techniques alongside intellectuality.
 

References:

1.    Gerald Millerson: (Effective TV production). (Ibid), p:144-145 
2.    Martin Hodder: Photography (Hong Kong,(McMillan Publishing co.Ltd . 1980 ).
3.    Abi Bakr Ahmed bin Ali bin Wahsheya Al-Nabaty
4.    Badraldeen Ahmad Ibraheem: (Technology of the Image and its Effect on the Television Program), unpublished Master’s degree, Khartoum, Omdorman Islamic University, Faculty of Journalism, 1997.
5.    Hasan Imad Makawi and Liela Hussien Al-Saed, Communication and its Contemporary Theories, Egyptian Lebanese Press, first print, 2008.
6.    Khaleel Mohamed Al-Ratib, Journalistic Photography, Osama Publishing House, Amman Jordan, first print, 2012.
7.    Shkair Abd-Alhameed, The Era of Image, Pros and Cons, A’lam Al-Ma’arifa series (Kuwait, Al-Seyasa Prints 2005), 311.
8.    Shouls, Robert, translated by Saedd Ghanim: Mien and Interpretation (Beirut, Arabic Foundation for Researches and Publishing 1994).
9.    Salah Aldeen jawhr, Communication, Conapts, Theories and Fields (Cairo, Ain Shams Library 1980).
10.    Salah Omer Al-Sadiq, the Gold of Merawi, Azza for Publishing and Distribution 2005.
11.    Fath Al-Bari AbdAlhameed Saed/Dr. Ibraheem Michael: (Methods of Education and Journalism), Cairo, A’lam Al-Kutub/World of Books.
12.    Gasim about Saudon (Study Series about Screenwriting), general growth of publishing, distributing, and advertising, Tripoli, first print, 1986.
13.    Mohamed Awad, (Arts of Television), Cairo, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, 1986.
14.    Mohamed Nabhan Suielim, Journalistic Photography, (Dar Al-Ma’arif, second print 1995)
15.    Dr. Nasma Ahmed Bitreeq: (The language of Television and Radio) Introduction, Cairo, second print (without publisher) 1991.
 

 

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