Vegetation and forest cover of Sudan

Thu, 28 Sep 2017



 

Dr. Farouk Abdel Hafiz Abdel Razek

 

Abstract

      This article dealt with the vegetation cover and forest production in Sudan, in order to know the current status of vegetation cover and forest production, identify vulnerabilities and weakness with an objective to counteract threats. The historical method was used to track changes in vegetation cover in the past and compare it with the present in order to develop a vision for the future. The descriptive and quantitative methods are used for the analysis of data on forest area and production that was obtained from the General Administration of Forestry. The article illustrates the territories of the vegetation cover, the situation of vegetation cover in the past and present, as well as the current situation of natural pastures in Sudan. The study points out that the main factor affecting the vegetation covers in Sudan is the fluctuations in rainfall, leading to a lack in water resources, low rate of growth in natural plants and soil protection.
The article also discusses the objectives and benefits of the forests sector in Sudan and tracks the forests through different periods in order to explain the changes that have happened in this vital sector. It also illustrates with the study and analysis the Gum Arabic in terms of concept, type, factors affecting the production and the most important uses. The most important recommendations formulated by the researcher for the future management of vegetation cover and forest production in Sudan represented in: protection of natural pasture through opening of fire lines, capacity building of the beneficiaries in rural communities and pastoralists in order to reduce pressure on forest resources through finding of alternative construction materials and energy sources as well as protection, rehabilitation and development of Gum Arabic belt.
•    Introduction
•   Natural Vegetation Regions in Sudan
•    Types of Vegetation in Sudan
•    Forests sector in Sudan
•    Non-timber products of forests
•    Indirect benefits of forests:
•    Forests in the Sudan from 1980 to 2015
•    Gum Arabic 
•    Production of gum Arabic in Sudan
•    Marketing of gum Arabic
•    References


 

Introduction

The natural vegetation and forest products are considered the most important natural resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid environment that have been affected by climate change and led to the emergence of drought and desertification. This affects the natural vegetation in terms of quantity, quality and geographical distribution which leads to the deterioration of ecosystems, decline in forest areas and natural pastures. Since Sudan is located in the tropical region has suffered large tract of grassland degradation as a result of agricultural expansion and contraction of the vegetation as a consequence of various human practices, in addition to climate change. In this article, the researcher focuses on vegetation cover and forest production in Sudan in the past and present as well as future vision for the management of vegetation cover and forest production.
 

 

Natural Vegetation Regions in Sudan

 There is a close relationship between the amount of rain and the diversity and density of natural vegetation. In the regions where the rain is around 2000 mm, the dense forests exist and density of rain forest decreases gradually from north to south, followed by short and scattered trees called poor savannah zones. In the areas where the rain is around 800 mm high and scattered trees called rich savannah forests with long grass prevails. The density of vegetation decreases towards the north until the plants are lacking in areas where rainfall is scarce as in the desert region (Ali, 2005).

 

Distribution of Natural Vegetation Regions in Sudan:

Distribution of vegetation regions linked to the distribution of climatic regions which has led to the existence of many vegetation regions in Sudan, namely:
1. Desert region: -
This region covers an area of 700 thousand km² approximately, which is equal to a quarter of the total area of Sudan.  This region bounded by the 80 mm isohyte from the south, except the Red Sea Mountains region. This region has lack the natural vegetation except at the banks of the Nile in northern Sudan and some seasonal Khors and oases where some quick growing herbs and small shrubs tolerant or resistant to drought such as Acacia radiana, Acacia seyal, Boscia byssinica and Copparis decidua are found. This region has effect on the distribution of the population and human activities especially agriculture which is limited on the banks of the Nile.
2. Semi-desert region: -
This region extends into the northern part of Al Qoz area of western Sudan, where the short grass and short scatter trees prevail. It also extends eastward to include the Butana area and the western slopes of the Red Sea Mountains. Thorny bushes and quick growth grass that dried directly after the rainy season prevail in this region. This green grass known as the plants of "Algozo" spread in the most Northern part of Kordofan and Darfur between Wadi Awaa and Wadi Hawar. The camels' herders relied upon this vegetation in the dry season. In this region; the natural vegetation grows and flourishes in the rainy season and dries out after the rainy season and become natural pastures. The types of trees in this region Include: Acacia radiana, Acacia mellifera Accia nubica, Acacia seyal, Acacia tortilis, Boscia sensgalensis, Ziziphusspina-christi, and Balanites egyptiaca which always grows in the valleys (Ali, 2005).
3.  Poor savannah Region:
Many plant types exist in this region. The trees increase towards the south, and the density of grass with the height of (60-120cm) is also increases.   The most dominant trees are Acacia Senegalese, Acacia seyal, Acacia nilotica, and Acacia mellifera, in addition to Balanites aegyptiaca and   Adosonia digitata.

In this region, the soil has played an important role in the distribution of the trees, as we find Acacia Senegalese and Acacia seyal are growing in sandy soil, while Acacia nilotica trees grow in clay soil areas, and on the banks of rivers and in ponds and marshy areas. These Acacia trees have a great economic value and a source of gum Arabic. Adosonia digitata is the most important tree that characterizes this region which grows in abundance in Kordofan and used to store rain water in its huge stem, as well as its fruit juice (source: cit).
4. Rich savannah region:
 In this region, forests with broad leave grow at the riverbeds. These forests are evergreen; with high density and intensity which hinders the light to reach the inside of the forest and prohibited the germination of the grass. This region extends in a narrow strip in the border of South Sudan.
5. Mountain plants Region: -
This type of natural vegetation found in the form of pockets in the middle of the tropical region, where the altitude helps the growth of plants in temperate zones. The temperature is favorable for plants diversity especially in Jebel Marra which has a climate similar to a Mediterranean climate and the Mediterranean plants grow in this region (Saudi, 1985).
 Thus, the Sudan is characterized by the presence of five vegetation regions which include: desert region, semi-desert, poor savannah, rich savannah and the mountainous plants region as shown in map 1.
               
                

Map 1: Vegetation Regions in Sudan
 

Types of Vegetation in Sudan

The vegetation cover in Sudan in terms of trees include Acacia trees like Acacia radiana, Acacia seyal, Acacia elrederglana, Capparis desidua, Maerua Crassifolia and Calotropis procera. In addition to grass and weeds that include both annual that live for a long time like Citrullus colocyn and ephemeral that grow and flourish and bear fruit and die in a few days, leaving the seeds to save their kind, and these are divided among the weeds creeping like Tribulus terrestis and Corchorus depressus and the grass that rises on stem like Boswellia Papyrifera, Acacia Mellifera and some trees are becoming scarce like Adansonia Digitata and Tamarun duondica as shown in Table 1.
                           Table 1: Classification of trees and grass in Sudan

Local Name

Scientific name

Classification

Alsaial

A. Tortillis vor raddiama

Perennial Trees

assamor

A tortillis vor lortillis

Perennial Trees

Alkiter

Acacia Mellifera

Perennial Trees

Assarh

Maerua Crassifolia

Perennial Trees

Atalh

Acacia Seyal

Perennial Trees

Alhashab

Acacia Sengal

Perennial Trees

Algafa

Boswellia Papyrifera

Perennial Trees

Atdundub

Capparis desidua

Perennial Trees

Aloshar

Calotropis procera

Perennial Trees

Assalam

A. elreder glana

Perennial Trees

Almarkh

Laptadinla pyroteechnice

Perennial Trees

Assanamakah

Cassia senna

Perennial Trees

Alhanzal

Citrullus colocynthis

Seasonal grass

Alhantoot

I pemea cardiospelala

Seasonal grass

Algoa

Aristida. SPP.

Seasonal grass

Atiber

I pemea cardofoma

Seasonal grass

Adirasa

Tribulus terrestis

Seasonal grass

Assoriet

T.emeroides

Seasonal grass

Alrabie

Arianthema penlandra

Seasonal grass

Athoria

I. semitiyuge

Seasonal grass

Algarza

Stip agrostis. SP.

Seasonal grass

Adarma

Fagonia paulagama

Seasonal grass

Asotaih

Corchorus depressus

Seasonal grass

Anatish

Cortalria thebasia

Seasonal grass

Albaiad

Aristids papposa

Seasonal grass

 

  
 Source: (Abdel Razek 2008).

Vegetation Cover in Sudan in the past: -

The presence of vegetation cover in general maintains the nature of the local climate, prevents the creation of deterioration and poor weather conditions, because it provides more moisture and less temperature, which helps to intensify water vapor and rainfall. Most areas of Sudan have been characterized by high rainfall that helps on the growth of intensive vegetarian cover. In order to recognize and to learn that; it is necessary to refer to the state of the vegetation in the past, before the year 1970, so as to see the changes that have occurred.

Different types of trees and palatable grass with high nutritional value have prevailed in the Sudan which represents the most important natural pastures for the animals, but the conditions of the region began to shift and change since 1970. The drought began to appear in the Sudan since 1972 and the changes in vegetation cover are clearly appeared in the late seventies and early eighties. Some undesired plants like Aristida. SPP in central Sudan, except for the southern part of it (Elhassan, 1981)

The drought prevailed in Sudan in (1983) coupled with overgrazing are of the most important factors that caused an ecological imbalance. As a result undesirable weeds and grass spread and replaced the desirable ones in many parts of Sudan (Babiker, 1983).

The current status of natural pastures in Sudan

Natural pastures cover about 40% of the area of Sudan (1,024,000 Km2). After the separation of the south, this area has reduced to (744,400 Km2) which is equivalent to 73% from the previous space as shown in Table 2.
It notes that the pasture occupies large areas of different environments in Sudan, with important environmental, economic and social roles. The pastures experiencing severe deterioration and has been neglected in terms of environment and economic.  The pastoral policies must helps to regulate the use of pastures, ensure its sustainability and conservation. This imposes the necessity of clear pastoral policies to serve as the backbone for the pastoral resources, rationalize its uses and exploits these resources in optimum way to achieve sustainability. Yet, there has no official pastoral policy approved in Sudan and the pasture resource is not given priority due to the lack of attention to many benefits of the pastures (Abdullah 2012).
Table 2: The Grazing Area in Sudan and the State of South Sudan (km2)

 

Resource

Sudan+ South Sudan

Percent

Sudan

Percent

South Sudan

Percent

Pasture

1024000

40

744400

73

279600

27


Source: (Abdallah, 2012)
The current situation of natural pastures in Sudan has affected by natural factors, particularly lack of rainfall, drought and desertification, as well as affected by human factors that are represented in secession of South Sudan and agricultural and pastoral activities. This pasture is still diverse and includes: desert pasture, semi desert pasture, poor savannah pasture and semi-rich Savannah pasture as shown in Map 2.
       Map 2: Natural Pastures in Sudan
 


Source: Balila 2012.

Factors affecting the vegetation cover in the Sudan;

1. Fluctuations in rainfall have led to a shortage of water resources, low natural growth rate of plants and soil protection.
2. Rainfall coupled with high temperatures led to a high rate of evaporation and reduces the relative humidity available for the soil. This has led to soil disintegration and sand encroachment as well as the lack of moisture for the plants.
3. The expansion of rainfed and irrigated agriculture has affected the area covered by vegetation.
4. Overgrazing and overcutting led to the disappearance of many species of plants.
5. The absence of execution of laws, legislation and regulations that protect the environment, vegetation cover and forest in Sudan.
6. Expansion of urbanization around cities has also led to the infringement of vegetation cover and forests.
7. Fires in war and conflict areas.

Forests sector in Sudan

The objectives of the forests sector in Sudan: -
1. To maintain and promote the ecological balance in the Sudan to achieve development.
2. Rehabilitation of tree cover to maintain the rainfall, protection of water resources and soil from erosion and agricultural as well as residential areas from desert encroachment.
3. To maintain the balance and stability of the basic environmental components that support the continuous cover for the land, and renewable natural resources.
4. Rationalize the exploitation of the forest resource.
5. Secure the position of Sudan for the global market in the gum Arabic trade to maintain high productivity per year (50000 tons) of that crop through re-cultivation of Acacia forests that have been removed due to agricultural expansion.
6. Revive mechanized agriculture lands, which lost its fertility due to the neglect of the agricultural cycle and improper agricultural practices and adopt crop production and forest rotation that will restore the fertility and protects the soil from erosion.
7. Revival of traditional agricultural land in fragile environments and the revival of the agricultural environment to secure the food for the citizen in rural areas against environmental degradation, and to encourage forestation system in pastoral areas.
8. Protect agricultural land from sand encroachment and protect crop through: the cultivation of barriers and windbreaks to prevent sand encroachment and protect crops from the effects of the harsh climate elements with a view to increase crop production to protect the villages and channels from creeping sand, and the Nile from the Hadam.
9. Raise the standard of living and provide job opportunities.
10.  Rehabilitation of reserved forests.
11. Rehabilitation of infrastructures.
12. Guidance and training in the field of protection of vegetation (Forest National Corporation 2009).

Benefits of forests in the Sudan

They include direct and indirect benefits which contribute to achievement of forest development and other kinds of development, besides realization of ecologic equilibrium.
Firstly: direct benefits of forests:
Timber products of forests.
Trunks and branches of trees are used in a number of local industries. For instance, the very high and king-size stalks of trees afford lumber and lumber blocks and, out of medium-sized and slender stalks, round building poles are produced such as tree poles, i.e. Muruqs, poles of roofs, i.e. rusas, biforked poles of huts, i.e. shi’abs, post poles and telephone poles. Also, out of numerous branches and stalks of trees, like Kitr tree, i.e. a type of acacia, firewood is produced to be immediately burnt for energy or transformed into coal. Additionally, building materials, such as kourki and Fulkab, are gained from tree branches.
Firewood (firewood and coal wood):
The more important timber products of forests are firewood. In this regard, Sudan completely depends on its resources of biomass (timbers and agricultural and animal waste) given that it is a developing country expending most of its revenues on hard currencies for importing a few amounts of energy requirements such as oil substances. However, it is expected that Sudan will remain depending on these resources even after development of petrol resources are completed. Therefore, energy of all sources is consumed as follows:
-    78% by domestic sector for cooking.
-    1% by agricultural sector.
-    4% by service sector.
-    6% by industry.
-    11% by transport sector.
It is noteworthy that surveys carried out on consumption of woods in 1995, proved that contribution of different energy resources had remained invariable. Similarly, the same survey affirmed that rural families got 85% of their needs from commercial sources. So, forests are the renewable source and great resource of these family requirements. For this reason, had it not been for forests of Sudan and their considerable donation for prosperity of Sudanese people, the country would have been obliged to import these resources for approximately 1.9 billion US dollars (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009).

Round poles and building timbers:
According to population census carried out in 1993, there is (66%) of Sudanese inhabitants living in countryside as either sedentary farmers or nomads. Also, the census showed that most lodgings in rural villages consists of thatched huts, i.e. qatati, with round walls and conical roofs or rectangular kurnuks with pyramidal roof, all of which are built of thatch well tied to a structure of round poles. In this kind of rural building, Kourki, fulkab or bamboo are also used. Here, a fence of thatch or bamboo, tied to a structure of round poles, surrounds the house while being propped up with a corral of branches cut of thorny trees. Alternatively, there is a kind of fencing a house by planting trees of kitr or angil (called vibrant fence). It is noteworthy that development of folklore of architecture was inspired with design and building of qatati, given that every civic milieu of ethnical and tribal groups has its own distinctive feature. 
Some villages, particularly in developed agricultural areas by the Nile, are built of mud houses, the majority of which are of ooze and a few little are of unburnt bricks. These houses are covered with a layer of dung paste mixed with broken leavened thatch, i.e. zubala, to protect them against rainfall. And rooms of muddy houses are of quadrate shape and roofed with round poles consisting of large posts called Muruq, on which medium sized poles, rusas, are horizontally lined. In villages of the Nile, such roofs are topped with a layer of fulkab or qanna and palm fronds, all of which are covered with a layer of dung paste and leavened thatch. The roof of the room, in case of collapse, is supported with a pole whose top end is biforked, i.e. shi’aba, erected in the middle of the room. Though 34% of inhabitants of Sudan live in towns (14% in the three towns of the capital), most of lodgings, particularly in popular neighbourhoods and some second class houses, are not different from mud houses of villages except for unburnt brick, the majority of which are built of. But, most of second class houses are built of burnt brick, also called Red Brick, though room roofs are common, namely made of round poles (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009).

Lumber and railway sleepers: 
In addition to magnitude, moderateness and loftiness of the stalk, product of lumber requires aesthetic aspects of the wood, such as moderate fibers, soft texture and different colour, etc.  Depending on utilization ends, there are kinds of lumber, the more common of which are building materials which are used in roofs, doors, windows, railway sleepers, bridge timbers, timbers of domestic furniture that require light weight, variety of colours and softness, and wood turnings used in works of antiques, artistic forms and canes. (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009).


Non-timber products of forests

Non-timber products are also defined as minor timber products. However, so-called “minor products” should not be underestimated since gum Arabic, Sudan second crop of exportation, is among these minor products and a resource generating the country revenues of hard currencies. In the Sudan, there are 830 kinds of timber plants of trees, shrubs and climbers. Out of these plants, 154 non-timber types were enumerated according to their benefits which are as follows: 
-    90 types are used in industry of foods, beverage and fodders.
-    67 types are used in medical drugs and chemical products.
-    18 types are used as a source of fibers.
-    19 types are crude materials for rural and manual industries.
-    16 types are of heritage qualities.
Generally, out of all these kinds of wood, 94 types have an impact on people life, whereas of these latter kinds, there are 18 ones having an importance on both domestic and external trades (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009). 

1.    Foods, beverages and fodder:
Of the more fruits that are used in food, in Sudanese towns and rural areas, are dum, dalaib, nabaq, gudheim, gongoleis, cream, lalob, indrab, coconut, jugjug, sycamore fruits and humiedh. Similarly, there are other fruits on which people depend in food. These latter fruits were increasingly consumed by hungry people in drought years as they, helpfully, saved from hunger inhabitants of drought-stricken areas. Out of these land fruits are kursan, jughan, indrab and gudheim. Beneficially, many products of forests are used as beverages in towns and rural areas such as the drink of coconut and gungulez, while most of these trees provide fodder for animals in summer as they are the only source of fodder in drought season. In this respect, the greatest animal feeding fruits are red qurun Alharaz, sayal leaves and shura, particularly where camels and goats are grazed.
2.    Drugs and medicines:
Since old ages, man knew drugs and medicines extracted from plant, many of which are used in modern medicine. But depending on native traditional medicine in the Sudan is very old as drugs and medicines of common disease, particularly in countryside, have been extracted from herbs and trees. Lately, however, usage of these traditional medicines has spread out in towns. So many diseases are treated with these native medicines, some of which are internal medicine, worms, pains of joints and muscles, menstrual pain, snake bite, scorpion sting, icterus, skin diseases, venereal diseases, coughs, wounds, tumors and inflammation of the tonsils, eye inflammatory diseases. These drugs are delivered to the patient in the form of syrup or gurgling or powder or bandage, while some of which is prepared as smoke of incense or as fogging. Also, of common medicines in countryside used for dysentery are a powder of sunut, syrup of drenched haraz bark, humeidh, dabker, mahogani, sunut roots and sarh leaves. On another hand, some more famous traditional medicines are used to treat the following diseases:
-    Intestinal worms treated with syrup extracted from bark of dum tree which kills worms and also syrup from the bark of kursan tree or from roots of poppies roots.
-    Pain of body joints are treated with a bandage of the kawal bark or taraq taraq tree or with the smoke of branches of ebony and acacia.
-    Animals are treated with colocynth.
-    Senna is exported for industry of medicines.
As a whole, herbs of desert region are important in industry of medicines and they may become, if utilized, an additional source of income of hard currencies for the Sudan. What is noticeable here are the valuable researches carried out by Research Institute for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, National Research Center, on all chemical and medicinal qualities encapsulated in Sudan plants which are considered of the more important forest natural resources.

3.    Frond and fibers
Frond is produced from palm tree, dum and daleib trees as it is one of commercial commodities all over the Sudan. Originally, frond is a crude stuff for many rural and domestic industries such as ropes which are used in anaqreeb, i.e. locally made wood beds, banabir, i.e. small locally made wood seats and industries of mats, plates, scuttles, baskets and hats. As to fibers, they are used in industry of ropes and bag sewing threads, i.e., dubara, mats and blankets. Most of fibers are extracted from barks of baobab, salum of acacia type, sycamore and gudheim trees, etc. 

4.    Crude materials of industry:
They are tanning materials which are used in Sudan widespread hides industry out of horns and bark of sunut, ‘arad and suhub. More or less, most of Sudan trees are rich with a measure of tanning elements. For instance, fruits of lulu and lalob (fruit of desert date) can be used in oil industry as also dyes can be extracted from dahasir bark. Similarly, incense is made of taraq taraq gum, i.e. frankinsence gum, and rubber is made of trees of mathut and Indaqia (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009). 
5.    Fruits of forest products:  
These fruits are involved in external and domestic trade and they are of the most traded commodities, the number of which is eighteen goods of forest products. These products can be summed up in the following:
-    qaradh horns which are used in tanning of hides and treatment of many diseases.
-    TamarindusIndica and AdansoniaDigitata, two of which a refreshing beverage is made inside and outside the Sudan. Also, there are lalob (fruit o desert date), dalaib (Borassus Aethiopum) and frond and fruit of palm tree.
-    Dum fruits which had once been an important commodity for exportation as a source of vegetation medicine.
-    Industry of buttons which was established in Khartoum North and Atbara but it didn’t persist due to competition of plastic industries.
-    In Kassala, industry of fodder had depended on dum fruits but it didn’t carry on.
-    Dum frond is used in industry of ropes, mats, scuttles, baskets.
-    Fruits of gudheim and indrab are used in industry of juices and starch.
-    There are fruits of nabaq and okra-like jughjugh which is known in west Darfur and there is abu laila and umm mudeika.
-    Branches of Arak tree are used as toothbrush.
-    . frankinsence gum from taraq taraq and qafal is used in industry of incense and perfumes.
-    Senna is of the important crude materials for industry of medicines.
-    Henna and dahasir are used in industry of dyes.
However, the three towns of the capital, particularly Omdurman, are of the greatest markets for this industry and from which they are distributed by trucks to all parts of the Sudan. Similarly, other known markets are suq Abu Gahal (of Obeid), suq Umm Dafasu (of Al Fashir town) and suq Manwasheh (of Nyala town). As to external trade, it has for long been practiced by some old Trade Houses and Companies in Omdurman, Port Sudan and Umm Ruwaba. In this regard, the more important commodities of exportation are aradeib, gongoleis, frankinsence, senna and henna (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009).

indirect benefits of forests

1.    Protection of soil against erosion and drifting:
Forest represents a tight cover protecting soil against drifting-causing factors such as water and winds and, furthermore, the forest has an effective role in building and developing soil. Naturally, roots of trees absorb mineral food stuffs from deep bottom of soil and assimilate these stuffs in leaves and branches of the tree, besides their timbers that fall on soil and increase its fertility from mineral and organic substances. Therefore, desert soil devoid of vegetation in northern Sudan is affected by erosion factors and is of less fertility, while soil of southern parts of Sudan is protected against denudation and more fertile than desert soil.

2.    Help rain fall:
Cold air and high humidity inside and outside the forest help quieten cloud movement and rainfall. However, on rainfall on forests, it is hindered by forests’ tops which limit its cloud speed and, thus, rain water quietly flows from branches and leaves down to stalk and is absorbed by vegetation of grass and small plants. Similarly, rain water flows into soil bottom and underground reservoir and to waterways which carry it freshly to valleys and rivers. In this case, fierce rain showers do not directly strongly drop on soil which is, thanks to vegetation, protected against water erosion as is obviously shown in southern parts of Sudan where there is dense vegetation and forests which protect soil from water erosion (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009). 

3.    Calming winds speed (barriers against winds):
Forests and tree belts are more important barriers against winds and, similarly, they limit water and wind erosion, help assuage hot atmosphere, reduce evaporation and keep up humidity. Therefore, soil devoid of vegetation in northern Sudan is affected by factors of wind erosion, while soils of southern parts of Sudan, where there is vegetation, are protected against wind denudation.

4.    Areas of tourism and entertainment
Forests are rich stock of biodiversity of different types and forms of flora and fauna. In total, this life is a more splendid picture of natural beauty. Moreover, landscape of highlands, slopes, running valleys and bodies of water adds magnificence to this panorama. Normally, assiduous audiovisual movement of various animals and birds is also an addition to the scene which will become an affluent park for tourism travels, hunting and collection of fruits. In Sudan, such recreational areas are represented by Dindir Park, Radum Park, Wadi Hawar Protectorate, Jabal Al Hassania Protectorate, Toker Reserved Territory and Sabaloqa Territory (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009).

Forests in the Sudan from 1980 to 2015

 

Forests in the Sudan from 1980 to 1999:
Forest resources had been enumerated during this period in which indicators of drought began to show up. In that period, areas covered with forests in the Sudan were estimated to be about 44 million acres, i.e. about 61% of the total area of forests in Arab Land which equals about 73 million acres. In this regard, statistics of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in 1980, noted that average area of forests removed for different ends is estimated to be about 504,000 acres in the year. As to rate of reforestation or afforestation, it was estimated to be about 17,000 acres in the year, namely with a ratio of 3.4% of the total area whose trees are yearly removed. In fact, this requires that the state should set policies and programs that secure the best utilization of natural available resources. The said policies and programs would reforest areas whose tree cover was removed. Likewise, the FAO statistics estimated that the amount of wood the Sudan had exploited during 1985 to 1987 was about 20 million cubic meters, out of which 18 million cubic meters were consumed in fuel and production of charcoal and two million cubic meters were used for purposes of building and industry. Economically, Sudan sector of forests contributes with about 12% in the GDP. In addition to this economic contribution, the sector provides the following:
-    Offers labour opportunities for about 14% of Sudanese inhabitants.
-    Provides timbers for buildings and industry.
-    Supplies inhabitants of rural areas with about 80% of firewood and charcoal.
-    Submits between (20% -- 30%) of fodders for Sudanese livestock (Hayati, 1998).
According to these studies and reports, a lot of forests were reserved as table (3) shows.
Table (3) number and area of reserved forests in acres in states of Sudan

State

Northern region

Darfur

Kordofan

Eastern region

Central region

Khartoum

Reserved forests

9

20

27

62

145

7

area

10263

112602

469713

393917

444409

14652

Forests under reserve

15

13

15

45

63

7

area

25719

217241

105504

457765

246957

15612

Proposed forests

43

39

41

44

126

8

area

59764

736080

227755

147664

1053886

22250

total

67

72

93

151

334

22

area

95746

1065923

1002972

999346

1745252

52514

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


          Source: (Ali, 1995).

Forests in the Sudan during the period (2000 – 2010)

Resources of forests were globally enumerated in the year 2005 and, according to that enumeration, area of vegetation got to 74 billion acres which is equivalent to 29% of area of Sudan. Nevertheless, there is an annual loss of these resources estimated to be about 589,000 acres. So far, this estimation represents a reliable database concerning this information. Yet, global enumeration of forest resources, 2010, carried out by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in cooperation with different countries, presented a new profile for forest resource of the Sudan. When completed in 2009, initial results of this enumeration, noted that forest resources have dwindled from 74 million acres in the year 2005 to 69.949 million acres. Regrettably, this retraction of forest resources made ratio of forest cover diminish from 29.6% in the year 2005 to 29.4% by late 2009. As a result, this enumeration of resources showed that rate of annual deforestation diminished from 589,000 acres (0.8%) in 2005 to 542,000 acres (0.74%) by late 2009. In the same context, tree stock increased from 939 million cubic meters in 2005 to 962 million cubic meters in late 2009. Similarly, global enumeration of forest resources reflected few decrease in biomass stock of forests from 2.973 million metric tons to 2.961 million metric tons between the years 2005 to 2009. During the same period, the global enumeration reflected a slight reduction in stock of carbons in forests ranging from 1545 million metric tons to 1540 million metric tons (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, (2009).
Scientific enumeration of forest resources represents a database that helps follow up changes that may occur to these resources. In this respect, the database can be utilized for laying out technical programs through understanding the new concepts concerning carbon stock in Sudan forests and coping with development of climate change, in addition to other fields of global concern (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009).

 Current status of forests in Sudan (2010 – 2015)

Forests cover about 29.6% of the area of Sudan (74,1 million acres) and contribute with 3.3% to the GDP and secure 71% of the total consumed energy in the country. Moreover, forests have remained contributing with more than 12% to revenues of hard currencies for the country, providing most of the country requirements of lumber, building materials, fodders of national livestock and presenting about 15% of rural employment. According to latest available statistics, the annual consumption of timbers in northern states of the Sudan reaches about 21 million cubic meters. As to forests themselves, they grow by a rate equivalent to 11 million cubic meters per year, that is to say rate of depletion of forest resources is currently estimated by about 10 million cubic meters, i.e. an over-exhaustion to these forests. In this regard, annual rate of deforestation during (1992 – 2002) reached 995,000 acres per year, i.e. 1,4% of the total area of these forests. On another hand, annual average afforestation reached about 45,000 acres which is equivalent to only 4,5% of the annually deforested area. However, horizontal agricultural expansion represents the most prominent forest degradation factors in relation to both natural and reserved forests. In fact, this is attributed to absence of penalties concerning Forests Law which provides for allocation of an area of 5% and 10% for irrigated and rain-fed schemes respectively. Therefore, the law could have inflicted penalties on spoilers of forests. On another hand, desert and desertification constitute one of the more prominent obstacles conflicting with strategic goals that aim at beefing up forest cover in the Sudan (Abdullah, 2012).
 
          Table (4) area of forests in Sudan and Southern Sudan in square km
 

resource

United Sudan/ 2 square km

Ratio (%)

Sudan/2 square km

Ratio (%)

Southern Sudan/2 square km

Ratio (%)

forests

757,760

29,6

596,990

78.8

160,770

21.2

 

 

 

 


        Source: (Abdullah, 2012)
Out of table (4), it is clear that area of forests covers about 29.6% of the area of Sudan, i.e. 757,760 square km. but, after separation of Southern Sudan, area of forests in the Sudan diminished to 596,990 square km which is equivalent to 78.8% of the former area and, thus, 21.2% of the area was reduced due to separation of Southern Sudan.
Table (5): production inside and outside reserved forests, 2014

State

 

firewood/ cubic m

total

Charcoal/bag

total

in

out

in

out

Northern state

-

461

461

-

7628

7628

River Nile

557

1230

1787

-

61685

61685

Khartoum

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gezira

12678

6194

18872

-

-

-

Sennar

17532

109695

127227

-

87907

87907

White Nile

1588

911

2499

-

1116

87907

Blue Nile

8475

45947

54422

2610

561071

563681

Red Sea

-

117

117

-

550808

550808

Kassala

275

17757

18132

-

202761

202761

Gedarif

5762

14028

19790

2062

22998

25060

N. Kordofan

2675

37204

39879

-

238350

238350

S. Kordofan

-

15181

15181

-

522952

522952

W. Kordofan

2443

41011

43454

600

576326

576926

N. Darfur

-

15290

15290

-

21920

21920

S. Darfur

-

8708

8708

-

32637

32637

W. Darfur

-

8044

8044

-

9051

9051

E. Darfur

-

8663

8663

-

4072

4072

Central Darfur

-

887

887

-

2462

2462

total

52085

331328

383413

5272

2903644

3908916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


     Source: (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2009).
Out of table (5), it is clear that production of firewood inside reserved forests is found in only nine states of Sudan. As to production of firewood outside forests, it is found in all states of Sudan except for Khartoum where there is no production of firewood and charcoal here. However, in the forefront of these states is Sennar where there is higher production of firewood which reaches inside reserved forests (17532) cubic meters and outside these forests (109695) cubic meters. Notably, production of charcoal inside reserved forests is found in three states which are: Blue Nile, Gedarif and West Kordofan. This latter state has the highest proportion of production of charcoal outside reserved forests where this production reached (576326) cubic meters. 
Form (1) production of firewood and charcoal in the states of Sudan
 
Source: researcher’s work, depending on data of the National Forests Corporation
Figure 1, illustrates production of firewood in cubic meter and charcoal in bag, where the highest proportion of production of charcoal, 576926 bags, is produced in West Kordofan State to which the Blue Nile State comes second with production of (563681) bags. As to firewood, Sennar State comes in the first place where its production equals (127227) cubic meters and, second to Sennar, comes the Blue Nile State which produces (54422) cubic meters.

Economize forest resources

Sustained production is the principle on which good utilization of any natural renewable resource is based. This resource, not only concerning forests, will thus remain hospitable for life and welfare of human being. In this respect, natural renewal resources are water, trees (forests), wildlife, grazing land, soil and air. Therefore, the best exploitation of natural renewal resources is the only guarantee for sustainability of human life on the Earth because these resources, as sources of livelihood, were predestinated by Allah as He said in the Holy Quran: (And there is not a thing but that with Us are its depositories, and We do not send it down except according to a known measure.), Surat Al-Hijr [verse 21]. Therefore, Allah orders us to economize what He offered us of livelihood and blessings when He said: (And He it is who causes gardens to grow, [both] trellised and untrellised, and palm trees and crops of different [kinds of] food and olives and pomegranates, similar and dissimilar. Eat of [each of] its fruit when it yields and give its due [zakah] on the day of its harvest. And be not excessive. Indeed, He does not like those who commit excess.), Surat al-Ana’am (verse 141). Here, to economically utilize natural resources is to make use of them in a way that makes them capable of renewal.

 

 

Gum Arabic:


As gum Arabic is considered one of the more important resources of forests in the Sudan, it is worth dwelling on this important resource of economy of the State.

Definition of gum Arabic:

Gum Arabic is a natural viscous gummy juice extracted from Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal and some other trees. This gum is marked with distinctive and unique characteristics, solubility in water, glittering colour and other numerous natural qualities like forming a thin transparent layer (Gum Arabic Company ltd, 2015).

Designation of Gum Arabic

Gum Arabic was such named because Arabs were the first people who initiated trading with this commodity as the gum was initially exported from Sudan to Europe. Physically, Gum Arabic is a mixture of glycoprotein and multiple sugars and, furthermore, it is a source of arabinose and ribose sugars and these qualities give it a global importance (Gum Arabic Company ltd, 2015).

Kinds of gum Arabic

There are many kinds of gum found in the Sudan but we focus on the more two important kinds of it, i.e. Acacia Senegal, i.e. hashab and Acacia Seyal, i.e. talh.
Firstly: Hashab gum:
It is a kind of gum produced out of branches of the Hashab tree and it is known as Acacia Senegal as it is, similarly, produced from other typically similar thorny trees of the same species. Typically, gum Arabic produced in the Sudan is called “Hashab” which represents the largest produced quantities in the Sudan where it is contributes with about 95% to production of the country. Owing to its distinguished qualities, Sudanese gum Arabic is globally preferable to consumers as it is characterized by unity of color, lack of smell and abundance of production. Geographically, Hashab shrubs thickly grow in central Sudan where areas of their growth extend from dry land in north Kordofan and Darfur and west Kordofan up to boundaries of sand areas in Southern Sudan and to clay soil in states of Kasala and the Blue Nile.
Secondly: gum of Acacia Seyal or Talh: 
It is extracted from Talh tree (Acacia Seyal) and it has various usages. In relation to production and utilization, this gum comes in the second class to Hashab and it contributes with 5% to Sudan production of gum Arabic. Characteristically, Talh tree grows in clay lands, particularly in the states of Kassala and the Blue Nile and the height of this tree may reach 10 meters with a bark of red or yellow or white colour. In addition, there are other kinds of gum such as Tabahi, kakamut, ‘Arad and Frankinsence gum. Yet, these latter gums are of less importance and productivity as they contribute precious little to Sudan production of gum.
Acacia Senegal or Hashab Tree:
It is a thorny medium-sized tree, spreading out in Savanna areas in many African states, inside Gum Arabic belt stretching from the Red Sea to the east to the Atlantic Ocean to the west, i.e. inside the belt of dry Savanna and semi-dry Savanna where rainfall average ranging between 250 to 650 mm. however, Hashab tree grows in sandy areas and in limited areas of clay land where soil is comparatively light and marked with quick leakage of water into its depth. Hashab trees grow either as an isolated family or in a miscellany of other kinds of trees to form forests. Traditionally, areas of gum trees are called gardens, i.e. jana’in. while density of trees in natural Hashab forests ranges between (50 – 150) trees in an acre, density of trees in scientifically planted forests reaches (250 – 260) trees in an acre (Jabir, 2008). 
Hashab trees in the Sudan are confined between latitudes (10-14) north and they stretch in a district of climatic characteristics in which rainfall, temperatures, relative humidity, winds and soil are variable (Jabir, 2008).  

Characteristics of gum

Gum Arabic is marked with a number of properties, thanks to which the gum gained a global importance. These properties are:
1.    Solubility: gum Arabic is capable to be solved with 55% degree of concentration in warm water.
2.    Viscosity: 30% of aqueous solution gives less than hundred (viscosity visage), that is to say gum Arabic is not with high degree and that this concentration represents high viscosity degree. This viscosity can only be got at concentration degree ranging between 40% -- 50%.
3.    Formation of membrane: gum Arabic is capable of making membranes, a property which renders it a stuff of a paramount importance for industry of sweets and printing. 
4.    Absorption: gum Arabic forms a high and permanent degree of absorption and so it becomes of great benefit for diversifying the flavour of oil foods dissolved in water, particularly citrus oils.
5.    Colour: high quality gum Arabic has no colour, yet the medium kind of gums has a pale tending to yellow colour.
6.    Taste: gum Arabic is tasteless and, therefore and, therefore, it does not change flavoured products made of powder gum nor make them lose their taste.
7.    Fibers: experiments proved that gum Arabic is one of soluble fibers with 90%.
8.    Calories: in the United States, calories of gum Arabic is formally categorized as equaling less than one calorie per one gram, namely its calories are low due to its slow absorption degree.
9.    Cholesterol alleviating stuff: global medical researches confirmed that taking foods that contain 25 grams of gum Arabic for a day reduces cholesterol in blood.
10.    Toxicities: there are no poisonous substances in gum Arabic and, according to certification of US and European organizations specialized in foods and food stuffs, gum Arabic is recognizably safe and free of toxicities (Ali, 2005).
 

Production of gum Arabic in Sudan

The main official forest activity is carried out by removing the tree barks, i.e. “axing gum” of Hashab and Talh trees, by traditional farmers. Then, the crop is collected by local traders who, again, bring it to agents of Gum Arabic Corporation which starts marketing the crop locally and internationally.
Historically, utilization of gum was known a long time ago, for instance, 6000 years ago, ancient Egyptians had used the stuff in colours and paints. Yet, utilization of gum as a commercial crop had only begun in the first century AD. Of late, the gum type produced in the Sudan was called gum Arabic because it had been exported from Arab Ports to some other states. So, as form (2) illustrates, gum Arabic is nearly produced in most of states of Sudan. In this regard, the largest centers for collection of gum Arabic are towns of Bara, Obeid, Nuhud, Abu Zabad and Umm Ruwaba, while the Gawamaa tribe is a more famous one for production of gum Arabic than other tribes. Out of reports of Ministry of Planning, it is notable that contribution of gum Arabic to the gross value of exports oscillates due to the increase of international prices in addition to impact of drought and desertification, change in SD exchange value and cross-border smuggling of the gum. However, in the fiscal year 1989/1990, cash revenues of gum Arabic were equivalent to (31.3) million US dollars when value of ton of gum then reached 2300 dollars, namely quantity of exported gum reached (13.622) tons while the exported quantity of the crop in 1967/1968 was about (61.500) tons. Comparatively, according to the latter data, quantity of export of the gum declined with a ratio of 350% (Ali, 1995).
Figure2: average contribution of states of Sudan to production of gum Arabic during (1962 – 1992)


Source: Al Hafian, 1995

It is notable, out of form (2), disparity of contribution of Sudan states to production of gum Arabic. In this regard, the following are gum-producing states according to priority of their contribution to the gross production of Sudan:
-    Kordofan state, with contribution of (50%).
-    Darfur states, with contribution of (18%).
-    Eastern states, with contribution of (16%).
-    Central states, with contribution of (15%).
-    Upper Nile state, with contribution of (1%).
But, according to averages of production during the five decades shown by table (6) below, there is a decline in gum productivity.
Table (6) average export of gum Arabic during five decades
 

years

decade

Production in tons

1961- 1969م.

‘sixties

45000

1971- 1979م.

‘seventies

35000

1981- 1989م.

‘eighties

25000

1991- 2000م.

‘nineties

2200

2001- 2008م.

First decade of the third millennium

11000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Source: Abdel Magid, 2011

Out of table (6), it is clear that quantity of gum production in the ‘sixties represented the highest production rates which were equivalent to (35,000) tons but, thereafter, production had declined in decades of ‘eighties and ‘nineties to be diminished, at the beginning of the Third Millennium, to just (11,000) tons. Regrettably, this decline is caused by drought and desertification, grazing and illegal cutting of trees which brought about shrinking of Hashab trees and retraction of gum Arabic belt in the Sudan.
Out of form (3), it is notable that most of production of gum Arabic comes from Hashab tree with the Talh tree in the second class. As well, it is noted that production of gum declined in some years due to drought with which Sudan had been affected during those years when the highest production of the Hashab trees in 1975 (45,500) quintals and the lowest production was in 1999 (3,576) quintals. As to Talh tree, the highest production of the Talh trees in 1993 (11,049) quintals and the lowest production was in 1996 (13) quintals.

Figure 3: Gum Arabic production of Hashab and Talh trees in the Sudan during (1969 – 2005)
 



Source: researcher’s work, 2015, depending on data of Gum Arabic Corporation.
   Table 7: Illustrates states’ production of gum Arabic, outside reserved forests, 2014
 

state

Talh (Acacia

Seyal)

Hashab (Acacia

Senegal)

Frankinsence (Boswellia sacra)

kakamut

(Poiyacontha)

Sennar

-

4322

-

-

White Nile

10392

13567

2993

-

Blue Nile

45011

13958

6520

18640

Gedarif

-

12016

15

-

N. Kordofan

19674

57519

1148

-

S. Kordofan

6921

31221

18935

-

W. Kordofan

145460

221742

6570

-

N. Darfur

-

28988

-

-

S. Darfur

134902

14842

47

-

W. Darfur

-

1557

-

-

E. Darfur

115514

4795

-

-

Cent. Darfur

206

5153

-

-

total

478080

409680

36228

18640

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



   (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2014).
Out of table (7), it is clear that gum production of Hashab and Talh tree are produced in West Kordofan State where production reached (221,742) quintals for Hashab tree and (145,460) quintals for Talh tree. As to the gum extracted from Kakamut tree, it is exclusively produced in the Blue Nile State, while, according to the table, frankinsence is produced in eight states (A Report prepared by Forests National Corporation, 2014).
 
 

Gum Arabic Belt in Sudan;


Gum Arabic belt stretches in an area estimated with about 200,000 square miles. The belt stretches in central Sudan between latitudes (15—10) degree which is nearly equivalent to one fifth the area of the whole country. Even population density inside the belt is equivalent to one fifth the population of the country while on third of Sudan livestock lives inside the belt. As well, inside the belt, there is a number of human activities such as traditional rain-fed, mechanized and irrigated kinds of agriculture besides grazing lands. Geographically, gum Arabic belt stretches in Gedarif state to the east and expands to states of Sennar and the Blue Nile to the south and, as map (3) shows, the belt stretches more to the west to include states of the White Nile, South and North Kordofan and states of Darfur (Forests management report, Al Nuhud, 2014).
Map 3: illustrates gum belt in the Sudan
 Arabic

 


           Source: Gum Arabic Corporation, 2014 (adopted)

Factors Affected production of gum Arabic in Sudan:

A number of factors impacts on gum Arabic which are:
Firstly: natural factors:
1.    Soil 2. Topography of earth 3. Climate which is a greatest factor affecting production.

Secondly: biological factors: these factors are the following:
1.    Human being 2. Animal 3. Pests.
2.    thirdly: planning and organizational factors:
3.    . Marketing 2. Transportation 3. Water  4. Guidance.
Fourthly: socio-economic factors:
4.    Income 2. Immigration 3. Urban expansion (Jabir, 2008).
Production phases of gum Arabic: 
Production of gum Arabic begins with “gum axing” phase where the farmer starts cutting into gum trees and, consequently, on removing tree bark at the beginning of dry season, the tree begins yielding gum. Also, this operation can be carried out when rain stops according to rain rate during the year whether in October or November. However, gum is axed when trees lose their leaves to enter the phase of summer hibernation so that water can be kept up inside the tree throughout the dry season and this helps the tree grow once again in rainfall in the coming autumn. Yet, when tree leaves drop, many complicated physiological operations interact inside the tree and help transfer food stock of the tree from leaves and branches to be siphoned through branches and stalk to be stored in roots. In the process, when the tree is axed, a part of these liquid foods is physically directed to the axing-created hole to stop the likely lost liquids by closing this hole. Also, physically, these substances form the gum and make it appear in form of tiny balls which dry when touch air outside. These tiny balls grow gradually to finally form what is known as kaakol or gum kaakol, the diameter of which ranging between 1 –5 centimeters. So, when kaakols are formed on the tree, they will be ready for the process of collection or collection of gum, i.e. lageit ‘alsamuq, between 4 to 6 weeks after axing of the tree. Here, the gum is collected many times and then the farmer transport the it to crop markets to be sold and again transported to companies where the crop will be packed and stored. (Hibatallah, Gum Arabic Corporation ltd, 2015).
 

Marketing of gum Arabic:

Gum Arabic is marketed through two stages (domestic marketing and abroad marketing).
Domestic marketing of gum:
This marketing involves the following parties:
Producer: the producer looks after and axes the tree, collects and transports the gum and sells the crop to local traders according to current price.
Local trader: the local trader represents an important link in marketing system as he plays the role of a broker for gum producers who are not able to directly deal with the company. Moreover, local trader takes on processes of collection and sieving of the gum, pays for storage and transportation and collects most of the crop at bourse of gum Arabic in Obeid where the crop is received from local traders and handed over to companies which, in turn, export the gum overseas (Jabir, 2008).
 

Gum Arabic Corporation:

It is a general concessionary corporation particularly dealing with external marketing through monopoly, purchase and exportation. Furthermore, the corporation takes on the task of domestic marketing as the company is an executive body which is charged with controlling the minimum policy of prices. Commercially, the company represents the third party that goes between the producer, end-user and buyers. Historically, Gum Arabic Corporation was constituted in 1969 as a result of specific and numerous efforts exerted by successive managements of Ministry of External Trade in order to regulate and control the commodity of gum Arabic (Jabir, 2008).
 

Uses of gum Arabic:

Gum Arabic has a number of uses such as the following:
Industry of sweets:
Gum Arabic is used in industry of sweets which is one of the more important uses given that the gum Arabic extracted from the Hashab tree is the best kind for production of high quality soft sweets. Normally, the gums is used in this industry in its natural form which confers a best taste on sweets and makes these candies soft, coherent, and free of viscosity and remain long in the mouth. Of late, soft sweets with low calories and a ratio of 40% --50% have been manufactured. In this regard, gum Arabic is one of the more idiosyncratic stuffs that maintain flavour and, therefore, manufacturers use it for conferring good and long-lasting taste on sweets.
Gum Arabic is used to reassure distribution and balance of oily or fatty flavour and prohibit the likely crystallization of sweets in which a high proportion of saccharose is used.
Gum Arabic is idiosyncratically marked with making thin layers of some sweets, fruits and nuts in addition to being used in industry of high quality and tooth decay resistant sweets. In relation to the latter idiosyncrasy of the gum, it resists tooth-decay causing biodegradation which itself caused by microbes in oral cavity. As well, gum Arabic has various uses, some of which are formation of thin layers or metabolism and, thanks to its unique idiosyncrasies; it has not an impact on the taste and flavour of the product (Hibatallah, Gum Arabic Corporation ltd, 2015).
 

Beverages:

Idiosyncrasies of gum Arabic concerning metabolism qualifies the stuff for being used on a large scale of beverages. Moreover, gum Arabic is a main ingredient of all solutions which require constancy even in difficult conditions imposed by low acid milieu, besides its other additional properties which confer purity and fineness.

Flavour materials:
Gum Arabic is used in synthesis of flavour materials to produce local beverages, sweetener blends and soup concentrates. So, the gum maintains the best taste of beverages, the period of storage notwithstanding. Also, gum Arabic has different industrial uses which are:
1.    Industry of glass paints.
2.    High technological porcelain works.
3.    Paper paints.
4.    Technology and refining of some ores.
5.    Textile equipments.
6.    Corrosion-proof materials for metals.
7.    Stationery (synthetic gum - adhesive tapes - coatings and paints).
8.    Pesticides.
9.    Industry of printing ink.
 

Synthesis of medicines, vitamins and cosmetics:

Dehydrated gum Arabic is used in industry of capsules and medical tablets. Besides, it is of oldest and best usages as a famous drink for treating respiratory system diseases. In terms of cosmetics, the gum is used in paints of face, creams and hairspray, creams and paints that maintain freshness and clarity of the skin.
 

Synthesis of high quality fibers:

Workers who deal with technology of industry of foods partly use gum Arabic because a natural food supplement as it helps add food-dissolving fibers which confer good taste on these foods. Traditionally, gum Arabic is involved in industries such as industry of sweets whose ratio is equivalent to 50% of gum solution.
 

Improvement of quality:

Quality of gum Arabic shipped from Sudan has lately been improved, thanks to processes of cleanliness, sorting out and locally mechanically cleaning. Fortunately, construction of Port Sudan new mechanical unit, which replaced handicrafts, helped improve quality of gum Arabic as it, also, helped boost up quantities prepared for exportation and give them an exceptional form. The following are the steps taken to secure high quality:
1.    Install and process manufacturing unit for gum Arabic which is produced in form of grains as this unit has been well publicized and accepted.
2.    Phases of manufacturing powdered and dehydrated gum have well advanced in cooperation with some abroad manufacturers and consumers. This comes in the context of the state policy aiming at exportation of manufactured gum Arabic so as to benefit from added value.
3.    With help of the Global Trade Center, a factory is to be installed in Port Sudan. This factory represents a new stage for exporting gum according to needed global specifications since the factory issues the globally recognized certificates of quality control (Hibatallah, Gum Arabic Corporation ltd, 2015).

Future vision for management of vegetation and forest production in the Sudan:

Current situation of vegetation and forest production have been affected with fluctuation of rainfall rate which reduced water resources and deteriorated growth of plants, trees and grasses. Also, area of vegetation has shrunk due to expansion of rain-fed and irrigated agriculture and setting fire on dry grasses. Consequently, superficial layer of soil was hardened and microorganisms, contributing to formation of organic substance from which plant benefit, were killed and, thus, soil lost its fertility. Also, production of gum Arabic oscillates according to climatic changes. Officially, development of vegetation and its products depend on sound planning for protection of environment and natural resources as it, similarly, depends on strategic vision represented by the following fields:
 

 Natural plants and grazing lands:

-    Rehabilitate deteriorating grazing lands through restoration of vegetation for these lands with sowing appropriate seeds of high food value such as seeds of saha and safari. To that end, sound management systems and technological involvement should be adopted.
-    Enact pastures regulating laws in the Sudan along with involvement of nomadic communities insofar as these laws will be compatible with aspirations of these communities and observing social and cultural traditions.
-    Protect natural grazing lands with opening fire lines and building capacity of beneficiary villagers and nomads as to protection of grazing lands and its impact.
-    Follow-up and evaluate the state of vegetation.
-    Organize guidance symposia for users of land.
-    Install self-recording stations to measure climate conditions and scientifically distribute these stations across the Sudan.
Forests:
-    Enumerate and develop forest resources.
-    Alleviate overuse of forest resources by finding out substitutes for building materials and energy sources.
-    Develop resources of productive forests and combat desertification.
-    Rehabilitate and restore forests by local communities.
-    Maintain bio-diversity in forests.
-    Encourage inhabitants to carry out afforestation and plantation in deteriorating areas.
-    Activate the role played by the National Forests Corporation and review laws of protection of forests against overgrazing and illegal cutting.
-    Introduce modern technologies to protect environment.
-    Encourage investors and beneficiaries of forest production.
 

Gum Arabic:

-    Liberalize trade of gum Arabic.
-    Protect, restore and develop gum Arabic belt.
-    Support research to develop cultivation, gum-axing and collection of gum Arabic.
-    Rehabilitate gum Arabic belt and plant forests of exceptional economic benefit.

References:

Firstly: published books:
-    Al Hafian, 1995, Awad Ibrahim Abdel Rahman Al Hafian, Foundations of Rural Development and Role of Agriculture in Sudan, Khartoum University Press.
-    Babikir, 1983, Abdel Bagi Abdel Ghani Babikir and Fuad Ibrahim, Problem of Desertification in Sudan, Desertification Journal, Vol. 1
-    Hayati, 1998, Attayib Ahmed AL Mustafa Hayati, Environmental Resources and Development in Sudan, Printing and Publishing House, International University of Africa.
-    Saudi, 1985, Mohammed Abdel Ghani Saudi, Sudan, al Ra’id Printing House, Cairo.

Secondly: unpublished theses:
-    Abu Ali, 2011, Abdel Magid Abdel Gadir Abdel Magid Abu Ali, Economics of Production and Marketing of Gum Arabic in Gedarrif state, unpublished PhD thesis.
-    Idris, 2003, Al Siddig Idris M. Idris, Socio-economic studies, department of Econo-metrics and Socio-metrics, analysis of Exports of Gum Arabic in Sudan, U of K, an unpublished Ms thesis.
-    Shaigi, 2009, Khalda A. M. Othman Al Shaigi, Threats of Grazing Lands and their Impact on Livestock (Applied Study for East Butana Unit, an unpublished PhD thesis).
-    Jabir, (2008), Sadiq Jabir ‘Ajib, Economics and Marketing of Gum Arabic Production in Sudan, 1970 – 2004, Sudan University of Sciences and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, an unpublished PhD thesis on Agricultural Economy. 
-    Abdel Raziq, 2008, Farouq Abdel Hafith Abdel Raziq, Natural Features of the wadi al Maqaddam Basin, Omdurman Islamic University, an unpublished Ms Thesis.

Thirdly: papers, publications and reports:
-    Baleela, 2014, Omer Adam Abdallah Baleela, Drought and Desertification of Natural Grazing Lands and their Impact on Development of Livestock, Journal of Hadramaut University for Human Sciences, Yemeni Republic.
-    Abdallah, 2014, Ammar Hasan Bashir Abdallah, Management of Natural Resources in post-Separation Sudan, Bases of Knowledge for Studies and Researches.
-    Ali, 2005, Awad Awadallah Ali, a Paper on Geography of Sudan, Omdurman Islamic University, Faculty of Arts, Geography Section.
-    National Forests Corporation, Annual Report, 2014.
-    National Forests Corporation, Annual Report, 2009.
-    Hibatallah, 2015, Gum Arabic, Reports prepared by Gum Arabic Corporation.

Fourthly: books in English:
-     EL.Hassan.A.M. Environmental Consequences of Open Grazing in the Central Butana, Insitute of Environmental Studies, Sudan, Khartoum (thesis), 1984.
 

 

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