Urbanism in the Sudan

Tue, 16 May 2017




  Dr. Rabie Ali - University of Bakht Alridaa - Faculty of Arts - Department of Geography

Abstract:

    This study addressed urbanism in Sudan upbringing and development, patterns and factors influencing it. The study aimed to show urbanism in Sudan, which dates back to its inception in the civilizations that prevailed in the ancient kingdoms of Sudan, and also stand on the rural and urban Sudan urbanism patterns and the factors affecting it, its problems and the possibility of its development. The study followed historical, descriptive and inductive methods to achieve these objectives. The study concluded that the rural and urban areas suffer from many problems including lack of water supply, poor social services, absence of planning processes and increasing migration from the countryside to the cities. The study recommends the need to focus attention on rural development, plans and development projects at the government level should focus on implementing socioeconomic development projects in rural areas. The study also recommends that attention should be given to the development of functional urban areas in a way that can serve its citizen and promote services.

• Introduction
• Terminology
• Creation and development of urbanism in Sudan
• Factors Influencing urbanism on the Sudan
• Population density and urbanism distribution in Sudan
• Health, educational and social services
• Rural urbanism in the Sudan
• Urban urbanism in Sudan
• Problems facing urbanism in the Sudan
• Development of urbanism in Sudan (proposed solutions)
• Sources and references

Introduction:

    The study of urbanism is regarded as one of social studies that researchers are highly concerned with, particularly the French geographer Demangeon. Afterward, the study of urbanism gained much progress in Germany, Netherlands and Britain. These western studies focused on understanding contemporary environments of urbanism and their problems as they, on another hand, focused on analyzing historical and civic circumstances. These environments have undergone along with geographical factors influencing their development, distribution, characteristics and relationships.
The study of urbanism also addresses the study of the countryside, rural urbanism, rural settlements, with its kinds, rural activities, factors influencing division of countryside, styles of villages with their regional distribution, kinds of rural settlements with their features, regional distribution of rural settlements, rural people and their relationship with the town, and problems of countryside.  
    However, in the time being, it also addresses the study of urban urbanism, processes of development and urbanism as a cosmopolitan phenomenon, regional distribution of towns and quality of urban environment with its relationship with both social and natural characteristics. Apart from this, the study tackles some general facts such like permanency, spacing, magnitudes, classes and functions of towns. Furthermore, there are urban regions, economic factors, labor force, manpower and urban utilization of land which entails activities like: housing, services, recreation, transport, commercial and administrative activities, besides inner structure, i.e. morphology of the town, in addition to spatial movements like migration, urban expansion, urban/ rural relationship and problems of towns .
    This study attempts to shed light on the reality of urbanism in Sudan as regards its creation, development, kinds and geographical factors influencing urbanism distribution.

Terminology:

Urbanism:
    The term connotes whatever constructs the country and improves its conditions through cultivation, industry, trade, plenty of people and success of businesses. The term ‘urbanism’ itself means civilization and urbanism or, otherwise, activity and businesses and, accordingly, we often refer to phrases like policy of urbanism, a land devoid of urbanism and justice is the base of urbanism, in this term, urbanism. Alternatively, urbanism is that spatial organization which aims at giving a specific order for the town as the word implies the continuous expansion which the town permanently experiences through time. However, the conception of the term ‘urbanism’ varies through different eras to allow for credited classifications of urbanism such as ‘old Islamic urbanism’ and/ or ‘modern urbanism’.
 Rural urbanism:
    Means patterns of distribution of rural houses inside the space where rural communities practice agricultural activities. This term shows that this urbanism unit has its unique socio-economic characteristics in rural space. However, rural urbanism is not a permanent reality but it is as adjustable and variable as all economic and social systems which change according to the sustainable changes of the community, i.e. from a traditional community to a more open one and yet more amalgamated with trends of globalization, world market and other great influences.
Urban urbanism:
     This pattern of urbanism is different from the rural one. In this respect, the town is considered as a foundation of urbanism, given that the town is a sizable population and urban complexity with lofty buildings, many streets and multiple-functions. Though there are many specialists concerned with definitions of urban urbanism, they haven’t submitted a clear designation for this term as what applies to a certain urban area doesn’t necessarily apply to another one. Inconsistently, according to the point of view of every urban expert, an urban area is defined with numerous features. In the process, some of these experts explain urban urbanism according to common binary qualities met by both rural and urban communities; others define it in the light of ecological factors while some others tackle the event in the light of cultural values. Generally, urban urbanism expresses all blocks and structures built in the urban space, whatever the nature, type and function of these structures are.
Urban unit:
    It is a clear-cut housing unit with self-sufficiency and self-power securing a formation of a social unit among its inhabitants besides the available necessary conditions in the housing milieu, for with these stipulations, the housing unit can resist social fragmentation which, in turn, disintegrates the entity of the town. On his part, Perry defined urbanism unit as a planned housing area involving all required elements for the suitable living of the inhabitants along with the available conditions needful for their civic progress (https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki).
Boundaries of the study:
1.    Spatial boundaries: they are represented by all historical and geographical stages Sudan has passed through up to the stage of modern Sudan with its current geographical borders which lie between latitudes 80 45" and 220 8" North and longitudes 210 49" and 380 34" East. 
2.    Time limits: they are represented by all time and geographical stages and developments Sudan has passed through till the year 2015.
3.    Objective limits: they are represented by the study of both rural and urban urbanisms in Sudan along with their mutual relationships.

Creation and development of urbanism in Sudan:

Many expressions and terms referring to urbanism and its styles were used in the language, out of which are: city, village, town and land. Even in the Holy Quran, both town and village are synonymously used as in the following ayahs of the Quranic surahs:
1.    (And ask them about the village {town} that was by the sea - when they transgressed in [the matter of] the Sabbath - when their fish came to them openly on their Sabbath day, and the day they had no Sabbath they did not come to them. Thus did We give them trial because they were defiantly disobedient), surah Al A’raf, ayah 163. 
2.    (Among those around you of the Bedouins are hypocrites, and from the people of the city some are accustomed to hypocrisy, You do not know them, We know them, We will torment them twice, then shall they be turned back to a tremendous torment), sura At- Tawbah, ayah 101.
3.    (Recall when Abraham said, “My Lord, make this a city of peace, and provide its people with fruits – those of them who believe in Allah and the Last Day, He (Allah) said, “As for the one of them who disbelieves, I shall let him enjoy a little, then I shall drag him to the punishment of the Fire and how evil an end it is!”, sura al-Baqara, ayah 126
4.     (… That We may revive through it a dead land and give it for drink to many cattle and human beings from among Our creation), sura al-Furqan, ayah 49.
5.    (Be not deceived by the [uninhibited] movement of the disbelievers throughout the land), sura Ali ‘Imran, ayah 196.
Historians, archeologists and anthropologists estimate the age of man on Earth disparately, while some of them say it is thirty thousand years, others put it at fifty thousand years and some say it is hundred thousand years. Exaggeratedly, some scholars say the age of man on Earth is millions years and even more than four million years. On another hand, scholars estimate the age of human civilization on Earth, in the first Stone Age, at about 2.5 million years when that Age ended about 3000 years B.C. as man began utilizing bronze. Scholars divide the Stone Age into three stages as follows:
       1. First Stone Age (Paleolithic) when the man exercised hunting.
       2. Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) when the man also exercised hunting.
       3. Modern Stone Age (Neolithic) when the man exercised cultivation with his    specialized tools.
It can be said that, however, urbanism on Earth was linked to human civic history since man descended on Earth and building began as follows: 
1.    Stage of hunting, collection, and gathering of fruits.
2.    Stage of grazing animals and practicing primitive shifting cultivation. 
3.    Stage of agricultural stability and advent of civilization.
4.    Stage of advent of first towns in history.
5.    Stage of Medieval Ages.
6.    Stage of Industrial Revolution and prosperity of trade.
7.    Stage of the revolution of information and communications .
The first stage indicates the dependence of man on what natural surrounding affords for security of his food and tools, as that man had then been living in either open air, caves or as a troglodyte. He didn’t then think of building his own shelters and he had been in a continuous state of movement while seeking fodder and water for his animals. For that man, even cultivation kept being shifted when the land was cultivated for few years and then abandoned for a new more fertile land. However, given a few number of inhabitants at the time, the land could be easily utilized. The then prevailing economic situation couldn’t help man in building permanent colonies as movement and shifting dominated the way of life. It is known that primitive herdsmen and cultivators built simple make-shift houses which were portable on the stay and migration. In their time, the migrating groups were small in number and they spent most of their time securing food and protecting themselves against unfriendly environmental conditions and ferocious beasts or the attack of other groups.
It can be said that civilization and urbanism began with the stage of settlement in permanent agricultural villages when the man created agriculture. Fortunately enough, the creation of the first human civilizations on the River Nile, Mesopotamia, Indus and China was thanks to abundant water and fertile soil near valleys and rivers. Remarkably, urbanism in Sudan was created early, i.e. more than four thousand years ago. Ancient Nubian towns which then represented political and trade centers besides trends of cultural, social and economic activity and both towns of Meroe and Napata had had communications and relationships with the external world and neighbourly civilizations and cultures. On this background, the two Nubian towns proved to be universally renowned while the River Nile played an important part in the making of the then Sudan civic centers which benefited from the wealth and water resources of the Nile.
Historians note that Khartoum had once been a small village inhabited by fishermen. Further, some studies affirm that the town had existed even in the pre-Funj kingdom period, 1504, and historical sources reveal the then religious renown of Khartoum, where khalwas were spreading out for teaching Quran and Quranic sciences. After the downfall of the Funj kingdom, Turks made a capital of Khartoum instead of Sennar, so since 1830, the town has experienced a shift in economic, trade and social activities and, moreover, the city has advanced in terms of urbanism through utilization of urban planning which aimed at beautifying the town  .

Factors Influencing urbanism on the Sudan:

1-    Historical factors: Areas of urbanism in Sudan are variably affected by historical factor from place to place according to the influence, degree and efficiency of the factor itself now and again. However, this factor contributed in development of many urban areas while it caused the collapse of some others. In the process, this historical factor was merged with some other factors which helped develop Sudanese towns like geographical, economic and demographic factor. In fact, a lot of urban areas gained the label of town by virtue of the historical role they played in the events of the region and that role, consequently, secured their existence .
Urban centers in Sudan were noticed to have been developing hundreds years ago (450 – 1500) when towns like Dongola came onto the scene, the northern capital of Nubia and Suba, capital of kingdom of Alawa . Later, Sennar was founded as a capital for Funj kingdom, Al Fashir for the Fur kingdom and Omdurman for the Mahadist country. Then, in the beginning of the Condominium period, 1898, small towns, which had once been centers for worshipping or trade, grew besides other centers for administration and governance .
2-    Geographical factors: There are many geographical factors affecting urbanism in Sudan such as: location, topography, climate, fresh water, minerals, etc. Actually, both location and position come on the list of essential factors affecting urbanism in Sudan as the two of them distribute urban centers at the level of the state while reflecting the style and kind of urbanism in the light of quality of resources available in the area, to what extent these resources are used and how big is their production capacity which defines the reasonable number of inhabitants who can utilize them. According to these factors, the place value which helps attract inhabitants to stay in it is determined. In addition to all this, there are other geographical factors like topography and water resources which have a major impact on creation, development and distribution of urban centers. Urban centers in Sudan are divided into two main axles which are:
A.    Longitudinal axis (Nile axis): this pivot is considered as the main one in distribution of urban centers in Sudan, both rural and civic ones, as it offers large water resources and fertile lands of high productivity which contribute in enhancing human settlement in these centers. Good examples of this are the Gezira scheme and White Nile agricultural schemes on account of which most rural and urban groupings in Sudan were established.
B.    Latitudinal axis: this pivot includes the majority of towns and urban centers in the Sudan.  affirms that if we draw a circle with a radius equaling 325 km, and with the town of Kosti on the White Nile as a center of this circle, its sphere would involve the majority of Sudanese towns.
3-     Demographical factors: Growth rates in Sudan vary from town to town as it similarly differs from region to region according to availability of labour opportunities and economic, cultural and administrative factors, etc. Likewise, natural increase of population enlarges the magnitude of urban centers and, thus, some villages will change to be rural towns or big towns.

noted that though the level of diminution of fertility, as a global event, is lower in towns than it is in rural areas, many towns in developing nations have proved otherwise. However, the reason beyond that is attributed to the influx of a huge number of villagers to towns which will be thus overpopulated according to the increase of fertility among these rural newcomers. This is along with the big increase in migration rates towards towns which is an important factor as far as urban growth in Sudan is concerned. In this regard, it can be noted in the above table that average family size had not been fewer than five individuals during 1993 to 2008 among both rural and urban inhabitants. It is also remarkable that growth rates during that period were not lower than 3% which may influence the total levels of development due to absence of social and economic aspects of development in the rural areas, besides the available factors of social and economic attraction for which several Sudanese towns, like Khartoum, Obeid, Nyala, Al Fashir and Gedarif, have experienced a major urban expansion.
4-     Cultural, political and administrative factors: Culture with its town forums represents one of the factors influencing urban growth. In this respect, media like radio, television and theatres attract many innovators to work at these utilities. Also, schools, institutes and universities have their own impacts on migration of many inhabitants to towns since a strong positive relationship was found to be between the level of education and the increased desire for migration to towns . Furthermore, political and administrative factors played an important part in urban growth during different periods. To this end, in some states, administrative division defines the number of urban centers and, thus, the process of urbanism, selection of administrative capitals and setting of different development policies which, in their part, influence urban growth. Therefore, many urban units are considered as towns as they were selected to be an administrative center, whereas some towns are viewed as villages since they lie with a big city in the same administrative center while, ironically, this town maybe bigger than another town in another region where the latter town is not competed by other towns in the same region. In the first population census of the Sudan, 1956, an urbanism center was classified according to whether its population reached five thousand (5000) people or more than. Then, the number of towns reached 45 municipalities in both dry and semi-dry areas, all of which included 11% of the population. Notwithstanding the domination of old civilizations in these arid surroundings, for instance kingdom of Kush in the period 650 – 350 B.C., new urbanism, for administrative ends, was strongly motivated during the era of English colony, 1898 – 1956. The aforementioned administrative ends made these towns’ stations for running railways and centers for growth directed to some villages and small towns. After the year 1956, urban development has enormously increased according to natural increase of population, expansion in mechanized and irrigated agriculture, growth of industry, developments in means of transport and roads along with expansion of urban areas. By and large, the increase resulting from traditional migration from countryside to towns has a clear impact on the growth of these urban centers. To conclude, all these factors combined have an apparent impact on the growth and development of urbanism in urban, rural and nomadic Sudan.

Population density and urbanism distribution in Sudan:

    Patterns of spatial distribution of population clearly reflect the relationship of these patterns with the economic role and facilities of settlement as they, otherwise, show suitability of the location as regards options for humans and his material and spiritual needs which define his belonging to a society and a milieu with distinctive characteristics. However, spatial distribution in Sudan with its different patterns, regular, semi-regular, conjunct and random ones, is apparently affected by geographical and human characteristics. In this context, the civic background of population groupings play a major part in making the present distribution. For instance, Arab tribes with settlement background have densely stayed along the Nile and its tributaries while communities with nomadic backgrounds spread out through the central plains of Sudan, east and west of the Nile. The latter groups though began to settle lately, some of them have maintained different degrees of nomadism and this made the Sudanese countryside more inclined to incomplete settlement. However, the following table illustrates population density for the various regions of Sudan as shown in table 2 .

It is remarkable out of the above table that the general population density in Sudan had experienced increasing change during 1956 to 1993. Also, it is noted out of particulars of the first census, 1956 that population density rates are nearly quasi-equal among the different regions of Sudan and percentage of population in rural areas was as high as 91%. Most of those rural inhabitants had practiced agriculture, grazing animals and cultivation-related activities (83%). In fact, there was variation between the vast area and the relatively meager population, except for some areas by the Nile. Even in Gezira which was rich with its agricultural production, population density had then been fewer than 200 individual/ km2, while in some areas, population density might have been unusual had that density exceeded 20 individual/km2 as shown in Map 1. According to statements of the first census, the average population density in Sudan was 4 individuals/km2, but this average does not reflect an exact idea about population density in different regions as there were nearly unpopulated areas, particularly in the north west part of the country between latitude 17° north and longitude 30° east up to Libyan-Sudanese borders while the half of the population was concentrated on 24% of the area of the country where population density was fewer than 2 individuals/km2 in 65% of the area of the country  .
In the 1993 population census, it is noted that population density reached 10.2 individual/km2 while there is apparent variation in population density among the regions. However, the highest population density was then reported to be in Khartoum (167.2), and Khartoum, during the ensuing years, was marked with highly increased rates of population density. The proportion of this population density had raised during the ‘eighties of last century because of high migration rates caused by natural conditions such as drought which many regions of western Sudan had then experienced in addition to wars and conflicts in many regions.


The above map indicates the following:
1.    Rates of population density, according to the fifth census 2008, had apparently changed in Sudan’s different states (regions) and that population density increased in Khartoum state to reach 242 people/km2 as a result of high development rates and an abundance of social services and labour opportunities. Gezira state came second to Khartoum, where population density reached 150 people/ km2, which was a high density because of the available agricultural development schemes. Generally, the rest of the states in Sudan can be categorized into four groups:
2.    States where population density is fewer than 10 people/ km2, including Northern states, Red Sea state and North Darfur state.
3.    States where population density is ranging from 10 to fewer than 20 people/ km2, Kordofan states only.
4.    States where population density is ranging from 20 to fewer than 30 people/ km2, including states of Blue Nile, Gedarif, North Darfur and South Darfur.
5.    States where population density is ranging from 30 to fewer than 40 people/ km2, including states of Sennar, White Nile and Kasala.
It is apparent that more than 60% of population density is concentrated in Khartoum and Central region, as ratio of urban inhabitants in these two regions goes beyond 50%.

Health, educational and social services:

Health: health is necessary for human beings, his life, increasing average age expectancy and decreasing incidence of illness, all of which helps one increase production and create development. In fact, deliverance of health care service in towns attracts citizens to treatment and, sometimes, health care and some other services help inhabitants settle in these towns. Likewise, it can provide labour opportunities for workers coming from outside the town and, thus, assimilate medical staff where the area can be developed in terms of urbanism. On another hand, health mobilizes the capacity of people to effectively contribute in economic and social development. Moreover, it helps one enjoy his life satisfactorily and submits labor opportunities in the health sector. 
Health sector is one of vital segments and, for this reason, the comprehensive national strategy focused on mainstreaming inclusive health care and the upgrading of its effectiveness. Additionally, the strategy is concerned with the following:
• Provision of beds for patients according to the global average three beds per 1,000 people,
• Provision of a public doctor for every 10,000 people,
• Provision of a specialist physician for every 50,000 people Upgrading of clinics into health centers that serve 15,000 to 20,000 people,
• Provision of medicines, particularly life-saving medicines.
 Unluckily, levels of health care have shrunk in number, for example in the annual statistical health report of the year 2014, the total number of hospitals is 446 hospitals, i.e. at an average of 1.2 per 100,000 citizens and 29,863 beds at an average of 80.1 beds per 100,000 citizens. Of late, there is notably a decline in primary health care units, the number of which is 713 units in urban areas while in rural areas their number reached 1,357 units. On another hand, the working number of these units is 2,906 and nonworking is 692, i.e. 30% of the primary health care units are not working (closed down). It is noteworthy that most of these units are found in rural areas and they are not working either for absence of administrative follow-up on one hand or for the neglect of these units by countrymen on another hand, besides the collapse of many of them .
Education: sources that addressed development of education in Sudan noted that the real advent of education in Sudan dates back to early fourteenth century when the first Nubian Muslim king, Saif al-Deen Abdullah Barashambu, transferred the church of Old Dongola into a mosque in May, 1317. However, the transference of the church into a mosque was not faced by whatever resistance as supposedly a big group of Muslims might have supported this change, the disputes inside the then Ruling Family notwithstanding. Therefore, as a result of that change, the Nubian community in the kingdom of Maqarra changed into an Islamic society imbuing the Nubia with Arab pigment through intermarriage and social mixture between Arabs and Nuba .
When Turco-Egyptian armies invaded Sudan in 1821, Sudan was then abound with Khalwas, Zawias and mosques which were scattering in villages, rural areas and towns. These religious centers were then considered as schools of traditional education concerned with instructions of Islamic religion and sciences of Arabic language. At that time, teaching in those Khalwas was run by elite scholars of Al-Azhar University besides jurists and Sudanese religious men who were taught in Al Azhar. Those elites played an important part in propagation of education and Islamic/Arabic culture in most of the parts of Northern Sudan. Of the more important traditional schools at the arrival of the campaign of Turkish invasion were schools of Kutranj, Al Dammar, Umm Dhubban (its latest alias Umm Dhawun Ban), besides other schools in the Gezira and Land of Shaigiya. All of those schools had represented houses for learning and fatwa while jurists were highly esteemed by the people. Later, shortly after the advent of the Condominium (1898), British authorities sent Sudan’s director of education on a mission to Egypt in 1901 to make a cadre of Sudanese students in Al Azhar for training college for teachers and judges. Likewise, Omdurman mosque was transferred to a scientific institute similar to Al Azhar University. Ironically, the colonial authorities had left Southern Sudan for Christian missions which succeeded in tincturing the South with a cultural and religious dye different from that of Northerners. Again, sarcastically, the establishment of Gordon Memorial College, 1902, was not but a sign of British dominance over education. After that, Omdurman elementary and industrial schools were added to Gordon modern college and college of teachers and judges. So, Gordon College assimilated education stages.
In this stage, aims of education in Sudan are summed up in the following:
(1)    Creation of a class of skillful artisans which was not existent at that time.
(2)    Promulgation of a kind of education among people insofar as to help them know initial rules of the State system, particularly as regards fairness and neutrality of judgment.
(3)    Training of a class of Sudanese sons to fill junior public jobs in the administration system insofar as these Sudanese trainees can replace Egyptian and Syrian officials.
Alternatively, there was an ulterior purpose aiming at training the Sudanese to work in the military in case Sudanese soldiers would be involved in a mutiny in Egypt. However, those purposes had constantly governed education in Sudan since early twentieth century till the founding of Bakht Al-Ruda Institute of education which created a qualitative development in the content of education.
After independence of Sudan, numerous serious attempts for developing education then appeared. Later, in 1969, political change took place in the country and consequently a national conference for education was convened. That convention, however, was an attempt for drawing up goals and rules of building the national curriculum. In 1973, the first document was submitted for goals of education in Sudan. But, in spite of the continuous efforts for redressing education in Sudan since the Condominium, its goals and purposes have remained hazy and marked with generalities and, simultaneously, those goals were not relevant to religious creeds and the creed built-on values of the majority of the Sudanese people, also they didn’t meet the requirements and aspirations of Sudanese society. In the year 1990, the conference of education policies was held to recommend the change of education system and curricula so that they would be compatible with conditions of the day and meet the society’s needs and qualify youngsters in a way that may help them participate in economic, social and political life in Sudan .
Statements of family survey, 2006, indicate that the average illiteracy among youths, i.e. age group between 15 – 24 years who can read a simple short sentence of daily life or in relation to young ladies and men who were enrolled in secondary or/and high education reached 59.8%. As to the percentage of kids who were basic school age and now are enrolled in elementary or secondary education, it has reached 76.4%. Therefore, gross enrollment in secondary education (amended) or for those who are currently enrolled in secondary or high education, the percentage reached 28.4% .

Rural urbanism in the Sudan:

Rural urbanism in Sudan is connected with concentration of population in rural areas in a form of permanent or sometimes impermanent housing complexes whether they are combined or scattered complexes. However, the craft of cultivation and rearing of livestock is the most important economic activity, besides other economic activities like hunting crafts. Normally, rural houses are derived from local environments where building materials are immediately taken from the surrounding area as, for instance, nomads’ shelters are built by animal wools and hides which are easily portable during their continuous nomadic wandering according to the Quranic holy ayah: (And Allah gave you houses for urbanism, and made for you of the skins of cattle some houses which are light for the day you travel and for the day you stay at stage, and from their wool and fur and hair some household goods and the things of use for a time), surt ‘An Nahl, ayah 80. Adeptly, cultivators built their houses of mud on flat lands, of stones on mountainous areas and of timber in wood areas. In the circumstances, roofs of these houses should suit the environmental prevailing conditions, for in areas with scanty rain these roofs must be evenly built and in areas with heavy rainfall the roof must be conically built to drain off water. On building these houses, they would be rightly positioned with their doors and portholes suitably designed to be in line with the direction of the blowing wind and the angle which the sun's rays fall.
Patterns of rural urbanism:
Rural urbanism areas in Sudan are affected by a number of factors, particularly with factors related to relief and sources of water. Generally, the countryside can be divided into combined and scattering villages where usually the former are more sizable than the latter. Habitually, dwellers huddle in big villages for many reasons, the more important of which is sources of water, for in places where sources of water are abundant, inhabitants gather together in big villages to benefit from it as the case is in the vicinity of rivers and oases in dry areas. Also, inhabitants assemble in large numbers in districts rich with aquifers. Typically, urbanism will be scattered when surface water and groundwater are available through vast districts where rain that meets the needs of inhabitants falls in large quantities. This is because water will be available in every house and every field insofar as the farm may pose a dwelling isolated from other houses as in the case of the Gezira scheme. Similarly, urbanism will be sparse in rugged mountainous areas owing to the difficulty of transportation and scanty places with productive soil as usually villages will be small and dispersed in mountainous areas. Undoubtedly, the gathering together of inhabitants in big rural villages has some benefits as services can be delivered to those dwellers with lesser cost than to those living in dispersed villages. 
Theoretically patterns of both geographical and spatial distribution among villages and towns can be divided into three main parts:
1-    Combined pattern: value of neighbor correlation equals zero
RN = 0
2-    Squatter pattern: value of neighbor correlation is closer to the proper one
RN = 1 
3-    Regular type: value of neighbor correlation here is 2.15
RN = 2.15
•    Correlation of neighborhood correlation (closest neighbor) and its formula 
      RN =2¯D√N/A
Where:
RN       = Correlation of neighborhood
D          = Average of real distance separating points
A          = Area of the point under study
N          = Number of points

Kinds and patterns of distribution related with correlation of neighborhood (the closest neighbor) are usually in the fields of educational and health services, etc, namely when value of neighborhood correlation equals zero, RN = zero, it will be as if the service is concentrated in one point, and this makes it difficult for most of beneficiaries to benefit from the service. When value of neighborhood correlation equals proper one, RN = 1, or it is close to proper one, here service will be randomly distributed being subject to no specific system, while benefit from service will be different. Lastly, when neighborhood correlation is more than two, RN = 2.15, service will be regularly distributed and, thus, be easily accessible for most beneficiaries. This pattern, however, is the best one as regards planning aspect as shown in Table 2. 

Forms and types of rural urbanism:
Small and big urbanism centers are multi-forms as they are affected by natural conditions and human factors. Typically, villages take multi-forms in rural areas while urbanism centers, in flat plain areas, take circular forms or strip-form if urbanism happens to be by the two sides of roads and water courses or on beaches. Clearly, urbanism forms in Sudan are affected by two main things: nature of land relief and type of transportation. In this regards, number and speed of means of transport, from and to urbanism centers, affect sprawls of building around these fast transport lines and, therefore, influence urbanism shape. The following are some of these shapes: 
a.    Circular shape: it is usually at crossroads.
b.    Strip shape: it is usually parallel with river, road or railway.
c.    Geometric shape: here, urbanism usually gathers at two intersecting roads at a right angle as the case in the network planning.
d.    Star shape: it usually results in a circular or hexagonal shape, where fast means of transport multiply comes in and gets out of grand centers of urbanism.
However, internal road network in urbanism centers are affected with the four pattern of urbanism addressed above and, thus, the morphology of urbanism is largely influenced with dimensions of housing and urbanism units. Accordingly, all types of urbanism are enjoyed with main and branch roads. As to the shape and landscape of earth, they affect roads network up and down insofar as they influence its straightness and deviations and, as a result, they affect traffic.
Types of rural villages in Sudan:
Rural village is a typical type of population groupings in Sudan. However, the size of the village differs from a district to another, from a region to another and from a time span to another time span according to population density, levels of utilization of rural land and how much does the land meet the basic requirements of peasantry. In fact, cultivation is a common factor for several Sudanese rural villages as it is a primary factor in settlement and in degree of development of rural areas into urban ones. Many studies, however, confirmed the importance of this factor as regards rural settlement (rural population by groupings) as is witnessed in the states of East Asia and African countries in particular. Naturally, rural villages include a number of lodgings that accommodate a number of population families which depend basically on cultivation in their living. In a way, the size of the village is affected by population changes caused by external influences. The more the village becomes sizable, the shorter the distance between it and rural towns, as villagers are attracted to work inside those towns while they keep being interested in rural life. On another hand, environmental factors influence spatial distribution of rural groupings where there are rural assemblages different in magnitude and shape for the two following reasons:
1.    Type geographical and natural environment.
2.    Form and planning of rural assemblage.
According to the two aforementioned factors, the Sudanese countryside takes a different group in relation to its size, which is represented by the following
1.    Rural isolated housing:
This kind of rural lodging represents a rural secluded house or a group of houses further away from other rural lodgings and it accommodates a single rural family or a small group of people working on a single agricultural farm. This is simply because rural farmers are interested in living near their farms in order to cut short the distance and, thus, looking closely and immediately after their farms while avoiding difficulty of transport caused by rugged roads. This factor applies to countries of the developing world .
 Unfortunately, this kind of rural secluded lodging is one of the more important reasons why countryside inhabitants in Sudan are getting small in number as rural youngsters, whose ambitions are not realized, leave the countryside for towns to realize their dreams and get to means of entertainment. This rural isolation spreads out in the regions of traditional rainfed agriculture, particularly in many of Sudan’s states like River Nile state, states of the western region, states of the eastern region and Sennar state. As to services like education, health, water, roads, electricity and entertainment, it is difficult to deliver such kind of services to such rural lodging assemblages. However, the new ways of deliverance of these services to those rural areas are motivated by proportionally collecting these areas in rural assemblages and locating them at good transport roads for connecting them with other areas.
2.     Small Rural villages:
These villages include a number of houses ranging between 7 to 10 rural shelters dispersed, in a secluded way, along wide areas at the level of countryside. This type of village, known as a fariq, i.e., makeshift dwelling, was created for reasons concerning topographical conditions and concerning, so to speak, land fertility and generosity. These conditions prevail particularly in mountainous areas where there is a rarity of arable lands. Besides, these type of villages emerged in swampy areas and vast plains because of rarity of agricultural productive lands. In this type of a village, it is difficult to assemble villages in a modern way while aiming at a deliverance of required services because of inaccessibility and spread of epidemics or environment related diseases. Concerning spatial distribution in Sudan, this type applies to the previous one. At any rate, impossibility of developing and modernizing this kind of dwelling doesn’t help inhabitants keep up with lifestyle of the man of the modern age. Therefore, events of migration from countryside to towns largely emerge and result in decrease of agricultural labourers and an interest in improvements of social and economic conditions, particularly on the part of youngsters.
3.  Ordinary rural villages:
This type is one of the more important kinds and dominant over rural lodgings in Sudan. Here a village exceeds tens of houses based on land fertility, and because of a social solidarity that prevails among rural inhabitants insofar as this solidarity can make up for the weak bounty of the land. Here, the area of the village is affected by natural factors of the location where it stands and, hence, development of the village towards a specific direction is restricted by natural barriers. Otherwise, density of houses may increase on a point of high land, mostly in swampy areas or many dwellings become adjacent to each other on land advantageous for settlement such as mountainsides. The latter areas, however, are inhabited for seeking warmth and protection against winds as primarily is the case in districts of Kordofan states where we find some villages in these districts taking on designations relevant to natural phenomena or certain trees. 
4.  Compact rural villages:
This type of village is created when a group of dwellings make close peripheries for the village center in a small area of land. This type is considered one of the old kinds of rural lodging in Sudan and there are natural and human reasons for its creation, some of which are:
a-    Characteristics and geographical nature of the place in relation to location and site, which is a main natural factor that forms the total spatial distribution for urbanism assemblages in Sudan.
b-    Social and historical factors: they are represented by values of attachment to land and
community traditions. Here, religious factor come out as an important one for creation and formation of rural compact urbanism assemblages in various areas of Sudan. On their part, clerics play a main part in the creation of this type of rural lodging across the states of Sudan, so often names of villages take on designations with religious reference.
5. Planned rural villages:
This pattern of rural lodging is usually scatters in the areas that lie close to urban centers in Sudan where centralization of necessary services are observed among the village. Around this type of a village, dwellings are assembled in an arranged way that observes the provision of basic social services of schools, health centers, clinics, mosques and playing grounds. Furthermore, this planning allows for the service of water, electricity and establishment of family promotion centers, such as: centers, cooperative and guidance societies, sports activities, entertainments and social service activities. However, in this type of lodging, building is impermissible unless, otherwise, official parties which define directions of urban growth of the village permit the meant building. This type of villages in Sudan is witnessed attached to economic development schemes, for instance in agricultural schemes of White Nile, Blue Nile, Rahad (Fao villages assemblages) and Dams’ projects like Marawi Dam (the Dam organized model villages) and the sugar schemes (Kenana and White Nile sugar villages) and Exodus villages of New Halfa. These villages are subject to several factors influencing their shapes and sizes, like changes that affect cultivation along with the use of modern instruments. All this reduces the need for labourers and, thus, sizes of villages will be reduced but, in their stead, some other rural villages may grow and, accordingly, the magnitude of their area and population increase. An example of the latter villages is the ones close to towns where many dwellers of remote rural communities move to these villages till they become housing neighbourhoods inside the adjacent urban unit.

Characteristics of rural dwelling:

Rural dwelling in Sudan enjoys numerous characteristics distinguishing it from other rural dwellings in other countries, the more important of which are the following:
a.    Building materials: building materials are various in rural dwellings of Sudan according to environmental diversity and variety and abundance of these materials in every district and region. Most of these houses are made of thatch and reed in the form of qatati, i.e. thatch or reed huts and sarif, i.e. thatch or reed fence, in which thin sticks of maize and millet besides grass of nal and maharaib are used. These types of houses are the predominant ones for rural dwellings in Sudan because of its cheap economic cost on one hand and the dexterously designed building on another. So, this dwelling type spreads out in most of the states of Sudan.
b.    House scenery: mostly, houses comprise separate rooms in the general setting of the house which is surrounded by a reed/thatch fence or left unfenced. Normally, necessary health services like latrines and collection of domestic waste are not observed in such a house. Even the pet animal, with no special place to live in, has a room among this domestic life form. Such domestic scenery causes a disadvantageous and unsanitary environment for human life, an example of which are nomadic villages of the White Nile, Butana and North Kordofan.
c.    Social services:
Basic social services are barely found in most of the rural villages previously referred to, so government parties often deliver these services through gathering these villages in assemblages in order to supply them with, let alone already planned villages.
.
Demographic Characteristics of Rural people:
Rural people in Sudan are dissimilar as far as growth and demographic, economic and social structure are concerned. Obviously, rural areas are marked with high birth rates, as the case in many developing countries, where 80% of the world’s population lives. Whereas population of advanced nations increases by an average of about 0.1%, population of developing countries raises by about 2% while this latter percentage rises to 3% per year. As at level of nations and towns, population growth occurs as a result of natural increase and non-natural increases (migration).
1.    Age and Sex structure:
Population pyramid in towns and developing nations has a lot to do with youth because of high rates of fertility of these youngsters. Naturally, a broad-based population pyramid is an indicator to a high rate of youngsters. Thence, intermediate age category of people, which is saddled with dependency of youngsters and elderly, gets reduced whereas ratio of dependency increases accordingly. Like other developing nations, the population pyramid in Sudan is affected by migration movement and transference of youth to towns for labour and improvement of their economic and social situations. Thus, rural communities are influenced by this youth movement whose unconstructive impacts have effects on countryside as agricultural and animal production deteriorates. This event makes it imperative for woman to assiduously participate in meeting needs and requirements of the family as shown in Graph 1. According to Ahmed (1989) the displacement movement from rural to urban areas in Sudan contributed by 6.9% growth rate during 1960 – 1970. This growth rate, however, equals roughly threefold population growth rate for the whole ofSudan, a rate which reached 2.3% during the same duration and 2.6% during 1970 – 1977. This increase in growth rate affirms imbalance caused by migration.


2. Social and economic structure:
There are some variations in the social and economic structure of inhabitants of the countryside and towns. However, teen marriage represents a main factor in creating these differences between rural and urban areas whereupon opportunities of education and training diminish, unemployment spreads out, marginal crafts rise and, as a result, the family income dwindles and phenomenon of poverty spreads out. On his part, confirms that the percentage of gender is reducing in rural areas. This fact, according to Ba’shari, is ascribed to male migration to urban areas, particularly in the age category between 20 – 39 years old, because gender ratio decreases from the rate 102 down to the rate 88. This event also confirms that early increase of females reaches 3.9% in countryside compared to 2.9% in towns while this percentage reaches 5.8% for nomads. Moreover, numerous studies emphasize that teen marriage poses health, psychological, social and economic harms and risks to communities.
It is notable that the average age in the first case of marriage varies according to sex and lifestyle. As luck would have it, females in rural areas get married at an early age even before males do. This early feminine marriage increases reproductive fertility and opportunities of reproduction, given that woman begins procreation in adolescence up to 45 years old, so the earlier woman gets married, the more her opportunities of reproduction increase as in Table 3.


Education, training and acquisition of skills are elements of paramount importance in making economic and social development among communities, particularly rural communities. So, a decrease in education and training negatively affects development of those communities which, consequently, influences family income and can be a serious indicator for intromission of those communities into vicious cycle of poverty which is accompanied by declining levels in education, health and welfare of the individual. Paradoxically, these situations are wholly in contradiction with situations in advanced nations where production increases and workers’ wages rise upwards of 30000 U.S dollars per capita in a year compared with fewer than 300 U.S dollars in developing states, among which is Sudan

Urban urbanism in Sudan:

It is difficult to single out areas of urban from areas of rural urbanism as there are no specific limits separating them. However, the bases of differentiation between urban and rural urbanism areas remain a subject of scientific and academic discussion .
 Anyhow, the standard of the number of population has its importance among theoretical bases which identify the town. Similarly, the United Nations defines a town as an area whose inhabitants reach 20 thousand or more than that figure . Though the term of the town is common, its significance is unapparent. Yet, the function of the urban area is one of the basic things of its life as inhabitants in the city meet together to practice certain functions. Normally, the inhabitants of the town depend on their living on trade and industry but not cultivation. To define the town, both Ghallab and Gawhari (n.d.), stated a number of definitions for the town, one of which is that: a town is a whole society whose geographical base particularly built on the magnitude of its population or on the ingredients of its land which is comparably measured in relation to human component.
Patterns of urban growth: 
Pattern of spatial growth of urban centers in the world varies according to the variety of its effects. In the process, towns in advanced nations have undergone integrated growth stages according to developments they have experienced, whereas in developing nations, these took place lately because of the slow changes the latter states experienced. On another hand, energy currently utilized has changed the stages of town growth, in that electric energy employed in urban uses is comparatively of easy distribution. In this way, this energy has an effect on distribution of those utilizations in different way than in the case of dependency on hydropower or on coal-fired power which is used at production sites.
As a rule, urban growth is measured through spatial change between two time periods in comparison of the present situation and what the situation has previously been. This change, however, stands out clearly at urban peripheries in the form of scattered growth or strung out growth while it is adjacent to undeveloped agricultural utilizations. In these urban peripheries, population density is less than the average population density of the down town . In this regard, a number of theories have appeared to explain types of urban growth like theories disclosed by Burges, Hoyt and Harris. These theories show stages of town growth whose types can be distinguished with the following:
1- Squatter growth pattern:
This pattern takes three forms:
a-    Accumulative form:  it is one of simplest kinds and carried out without a drawn plan
for building spaces inside the town or at its outskirts on condition that the price of land is high inside the town . This is what happened in the past when towns had been small and walking on foot from workplace to the house had been a habit of pedestrians. Through time, the town has accumulatively sprawled in different directions with an accumulative annular way, i.e. a ring by ring, and this manner of expansion stands out clearly in some states of the third world, mainly those states whose regions were affected by natural and human disasters whereupon intensive migration to urban centers took place . At any rate, random accumulative growth of towns has several results, the worst of which is the appearance of shanty towns which numerous Sudanese towns have experienced, particularly Khartoum, in the 1980’s on the heels of drought periods which had frequently struck many different regions of Sudan .
b-    Multi-nucleus growth: it is contradictory to random accumulative growth and it means the emergence of a new town adjacent to an old one. Here, urbanism growth takes a complex image where it extends to a town and some urban centers which are connected with each other with certain relationships around that town. Such towns are created in response to desire of separation or for seeking security. In some cases, these towns are automatically created and take a special character, because they emerge around railway stations located outside the town, or they emerge on the other bank of the river opposite to the previous town or around factories that abandoned the mother town. In Sudan, English colonizers made of Khartoum a political capital instead of Omdurman, the capital of the Mahadist State. Thus, in regards to urbanism, Khartoum has grown and spread out in all directions .
c-    Urban incremental growth: this type of growth is called leap-frog development. It means the scattering growth in the form of jumps intended to establish urban compounds not connected, in terms of urbanism, with the central town but separated from it by an empty zone due to be developed in the future. This type of growth is suitable to carry utilizations of the urban land like trade and administrative institutions and public services, all of which will comprise developed nucleuses for the urban center. Also, this kind of growth is particularly advantageous for some Sudanese towns where housing parcels have been allocated for certain social segments whereupon they surpass old uses with efficiency capable to compete with urban invading uses.
2- Planned growth pattern:
It comes out due to direct or indirect intervention of the State in orienting and regulating urban urbanism with sketching it out in public utilities in case there is chaotic groupings on the one hand, and for the sake of providing comfortable housing and preparing sanitary environment for citizens on the other hand. In this pattern, setting sites of industrial and housing utilizations besides service institutions are to be observed .
3- Line (network) growth pattern:
This type of growth takes a form of strips extending from the central town outwards. In the process, the new growth areas go along with the main transport lines while leaving between them less developed areas. This type prevails in towns when railways are overriding in transport. By means of this pattern, towns are distinguished with their star shape when several suburbs so speedily grow and their population density is higher to the degree that they can compete with the central town. This pattern of growth is found in Sudanese towns through their new sprawl towards the lines getting out of the major towns to other regions, for instance towns like Khartoum, Wad Medani, Obeid, etc.
4- Pivotal growth pattern:
It means continuous growth of the town insofar as natural conditions may allow. However, the needed time to access the urban center plays an important role in the sprawl of the town as expansion of the city is more in parallel with transport lines than with areas located between these lines. So, accordingly, it can be said that the pattern of Sudanese urbanism is not different from other patterns of growth in developing nations as the former does not go according to one specific manner, given that different patterns of growth contributed in sketching out the image of urban expansion of Sudanese town.
The importance of the study and planning of urban urbanism comes for the following: order assessment of land, sufficient water, options of exploitation of land, social and economic conditions for studying it and seeing to its problems, besides hammering out solutions for its complicated components. Notably, Sudan is marked with accelerated levels of urban growth, and numbers of citizens are different in every town according to elements of urban attraction. However, percentage of urban inhabitants reached about 33.1% in 1998 compared with 8.8% in 1956. Relatively, the study prepared by Babikir in 2014 reflected that Greater Khartoum had experienced an annual growth rate equaling 6.8% during 1983 – 1993 while the towns of Port Sudan and Wad Medani had experienced during the same period an annual growth rate equaling 6.2% and 7.1% respectively. Generally, these ratios are an indicator for augmentation of urban growth rate in Sudan in the future .
Important characteristics of urban growth in Sudan:
The system of urban growth in the Sudan is marked with imperfection and imbalance as there is an almost complete absence of medium-sized towns which can absorb the influx of migrants from rural areas to major towns, particularly to Greater Khartoum. It goes without saying that poverty has become an inherent feature of Sudanese town and thus created slums, shanty neighbourhoods, tree trunks and poverty belts surround these towns instead of green belts and modern sub-urban aresa.
Backwardness concerned with matters of rural development in Sudan is apparently substantiated, albeit in various levels, particularly in services. But, this difference is largely accompanied with locations of geographical colonies in a country whose northern ends deeply strike into the Sahara while its southern ends are inserted into woods and grasslands. However, all rural areas lack sewage system, clean water networks, concrete buildings and good roads. Also, there are a large number of settlements which are not supplied with health and education services owing to their small size .


The above table shows that urban growth rates in Sudan are a mounting development as they generally reached 21.1% between 1956 and 1973 and 6% between 1973 and 1983. This means the general average of urban growth had yearly reached 0.75% during the first period (16 years), and about 0.6% during the second period (10 years). In the meantime, the share of some inhabitants of major towns had risen when that percentage reached 51%, 72%, and 75% for the years 1956, 1973 and 1983 respectively.
Urban growth in Sudan is characterized by a number of attributes as follows:
1-    Imbalanced urban growth in which size and class of towns are obviously and largely witnessed. Khartoum, however, is the first city in terms of size as it magnificently equals tenfold the second city, Port Sudan, and the latter equals thirty fold the size of the second town to it in the Red Sea state. Similarly, high level of urban dominance indicates lack of urban balance which, again, implies unequal distribution of development projects among different states of Sudan.
2-    Unarranged distribution of towns as most of them are concentrated along railways while some others are concentrated on the Nile stripe and both districts are highly populated. Of late, however, a number of Sudanese towns have experienced the phenomenon of ruralization of towns owing to the increasing migration from the countryside. Cheerlessly, this phenomenon has brought about the event of slums and deterioration of urban environments while towns are pressed to assimilate surpluses of labor and production.
It is notable that a number of Sudanese towns have been crowded with people within the last two decades as it is highlighted in graphs 2 and 3. Therefore, inhabitants of those towns and public officials who administer those towns became obsessed with this crowdedness. It is noteworthy that migration has largely contributed in averages of the growth of major towns as a number of towns have enlarged. In fact, the reason why public officials are so obsessed is owing to their inability to deliver necessary services for those increasing rates of rural migrants. Those due services are water and energy supplies besides other basic services which rural inhabitant fell short of and were thus obliged to move to towns to meet those requirements.

Problems facing urbanism in the Sudan:

First-class problems related to housing, social adaptation, health, security, food, education, entertainment, etc, are the major troubles that challenge people and urban area alike. Normally, these problems largely increase in rural areas as they have also augmented according to enlargement of towns and their inhabitants.

Sociologists classified the main issues related to urbanism into two essential questions:
1-    Speed of urban growth and rates of urbanism.
2-    Concentration of urban inhabitants in the main or first-rate towns.
Anyway, the two above questions cause problems of a lack of utilities and services and increase of social defects in towns .
The most important problems which urbanism in Sudan suffers from are represented by the following:
1-    Water problem:
Water problem is one of the most important and serious troubles facing urbanism in Sudan. In fact, the Sudanese countryside suffers from an acute shortage of water supply for both man and animal as the majority of them lie in dry and semi-dry districts, i.e. western and eastern states and White Nile state. Though sources of river and aquifer water is available in those regions, communities suffer from a short supply of water. To solve this problem, the government and many voluntary organizations have supplied some areas with water networks from underground reservoirs, as in Obeid town, and they dug Thirst Canal in White Nile state to supply water for rural demand. On its part, Plan Sudan prepared hand water pumps or carjacks to several villages of the White Nile to help peasants stay in their own areas and stop increasing migrations towards major towns .
2-    Pollution problem:
Towns dispose of wastes which pollute water, air, soil and help deteriorate renewable natural resources. Lately, the problem of pollution has become one of the most serious problems challenging towns in general and industrial towns in particular. On the occasion, mentioned kinds of pollution which were classified at the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution organized by Arab Towns Organization in cooperation with the World Association of Major Metropolises, Beirut, 1970, as follows:
a-    Visible pollutants and different wastes.
b-    Bacterial pollution.
These two kinds of pollutions are considered as more important sorts from domestic origins. In addition, three kinds of industrial pollution were also categorized including:
1-    Thermal pollution
2-    Radioactive pollution
3-    Chemical pollution. 
Furthermore, sewage poses a big problem for towns due to a lack of good sewage networks for the drainage of wastewater. In the 19th century, wastewater had been easily disposed of through being buried at the peripheries of towns. When it became more needful to dispose of wastewater, owing to the increase of the magnitude of population and towns, automobiles were used to pull out and dispose of it. Then, machineries were developed to the extent that special costly sewage networks, upon which much money was expended, have been utilized to dispose of wastewater. Moreover, there is a problem of pollution through automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, besides noise pollution.
3. Pollution problem:
              Sewage is one of the more important indicators in the study of human urbanism                    which has some impacts on public health, environment health and on proportion of infection of disease, particularly infectious diseases. However, the sewage sector in Sudan is still suffering from many problems, like a weakness of community awareness in relation to importance of sewage besides flaws of infrastructure. In this respect, a Sudanese investigation reports of family health, 2006, noted that 31.4% of families use utilities of improved sewage where 22.3% of these families use coverless latrines .
  On another hand, some studies indicate the increase of this ratio to 34% of inhabitants in 2008, though the ratio varies among urban and rural areas where it reached 55% in urban areas and only 18% in rural areas. By and large, this ratio is weaker than the global one which reached 61% of the world inhabitants who got improved utilities of sewage. Relatively, the latter percentage is available to 76% and 45% of inhabitants of towns and rural areas respectively as shown in Graph 4. Likewise, the two former ratios, namely the 55% and 18%, are very weak in comparison to the proportions of developed industrial states whose sewage utilities are nearly accessible to all their inhabitants .


3-    Housing problem:
The housing problem is one of major troubles from which towns suffer as cities are in need of numerous social and economic requirements. As well, the fast growth of towns results in unemployment which contributes in many social and economic dilemmas, given that housing plans cannot assimilate the great number of rural people migrating from countryside to towns.
4-    Transport problem:
Means of both internal and external transport are one of the more important functions that contribute in providing good climate for living in towns. So, it is likely that most of the third world countries suffer nowadays from this problem; particularly from the daily journey between suburban and extensions of urban areas and the down town which itself extends according to enlargement and sprawling of the town. The transport problem has become one of the biggest predicaments challenging cities. On another hand, the traffic problem has emerged as a result of the increase in the number of vehicles. In this regard, stated that numbers of vehicles increase from one vehicle per three or four persons instead of a vehicle for every twenty persons in Riyadh town for the year 1974. To solve this problem, Al Bashari proposed that good roads, utilities, bridges and tunnels are to be concerned with.
However, the problems facing Sudanese towns are summed up by the following:
1-    Weakness of water supply stations and networks and lack of their treatment.
2-     Contamination of water due to use of asbestos pipes and human mistreatment of water sources, besides remains of butcheries and domestic wastes and sewage.
3-    Weakness of internal and external network of transport, besides its unsuitability for making traffic flow in a way that may contribute in social and economic development.
4-    Sewage problem as there are many towns suffering from weakness of sewage networks.

Development of urbanism in Sudan (proposed solutions):

First: rural urbanism
Rural settlement is the cornerstone in development and promotion of countrymen. This is carried out through deliverance of prerequisites of economic activities and provision of indispensable social services and vital facilities in order to associate the individual with his local environment. Again, all this is implemented according to an integrated process which encompasses all well planned economic and social aspects, in addition to assembling rural villages in dwelling compounds for deliverance of basic services. Furthermore, plans of rural settlement should focus on the establishment of different development projects, particularly agricultural ones with introducing modern methods into these projects. 

Second: urban urbanism
There are mutual and overlapping relationships between the countryside and towns, for instance when rural surroundings in Sudan had deteriorated, major migrations of people towards towns took place. In consequence of those migrations, the number of town inhabitants increased and urban centers extended . Accordingly, the numbers and magnitudes of Sudanese towns have increased when in the year 1983; they reached 110 towns compared with 68 towns in 1956, with a deviation rate of 8.3% to 17.4% out of the total population of Sudan . This resulted in an insufficiency of public utilities, services and networks of infrastructure to meet human demands in those towns. Hence, comes out the necessity of sustained and balanced development for repatriation and resettlement for rural communities and, thus, alleviation of population pressure on towns. This is besides good planning and creation of an urban environment which may make available requirements of economic, social, health and psychological life for its inhabitants. .
Recommendations:
On the backdrop of what has been addressed in regards to urbanism in Sudan, along with its patterns, characteristics, problems and factors influencing it, the study recommends the following: 
1-    Care for countryside and concentration of development plans and projects at government level insofar as schemes of economic and social development can be implemented.
2-    Bring together nomadic Farigs and small rural villages in dwelling assemblages by supporting them with necessary social services to the extent that they will become inhabitants attracting areas and encourage reverse migration.
3-    Care for youngsters in rural communities and providing labour opportunities for them with solutions to their social and economic problems.
4-    Tackle the problem of water shortage in rural areas through exploitation of aquifer and thinking about possibility of exploiting it.
5-    Contribute in solving problem of transport and linking countryside with urban centers by means of paved roads which allow for easy permanent movement between them.
6-    Plan soundly according to global models of towns and observation of vertical expansion of buildings for good employment of land and controlling spatial distribution for the sake of indispensible services including transport networks.
7-    Care for the development of functional areas in towns in a way that serves their people and promotes services.
8-    Prepare a spatial map of towns to help officials of urban planning to soundly plan for the future of urban growth. 
9-    Care for water networks and electricity service to be continuously and permanently available.
10-    Review sewage systems in towns to possibly tackle sewage in a way that provides the good housing milieu and makes use of.
11-    Find infallible solutions to dispose of domestic wastes through recycling them and making use of them.

Sources and references:

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- Source: United Nations Statistics Division; 2015
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Emendation Report:
Firstly: with Godspeed I could complete this study according to what came in al-Muhkam report.
Secondly: thanks to the noble brother D. Al Hamadabi and other brethrens whom we highly appreciate for the confidence they bestowed upon us.
Thirdly: we highly appreciate the Prof. Doctor who arbitrated this study and with whose directives the study was well guided and given accuracy and scientific methodology while we benefited from the in-depth linkage and analysis.
Fourthly: we see to it that we should offer the reader some theoretical frameworks with regard to measure of types of urban distribution in that the reader can benefit from the study of optimum urbanisms and how these urbanisms are planned and provided with basic services and how they are likely sprawl in the future with observance of opportunities of labour and employment.
The question of the study is great and needs longer time. On our part, we see that urbanism in the Sudan is to be divided into numerous subject matters.
-    Rural urbanism in the Sudan
-    Nomadic urbanism (nomadism in the Sudan)
-    Urban urbanism in the Sudan
Many thanks























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